The Role of AFM-IR Microscopy for Characterization of Metal Halide Perovskite Films
Paulo Marchezi a, Zafer Hawash b, Leif Ericsson a, Ellen Moons a
a Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden
b Department of Physics, Birzeit University, PO Box 14, Birzeit, West Bank
Materials for Sustainable Development Conference (MATSUS)
Proceedings of MATSUS23 & Sustainable Technology Forum València (STECH23) (MATSUS23)
#PerFut - Metal Halide Perovskites Fundamental Approaches and Technological Challenges
València, Spain, 2023 March 6th - 10th
Organizers: Wang Feng, Giulia Grancini and Pablo P. Boix
Poster, Paulo Marchezi, 350
Publication date: 22nd December 2022

Potentially inexpensive perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have dominated photovoltaic (PV) research in recent years, due to the ultra-fast growth of their power conversion efficiency (PCE) now nearing 26% in single junction device architectures and more than 32% in tandem perovskite/silicon PV devices [1]. The properties of the perovskite films are directly related to film morphology, composition and crystalline structure, thus a clear understanding of the distribution of these multiple phases in the bulk and at grains boundaries are important questions to be addressed in order to improve their properties and consequently the PCE of the devices. Many characterization techniques have been used to study the morphology and the chemical composition of perovskite films. Electron microscopy have been often used to characterize the morphology of the perovskite film, which when combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, can give compositional maps of the samples. Confocal photoluminescence is another example of a useful characterization method, especially for the study of mixed halide perovskites [2]. Synchrotron-based methods have been explored recently to characterize the chemical heterogeneity of perovskite film, for example, nano-focused wide angle X-ray scattering [3]. Some disadvantages of the aforementioned methods are that they are based on high energy or focused beams of X-rays, electrons or visible light, which can be destructive for the perovskite materials. Infrared-based nano-microscopy (nano-IR) techniques are less destructive and have been widely used for the characterization of molecular thin films in organic photovoltaics.[4] Nano-IR has also been used for imaging the spatial heterogeneity of lead halide perovskite films [5], [6], both in laser-based systems and at synchrotrons. Here we present AFM-IR spectromicroscopy, which is a non-destructive lab-based imaging technique that combines the nanometer resolution of atomic force microscopy with the chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy. Using a pulsed, tunable MIRcat laser with 1000 cm-1 range and resonant enhanced tapping mode, the nanoIR3 permits the access grain-to-grain chemical contrast of the hybrid perovskites using the specific IR fingerprints of the organic cations. We will show examples where lab-based AFM-IR could reveal local composition in spin-coated metal halide perovskite films. The results demonstrate the potential of AFM-IR as a high-resolution and non-destructive chemical analysis technique for emerging photovoltaic materials.

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