Program
 
Sun Jan 22 2023
16:30 - 18:30
Registration
17:30 - 18:30
Welcome drink
 
Mon Jan 23 2023
08:00 - 09:00
Registration
08:50 - 09:00
Opening
Session 1A
Chair not set
09:00 - 09:45
1A-K1
Snaith, Henry
University of Oxford
Talk of Henry Snaith
Snaith, Henry
University of Oxford, GB

Henry Snaith undertook his PhD at the University of Cambridge, working on organic photovoltaics, then spent two years at the EPFL as a post-doc working on dye-sensitized solar cells. Since 2007 he has held a professorship at the University of Oxford Clarendon Laboratory where his group researches organic, hybrid and perovskite optoelectronic devices. Professor Snaith was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2015, he is a 2017 Clarivate Citation Laureate, and among his awards are the 2017 Royal Society James Joule Medal and Prize. In 2010 he founded Oxford Photovoltaics Ltd. which is commercializing the perovskite solar technology transferred from his laboratory.

Authors
Henry Snaith a
Affiliations
a, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks rd, Oxford, 0, GB
Abstract

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09:45 - 10:15
1A-I1
Nguyen, ThucQuyen
University of California Santa Barbara
Current Challenges of Organic Solar Cells
Nguyen, ThucQuyen
University of California Santa Barbara, US

Thuc-Quyen Nguyen is a professor in the Center for Polymers and Organic Solids and the Chemistry & Biochemistry Department at University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). She received her Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 2001 under the supervision of Professor Benjamin Schwartz. Her thesis focused on photophysics of conducting polymers. She was a research associate in the Department of Chemistry and the Nanocenter at Columbia University working with Professors Louis Brus and Colin Nuckolls on molecular self-assembly, nanoscale characterization and molecular electronics. She also spent time at IBM Research Center at T. J. Watson (Yorktown Heights, NY) working with Richard Martel and Phaedon Avouris. Her current research interests are structure-function-property relationships in organic semiconductors, electronic properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes, interfaces in optoelectronic devices, charge transport in organic semiconductors and biological systems, and device physics. Recognition for her research includes the 2005 Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award, the 2006 NSF CAREER Award, the 2007 Harold Plous Award, the 2008 Camille Dreyfus Teacher Scholar Award, the 2009 Alfred Sloan Research Fellows, the 2010 National Science Foundation American Competitiveness and Innovation Fellows, the 2015 Alexander von Humboldt Senior Research Award, the 2016 Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, and the 2015, 2016, and 2017 World’s Most InfluentialScientific Minds; Top 1% Highly Cited Researchers in Materials Science by Thomson Reuters and Clarivate Analytics. Her current research interests are electronic properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes, doping in organic semiconductors, charge transport in organic semiconductors and biofilms, bioelectronics, and device physics of organic solar cells, ratchets, transistors, and photodetectors.

Authors
ThucQuyen Nguyen a
Affiliations
a, Center for Polymers & Organic Solids, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, United States
Abstract

Organic solar cells (OSCs) using non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have garnered a lot of attention during the past few years and showed dramatic increases in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). PCEs higher than 19% for single-junction systems were achieved. In this talk, I will discuss the current challenges of organic solar cells such as materials reproducibility, green-solvent processing, device stability, and module development. I will highlight the importance of material reproducibility and our effort on understanding the device stability. To accelerate the mass fabrication of OSCs, green solvent processing is crucial to reduce the harmful effect of halogenated solvents to human health and our environment. I will discuss the design, synthesis, and performance of organic semiconductors processed from green solvents such as xylene and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). 2-MeTHF is a biomass-derived (furfural or levulinic acid) and environmentally friendly solvent that is widely used in organic synthesis, which can be produced from low-cost and renewable agriculture feedstock. A combination of characterization methods were employed to gain insight into the film morphology and solar cell performance.

 

10:15 - 10:45
1A-I2
Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco
Combining Small Perturbation Techniques in photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical systems
Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco
Authors
Agustin O Alvarez a, David Carvajal a, elena Mas-Marza a, Francisco Fabregat-Santiago a
Affiliations
a, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Avenida de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana, Castellón, Spain.
Abstract

Powerful modulated techniques such as Impedance Spectroscopy (IS), Intensity-Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS) and Intensity-Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) are well-established to characterize optoelectronic devices under operational conditions. They are typically used in an independent way. In this presentation we will show that the combination of the three techniques provides added useful information that helps to select accurate models to fit experimental data and thus to obtain reliable data for the characterization of the physico-chemical properties of the materials these devices are constituted. The theoretical basis of this combination will be described, then several approaches to analyse solar cells and photoelectrodes for water splitting will be shown. We will start using simple elements to estimate the equivalent circuit describing the response of such systems and then evolve towards more complex systems such distributed diffusion and recombination models. Through this analysis the main limitations for the operation of these devices will be identified and, in the particular case of BiVO4 photoelectrodes used for water splitting, the ambipolar response of this electrode for the different illumination side will be unveiled.

10:45 - 11:15
Coffee Break
Session 1B
Chair not set
11:15 - 11:45
1B-I1
Kovalenko, Maksym
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Precision engineering of luminescent lead-halide quantum dots: from single photons to coherent collective states
Kovalenko, Maksym
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH

Maksym Kovalenko has been a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at ETH Zurich since July 2011 and Associate professor from January 2017. His group is also partially hosted by EMPA (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology) to support his highly interdisciplinary research program. He completed graduate studies at Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria, 2004-2007, with Prof. Wolfgang Heiss), followed by postdoctoral training at the University of Chicago (USA, 2008-2011, with Prof. Dmitri Talapin). His present scientific focus is on the development of new synthesis methods for inorganic nanomaterials, their surface chemistry engineering, and assembly into macroscopically large solids. His ultimate, practical goal is to provide novel inorganic materials for optoelectronics, rechargeable Li-ion batteries, post-Li-battery materials, and catalysis. He is the recipient of an ERC Consolidator Grant 2018, ERC Starting Grant 2012, Ruzicka Preis 2013 and Werner Prize 2016. He is also a Highly Cited Researcher 2018 (by Clarivate Analytics).

Authors
Maksym Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Switzerland, CH
b, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf 8600, Switzerland
Abstract

Colloidal lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs), with bright and spectrally narrow photoluminescence (PL) tunable over the entire visible spectral range, are of immense interest as classical and quantum light sources. Severe challenges LHP NCs form by sub-second fast and hence hard-to-control ionic metathesis reactions, which severely limits the access to size-uniform and shape-regular NCs in the sub-10 nm range. We show that a synthesis path comprising an intricate equilibrium between the precursor (TOPO-PbBr2 complex) and the [PbBr3-] solute for the NC nucleation may circumvent this challenge [1]. This results in a scalable, room-temperature synthesis of monodisperse and isolable CsPbBr3 NCs, size-tunable in the 3-13 nm range. The methodology is then extended to FAPbBr3 (FA = formamidinium) and MAPbBr3 (MA = methylammonium), allowing for thorough experimental comparison and modeling of their physical properties under intermediate quantum confinement. In particular, NCs of all these compositions exhibit up to four excitonic transitions in their linear absorption spectra, and we demonstrate that the size-dependent confinement energy for all transitions is independent of the A-site cation. We then discuss the size-dependent single-photon emission across the LHP NC compositions. We achieve 98% single-photon purity (g(2) (0) as low as 2%) from a cavity-free, nonresonantly excited single 6.6 nm CsPbI3 NCs, showcasing the great potential of CsPbX3 NCs as room-temperature highly pure single-photon sources for quantum technologies [2]. In another study, we address the linewidth of the single-photon emission from perovskite NCs at room temperature. By using ab-initio molecular dynamics for simulating exciton-surface-phonon interactions in structurally dynamic CsPbBr3 NCs, followed by single quantum dot optical spectroscopy, we demonstrate that emission line-broadening in these quantum dots is primarily governed by the coupling of excitons to low-energy surface phonons. Mild adjustments of the surface chemical composition allow for attaining much smaller emission linewidths of 35−65 meV (vs. initial values of 70–120 meV) [3]. NC self-assembly is a versatile platform for materials engineering, particularly for attaining collective phenomena with perovskite NCs, such as superfluorescence [4, 5]. Collective electronic states arise at low temperatures from the dense, periodic packing of NCs, observed as sharp red-shifted bands at 6 K in the photoluminescence and absorption spectra and persisting up to 200 K. Perovskite SLs exhibit superfluorescence, characterized, at high excitation density, by emission pulses with ultrafast (22 ps) radiative decay and Burnham-Chiao ringing behaviour with a strongly accelerated build-up time.

 

1. Q. Akkerman et al. Science, 2022, 377, 1406-​1412

2. Chenglial Zhu et al. Nano Lett. 2022, 22, 3751−3760

3. Gabriele Raino et al. Nat. Commun., 2022, 13, 2587

3. Ihor Cherniukh et al. Nature, 2021, 593, 535–542

5. Ihor Cherniukh et al. ACS Nano, 2022, 16, 5, 7210–7232

11:45 - 12:15
1B-I2
Freitag, Marina
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK
Ambient Photovoltaics for Self-Powered and Self-Aware IoT
Freitag, Marina
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK, GB

Dr Marina Freitag is currently a Reader in Energy Materials and a Royal Society University Research Fellow at Newcastle University. She is developing new light-driven technologies that incorporate coordination polymers to solve the most important challenges in the research area, including issues of sustainability, stability and performance of hybrid PV. The development of such highly innovative concepts has given Marina international recognition, including recipient of the prestigious 2022 Royal Society of Chemistry Harrison-Meldola Memorial Prize 2022.

Her research into hybrid molecular devices, began during her doctoral studies (2007-2011, Rutgers University, NJ, USA) where she was awarded an Electrochemical Society Travel Award and Dean Dissertation Fellowship 2011. Dr Freitag moved to Uppsala University (2013-2015) for a postdoctoral research position, which focused on the implementation of alternative redox mediators, leading to a breakthrough today known as “zombie solar cells”. Dr Freitag was invited to further develop this work at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) with Prof. Anders Hagfeldt ( 2015-2016). From 2016-2020 she was appointed as Assistant Professor at Uppsala University, Sweden, where she received the Göran Gustaffsson Young Researcher Award 2019.

Authors
Marina Freitag a
Affiliations
a, School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK, Newcastle upon Tyne, Reino Unido, Newcastle upon Tyne, GB
Abstract

By 2025 about 75 billion IoT devices will be installed, of which the majority will reside indoors. It is therefore crucial to find an energy source that yields high efficiencies in this environment.1,2 The ambient photovoltaics will redefine the energy paradigm of the current digital revolution with Internet of Things (IoTs, wireless sensors) as current unsustainable designs are strongly limited by their choice of energy supply. Given the record performance of my hybrid photovoltaics in low and indoor lighting conditions, these devices will be ideal to power smart sensors for the IoTs, making them sustainable and independent from any external power sources.

We address the state-of-the-art materials for indoor photovoltaics, with a particular focus on dye-sensitized solar cells, and their effect on the architecture of next generation IoT devices and sensor networks. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are known for efficient conversion of ambient light. Fast charge separation in a variety of organic dyes and tuneable energy levels in the versatile CuII/I redox systems combined with negligible recombination processes allow DSCs to maintain a high photovoltage under ambient light.2

We tailored dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells based on a copper (II/I) coordination complexes hole transport material for power generation under ambient lighting with an unprecedented conversion efficiency of PCE 38 %, at 1000 lux from a fluorescent lamp using a novel co-sensitization strategy3 and electrolyte modifications Under 1000 lux lighting, 64 cm2 photovoltaic area gives 152 J or 4.41 1020 photons sufficient energy for training and testing of an artificial neural network in less than 24 hours. Ambient light harvesters enable a new generation of self-powered and "smart" IoT device to be powered by a previously untapped energy source.4,5 The combination of ambient light harvesting with artificial intelligence enables the creation of completely autonomous, self-powered sensor systems for use in industry, healthcare, homes, and smart cities.

 

12:15 - 12:20
Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd - Industry talk
session 1B
Chair not set
12:20 - 12:50
1B-I1
Murakami, Takurou
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba
Interface Materials and Technologies for Perovskite Solar Cells
Murakami, Takurou
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, JP
Authors
Takurou Murakami a
Affiliations
a, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan., JP
Abstract

Light-weight solar panels have great potentials to increase the installation amount of the solar power generation systems because it can be set-up the photovoltaics to the location of difficult to install, for example, on the wall of building and on the roof of weak building such as carport and prefabricated buildings.

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are one of the candidates of the ultra-light photovoltaics from their bendable characteristics of the perovskite layers for potentials of the film-type of solar cells. PSCs also can be manufactured by layering of electron and hole transport materials, and the organic-metal-halide perovskite materials as the intermediate layer by coating and printing. This fabrication processes are expected to lead the low-cost photovoltaics. In addition, higher than 20% power conversion efficiency of PSCs has been reached in the small area cells about 1 cm2, and they are expected to become next-generation solar cells that enable high efficiency and low cost. However, the practical application of the perovskite solar cells requires the long-term durability and development of the layers coating processes that enable mass production. In this presentation, it will be introduced that the materials development and interface engineering to overcome the challenges to commercialization of PCS.

The hole-transporting material (HTM) is an important component of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and the most frequently used HTM is Spiro-OMeTAD. In common, Spiro-OMeTAD requires dopants such as Li(TFSI) to realize high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). However, these dopants cause severe instability issues in PSCs. To overcome this adverse effect from the dopants in HTM, we collaborate with Nippon Fine Chemical Co.,LTD and developed new HTM, SF48 (figure 1), which do not require the dopants. The PSC with non-doped SF48 exhibited a high PCE of 18%, which was comparable to that of the reference PSCs with doped Spiro-OMeTAD. In addition, the thermal stability of SF48 at 85 °C in air was superior to that of Spiro-OMeTAD, both with and without dopants.[1]

On the other hand, hole transporting self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been developed and it showed better solar cell performances than the ordinally HTM. SAM has the benefits to prepare hole transport layer on the highly-roughness surfaces and the bended surfaces. To further improve the performance of the PSCs with SAMs, it must investigate that the relationship between molecular structure and solar cell performances. we developed the new SAM materials which including the typical additional groups. Then, the solar cell performances are compared with the SAMs including different structures.

12:50 - 13:20
1B-I2
Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
Kyoto University, Japan
Probing halide perovskite photocarrier dynamics with nonlinear optical spectroscopy
Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
Kyoto University, Japan, JP
Authors
Yoshihiko Kanemitsu a
Affiliations
a, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.
Abstract

Recently, halide perovskites, a new class of functional materials different from conventional inorganic semiconductors, debuted in the research field of condensed matter physics. Halide perovskites show sharp optical absorption edge and efficient photoluminescence (PL) with no essential Stokes shift even at room temperature. Thus, photocarrier and exciton dynamics can be studied using PL spectroscopy. Two-photon excitation PL spectroscopy clarifies that the photon reabsorption and photon recycle processes occur in halide perovskites [1]. After the first observation [1], by considering photon reabsorption, we successfully explain “anomalous” PL properties of thick samples such as the thickness dependence of the PL spectrum, two peak PL structures at the near band-edge, and the impurity concentration dependence of the PL spectrum [2,3]. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy including two-photon excitation PL measurements is a powerful tool to clarify intrinsic optical processes in halide perovskites. In this talk, we discuss the electronic structures and photocarrier dynamics of halide perovskites revealed by nonlinear optical spectroscopy [4-9].

13:20 - 15:00
Lunch break
Session 1C1
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
1C1-IS1
PERRIN, Lara
LEPMI / University Savoie Mont Blanc
Electrodeposited Perovskites for Photovoltaic Application
PERRIN, Lara
LEPMI / University Savoie Mont Blanc, FR

Lara Perrin is Associate Professor at University Savoie Mont Blanc (France) since 2006, in the GUIDE team (Genesis, Usage of Durable Interfaces for Energy) of the LEPMI laboratory (Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Physical chemistry of Materials and Interfaces). This team is part of the National Institute of Solar Energy and is located at Le Bourget du Lac. She is a specialist in the chemistry of materials with specific properties, and her work combines chemistry, physical chemistry and physics. Her current research activities are mainly focused on materials for energy (third generation solar cells: organic and perovskite, electric cables, fuel cells ...). Her work focuses on both the Genesis and the Sustainability of these different systems.

Authors
Lara PERRIN a, Mirella AL KATRIB a, Emilie PLANES a
Affiliations
a, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LEPMI, 38000 Grenoble, France
Abstract

Hybrid organic / inorganic perovskite have considerably arisen as an efficient active material in the solar community, because of its low cost and its performance's fascinating enhancement in the last decade. Nowadays, the current techniques for depositing the perovskite are essentially based on spin coating in glove box. This method showed good results, but operates with small active areas, limiting the industrialization of perovskite solar cells. Electrodeposition is here investigated as an alternative method to develop large area perovskite active layers for solar device application. Along with the simple MAPbI3 perovskite, the electrodeposition of mixed MAPbI3-xClx and MA1-yFAyPbI3-xBrx perovskites will be presented. The present study is one of its kind, since these mixed perovskite were never developed using electrodeposition before. It was observed that using electrodeposition afford enhanced stability compared to spin-coating process, and the different fabricated perovskites were also proved to experience a positive maturation phenomenon during their first 500 hours of life.

15:30 - 15:45
1C1-O1
Habazaki, Hiroki
Hokkaido University, Japan
Cathodic Deposition of TiO2 Electron Transport Layers on FTO and ITO Substrates
Habazaki, Hiroki
Hokkaido University, Japan, JP
Authors
Shuya Fujita a, Hikaru Kobayashi b, Mikito Suto b, Ryuki Tsuji c, Seigo Ito c, Sho Kitano a, Hiroki Habazaki a
Affiliations
a, Hokkaido University, Japan, 001-0021, Japón, Sapporo, JP
b, JFE Steel Corporation
c, Department of Materials and Synchrotron Radiation Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells and organic thin film solar cells have attracted recent attention as new-generation solar cells. These solar cells consist of three main layers: electron transport layer, hole transport layer, and absorber layer. The electron and hole transport layers play an important role in effective charge separation and enhancing solar energy conversion. The most typical material of the electron transport layer is TiO2, which is an n-type semiconductor. The TiO2 layer has often been formed by spray pyrolysis at high temperatures of ~500°C. The necessity of high-temperature deposition is one of the limitations of applying the TiO2 electron transport layer to flexible solar cells. In this study, an attempt was made to prepare the TiO2 layer on FTO and ITO transparent conductive oxide substrates by cathode deposition from aqueous electrolytes. The cathodic deposition method has the advantage of the cost-effective preparation of the TiO2 layer on large conductive substrates at relatively low temperatures. After deposition, hot water treatment was conducted to obtain a crystalline TiO2 layer at relatively low temperatures.

The cathodic deposition was conducted at a constant current density in aqueous electrolytes containing K2TiF6 and K2SO4. Hydrogen evolution reaction occurs during the cathodic polarization, and the pH of the electrolyte in the vicinity of the cathode increases. Then, the hydrolysis of TiF62- ions is promoted, inducing the deposition of TiO2. Thin uniform TiO2 layers of 20-100 nm thickness were successfully prepared on FTO substrates. The deposited TiO2 layer was amorphous, but crystallization occurred after hot water treatment at 80°C. When the ITO substrate was used, the colored deposited layer was obtained because of the dispersion of metallic Sn nanoparticles as a consequence of the reduction of ITO. We found that the anodic polarization could effectively remove the metallic nanoparticles, and the deposited layer became colorless.

The deposition involves the hydrogen evolution reaction, often introducing pinhole defects or partial detachment of the TiO2 layer on the FTO substrate. We introduced a nitrate reduction reaction instead of the hydrogen evolution reaction to increasing the pH in the vicinity of the cathode. Because of the suppression of gas evolution during the deposition, the TiO2 layer more adherent to the substrate was successfully obtained.

15:45 - 16:00
1C1-O2
Tsuji, Ryuki
University of Hyogo, Department of Materials and Synchrotron Radiation Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
Effect of Graphite and Carbon Black in Carbon Back Contacts of Carbon-based Multi-Porous-Layered-Electrode Perovskite Solar Cells
Tsuji, Ryuki
University of Hyogo, Department of Materials and Synchrotron Radiation Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, JP
Authors
Ryuki Tsuji a, Kenichirou Tanaka a, Kota Oishi a, Takaya Shioki a, Seigo Ito a
Affiliations
a, University of Hyogo, Department of Materials and Synchrotron Radiation Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo, JP
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have a photoelectric conversion efficiency of over 20 % and they can be fabricated only by printing and coating processes, so it is expected as next-generation solar cells. However, the back-contact electrode (e.g. Au, Ag) and hole transport materials (e.g. Spiro-OMeTAD) used for PSCs are unstable against water and oxygen, and there is a problem with long-term stability. Therefore, we focused on fully printable carbon-based multi-porous-layered-electrode PSCs (MPLE-PSCs) which have an electron transport layer (mesoporous TiO2), an insulation layer (mesoporous ZrO2), and hole transport/back contact electrode layer (carbon) [1-5]. MPLE-PSCs have long-term stability because the thick carbon layer (~15 μm) can be protected the light absorption layer from ambient water and oxygen. However, MPLE-PSCs have a low efficiency of less than ~18%, so it is necessary to aim for higher efficiency for commercialization. In this work, we focus on carbon electrodes, which have roles of hole transport and back contact. Typically, carbon electrodes are made from a mixture of large-sized graphite particles and nano-sized carbon black. However, the role of each material remains unclear. Therefore, carbon electrodes with different mixing ratios of graphite and carbon black are fabricated and compared. This fundamental comparison reveals the role of carbon materials used in MPLE-PSCs.
         A TiO2 compact layer was deposited by a spray pyrolysis method on patterned FTO glass. Then, porous TiO2, ZrO2, and carbon layers were deposited by a screen-printing method, and each layer was sintered at 400 to 500 ºC. Six mixing ratios of graphite and carbon black for carbon electrodes were prepared: 100-0, 80-20, 65-35, 50-50, 20-80, and 0-100. Finally, (5-AVA)0.05(MA)0.95PbI3 perovskite precursor solution was drop-casted and permeated through the carbon layer, and the MPLE-PSCs were completed by removing the solvent and crystallizing the perovskite material by heating and drying. Various measurements were performed on the obtained devices.
         The results show that the mixing ratio of graphite to carbon black has a significant effect on the performance of MPLE-PSC devices. In the graphite-rich, the open-circuit voltage (VOC) was higher. However, the short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF) were low. On the other hand, increasing the ratio of carbon black decreased VOC, but improved JSC and FF. To understand these changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and photoluminescence (PL) analysis were performed. The results show that carbon black has the effect of promoting hole extraction and graphite has the effect of efficiently transporting the generated charge. In summary, the MPLE-PSC device achieved maximum performance and a champion efficiency of 13% when graphite and carbon black were in a 50-50 or 20-80 ratio. This study is important for realizing inexpensive and sustainable carbon electrodes not only for PSCs but also for various electronic devices.

16:00 - 16:15
1C1-O3
Valsalakumar, Sreeram
University of Exeter
Effect of tunable morphology in Cerium Oxide as an electron transport layer on the performance of low-temperature processed carbon-based perovskite solar cells.
Valsalakumar, Sreeram
University of Exeter, GB
Authors
Sreeram Valsalakumar a, Shubhranshu Bhandari a, Justin Hinshelwood b, Tapas Mallick a, Senthilarasu Sundaram c
Affiliations
a, Environment and Sustainability Institute, Faculty of Environment, Science and Economy, University of Ex-eter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, U.K
b, Faculty of Environment, Science and Economy, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Science, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK.
c, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, U.K.
Abstract

Carbon as a counter electrode for perovskite solar cells (PSC) has shown the potential towards stable and scalable photovoltaic technology. Traditionally these devices have been developed with TiO2-based compact and mesoporous electron transport layers (ETL) for high performance. Deposition of TiO2 layers mainly requires high-temperature Annealing (~450 °C), which can hinder the low-cost manufacturing production or the possibility of PSCs on a flexible substrate. On the other hand, the cerium oxide (CeOx) as the ETL requires only 150 °C processing temperature, which enhances the pathway for the low-temperature-based fabrication of PSCs. Along with processing temperature, the tunable morphology of nanomaterials can produce a significant variation in performance, as seen in different fields of materials science and technology. In this work, we explored the morphology modification aspect of the CeOx and derived a rod and a cubical structure for utilization in a perovskite device. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.3% was recorded for the rod structure CeOx for the carbon-based PSC. Moreover, the rod-shaped CeOx demonstrated higher interaction with the perovskite layer and a lower charge recombination rate when compared with the cube structure, which demonstrated around 12.3% PCE. [SB1] This work shows the potential to analyze morphology-tuned nanomaterials for PSC as an alternative pathway to enhance their performance. The morphology and photovoltaic correlation can change the future of perovskite photovoltaics due to its many component systems.

16:15 - 16:30
1C1-O4
Kawaraya, Masahide
Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (KISTEC), Kawasaki, Japan
Prediction Method for Power Generation of Perovskite Solar Cells for Practical Use
Kawaraya, Masahide
Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (KISTEC), Kawasaki, Japan, JP
Authors
Masahide Kawaraya a, Daisuke Aoki a, Tomoyuki Tobe a, Hidenori Saito a, Shinichi Magaino b
Affiliations
a, Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (KISTEC)
b, Research Association for Technology Innovation of Organic Photovoltaics (RATO)
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are expected to be one of the next generation photovoltaics. However, considerable difficulties in reliable measurements of the power conversion efficiency and prediction for power generation of PSCs are a severe concern for the fair and accurate application of advancements in PSC technologies. These difficulties are regarded to result from a slow current response to the applied voltage and metastability of PSCs. The metastability of the PSCs could mostly be related to changes in the electrical properties in the cells by exposure history (voltage bias, irradiance, and temperature). In the case of PSCs, reproducible I-V curve measurements might be difficult because the cells' electrical properties change during the measurements. Steady-state measurements of the maximum power may be better than the I-V curve measurements defined in IEC 60904-1 for such metastable photovoltaics. Saito et al. [1] have reported that excellent consistency existed between the steady-state maximum powers obtained by the Maximum Power Point Tracking method (MPPT), steady-state (or stabilized) power output (SPO) and dynamic I-V measurements. In this study, changes in the electrical properties with exposure history will be discussed by using the MPPT method in order to predict the power generation of PSCs for practical use.

16:30 - 16:45
1C1-O5
Gatti, Teresa
High open-circuit voltage Cs2AgBiBr6 carbon-based perovskite solar cells via green processing of ultrasonic spray-coated carbon electrodes from waste tire sources
Gatti, Teresa
Authors
Teresa Gatti a, b
Affiliations
a, Center for Materials Research, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Klinikstraße, 36, Gießen, DE
b, Department of applied science and technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Italy, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, Torino, IT
Abstract

Costs and toxicity concerns are at the center of a heated debate regarding the implementation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) into commercial products. The first bottleneck could be overcome by eliminating the top metal electrode, generally gold, and the underlying hole transporting material and substituting both with one single thick layer of conductive carbon, as in the so-called carbon-based PSCs (C-PSCs). The second issue, related to the presence of lead, can be tackled by resorting to other perovskite structures based on less toxic metallic components. An interesting case is that of the double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6, which at present still lacks the outstanding optoelectronic performances of the lead-based counterparts, but is very stable to environmental factors. In this contribution, we report on the processing of carbon electrodes onto Cs2AgBiBr6-based C-PSCs starting from an additive-free isopropanol ink of a carbon material obtained from the hydrothermal recycling of waste tires and employing a high-throughput ultrasonic spray coating method in normal environmental conditions. Through this highly sustainable approach, we obtain devices delivering record open circuit voltages of 1.293 V, which might in the future represent ultra-cheap solutions to power the indoor Internet of Things ecosystem.

Session 1C2
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
1C2-IS1
Bessho, Takeru
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Japan
Amelioration of Semi-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cell and its application to 4-terminal Tandem Structure with CIGS
Bessho, Takeru
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Japan, JP

Dr. Takeru Bessho is a Project Lecture at the Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST) at the University of Tokyo, Japan, who was granted Doctor of Engineering in 2009 from the Shibaura Institute of Technology as developments of optoelectronic device properties with organic-inorganic hybrid materials. His affiliations were SONY Corporation as a Researcher at
Advanced Materials Laboratories from 2011 to 2015, and École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne as a Research Associate at laboratory of Prof. Michael Grätzel from 2009 to 2011. His main interest is on device engineering with organic-inorganic materials and its improvement of energy conversion efficiency as solar cells.

Authors
Takeru Bessho a
Affiliations
a, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
Abstract

Tandem solar cells that combine perovskite (PVK) top cells and Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS), PVK and other bottom cells have attracted much attention for increasing the efficiency of solar cells [1,2]. To use the PVK solar cells (PSC) as the top cells, their metal electrode needs to be replaced with a transparent conductive layer such as indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited by sputtering, however, it is still on discussion about the damage by the sputtering during the deposition to the layers. In this study, double layer ITO of 50 nm for the damage controlling of spatter as first and 250 nm for high conductivity as second were introduced. It was revealed that the effect of ion bombardment during first ITO sputtering on spiro-OMeTAD was not detrimental in the suitable condition of oxygen concentration and sputter power density during the deposition process. The photovoltaics of semi-transparent PVK cells has been developed with less damage and higher conductivity with enough transmittance, then the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.5% (certified 19.3%) was achieved for a 1 cm2 buffer-free semi-transparent PVK cell. Furthermore, mechanically stacked four-terminal PSC / CIGS tandem solar cells showed 26.2% of PCE [3].

 

References:
[1] Yeom, K. M.; et al., Adv. Mater. 2020, 32, e2002228, 32909335.
[2] Zhu, Z., et al., J. Energy Chem. 2021, 58, 219–232.
[3] M. Nakamura, et al., ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022, 5, 8103−8111

15:30 - 15:45
1C2-O1
Girija, Aswathy
University of Cambridge - UK
Singlet Fission in Thin Films for Photovoltaics: A Molecular Perspective
Girija, Aswathy
University of Cambridge - UK, GB
Authors
Aswathy Girija a, Weixuan Zeng b, Hugo Bronstein b, Akshay Rao a
Affiliations
a, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, UK
b, Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge; Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UK
Abstract

Singlet exciton fission (SF) is a spin-allowed carrier multiplication process in organic systems where a photo-generated spin-0 singlet exciton is converted into two low energy spin-1 triplets, offering 200% quantum efficiencies surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit in conventional photovoltaics. Though recent years have witnessed considerable efforts in understanding the fundamental principles and mechanisms of SF, most studies have been based on ‘acene’ systems having poor photo-chemical stability and low extinction coefficients.

Here, I will introduce a new class of organic molecules called Pechmann dyes designed based on Baird's aromaticity rule, undergoing SF. I will discuss their photophysics in thin films prepared by thermal evaporation and present the triplet formation kinetics evidenced from ultrafast transient absorption and electron spin resonance spectroscopic studies. This work presents a comprehensive design strategy beyond the energetic rules and shed light into the relationship between structure, aromaticity, and singlet-triplet energetics as a benchmark for rationally designing novel, stable, and efficient SF systems for a new generation of photovoltaics.

 

 

15:45 - 16:00
1C2-O2
Sharma, Romika
Nanyang Technological University
Insights about air induced structural changes in perovskite thin films using transmission electron microscopy and optical measurements
Sharma, Romika
Nanyang Technological University, SG
Authors
Romika Sharma a, Qiannan Zhang b, Linh Lan Nguyen a, Tze Chien Sum b, Martial Duchamp a, Yeng Ming Lam a
Affiliations
a, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
b, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 Singapore
Abstract

The advantages of organic-inorganic halide perovskites, such as their configurable bandgap, inexpensive material costs, and high charge carrier mobilities, make them intriguing -candidates for next-generation solar cell and opto-electronic applications. Despite tremendous advancements, worries regarding material stability still prevent the widespread use of perovskite-based technology. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) techniques, we investigate how environmental factors impact the structural and optical characteristics of thin film perovskites.

The hydrophilic nature of 3D halide perovskites renders them sensitive to temperature and moisture. As a result, the organic cation of 3D halide perovskite can be easily destroyed in an ambient environment. But the stability of 3D halide perovskites can be improved by decreasing the perovskite dimensionality. To create lower dimension perovskites, large organic cations such as phenyl-ethyl ammonium (PEA) are added to the 3D perovskites.

In this work, we compare the stability of 3D perovskite, MAPbI3 (CH3NH3PbI3) and 2D perovskites, (PEA)2PbBr4 against environmental conditions like moisture and air. The characterizations are performed on perovskite thin films exposed to air, nitrogen and vacuum environments, the latter being possible by using dedicated air-free transfer setups, after their fabrication into a nitrogen-filled glovebox. We observe that even less than three minutes air-exposure increases the sensitivity to electron beam deterioration and modifies the structural transformation pathway for 3D MAPbI3 thin films.

However, in comparison to their 3D counterparts, 2D perovskite films show better stability. Their distinct layered structural layout makes it possible to adjust their physical and chemical properties using organic spacer cations.

The findings pave the way to understand the relationship between the microstructural changes and the optical properties of perovskites when subjected to air-induced degradation.

16:00 - 16:15
1C2-O3
Cabas Vidani, Antonio
Fluxim AG, CH
Ageing of high-bandgap perovskite for all thin-film tandem flexible solar cell devices
Cabas Vidani, Antonio
Fluxim AG, CH, CH
Authors
Antonio Cabas Vidani a, Sandra Jenatsch a, Radha Kothandraman c, Fan Fu c, Arno Gadola a, Simon Züfle a, b, Beat Ruhstaller a, b
Affiliations
a, Fluxim AG, 8400 Winterthur, Switzerland
b, Institute of Computational Physics, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland, Gertrudstrasse, 15, Winterthur, CH
c, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are suitable candidates as sub cells for tandem solar cell technologies thanks to their bandgap tunability and high efficiency. For an all-thin film tandem solar cell, high-bandgap PSCs can be matched with low-bandgap CIGS. State-of-the-art high-bandgap PSCs last for thousands of hours at standard operating conditions[1], but the required operational stability for the commercialization of such applications is more than 20 years. Therefore, there is the need to optimize the devices for stability under accelerated ageing conditions.
In this study, we tested encapsulated perovskite solar cells of various compositions with bandgaps higher than 1.6eV and an efficiency of up to 20%. The stressing experiments were carried out at different temperatures from 25°C up to 85°C at MPP conditions in air with 1-sun equivalent illumination intensity (ISOS-L1 conditions) using the benchtop instrument Litos. Additionally, by performing in-situ JV scans every 60 minutes, we could follow the evolution of the PV parameters in parallel with stressing. The MPP decay can be fitted with a bi-exponential function, where the first exponent is attributed to a burn-in effect from which the burn-in time is derived. This allows to determine the effective operative lifetime of the device. The decay of the MPP correlates with the short-circuit current decay, thus indicating the development of charge generation and collection issues with ageing. We performed additional characterization techniques before and after the stressing experiments using the Paios measurement platform to gain further insight into the degradation mechanisms. The aged devices present slower current rise and decay dynamics as observed in transient photocurrent (TPC) compared to the pristine devices confirming the appearance of charge transport issues. Following the optimization of the device stability on glass substrates, the ageing tests will be performed for PSCs deposited on flexible substrate.

 

References:

[1]        X. Zhao et al., “Accelerated aging of all-inorganic, interface-stabilized perovskite solar cells,” Science, vol. 377, no. 6603, pp. 307–310, Jul. 2022, doi: 10.1126/science.abn5679.

16:15 - 16:30
1C2-O4
Luo, Xinhui
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Effective Passivation with Self-Organized Molecules for Perovskite Photovoltaics
Luo, Xinhui
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, CN
Authors
Xinhui Luo a, b, Hiroshi Segawa b, c, Liyuan Han a, b
Affiliations
a, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China.
b, Special Division of Environmental and Energy Science, Komaba Organization for Educational Excellence (KOMEX), College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan.
c, Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 25% over the past decade. Effective passivation at the bottom interface with high trap density is challenging yet plays an important role in PSCs.[1,2] Here, organic molecules with A-D-A structure are studied as passivator. Firstly, we demonstrated that an advantageous molecular geometry and intermolecular ordering, aside from the functional moieties, are of great significance for effective and extensive passivation. Secondly, the passivation molecules spontaneously form a uniform passivation network adjacent to the bottom surface of perovskite films during a top-down crystallization via liquid medium annealing, which greatly reduces defect-assisted recombination throughout the whole perovskite/SnO2 interface. As a result, we achieved a device PCE over 25%.[1] Furthermore, we would like to extent the application field of the molecules in flexible PSCs. The investigation highlights a comprehensive understanding of designing passivation materials and provides a new avenue to achieve effective bottom-interface engineering for perovskite photovoltaics.

16:30 - 16:45
1C2-O5
He, Yakun
KAUST Solar Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
Analyzing industrial figure of merit for single-component organic solar cells
He, Yakun
KAUST Solar Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia., SA
Authors
Yakun He a, e, f, Ning Li a, b, Thomas Heumüller a, b, Jonas Wortmann a, Benedict Hanisch a, Anna Aubele c, Sebastian Lucas c, Guitao Feng d, Xudong Jiang d, Weiwei Li d, Peter Bäuerle c, Christoph Brabec a, b
Affiliations
a, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
b, Helmholtz-Institute Erlangen-Nürnberg (HI ERN), Immerwahrstraße 2, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
c, Institute of Organic Chemistry II and Advanced Materials, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11 89081 Ulm, Germany
d, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), Beijing, 100190 P. R. China
e, KAUST Solar Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia., Al-Jabriah, Yanbu Arabia Saudita, Yanbu, SA
f, Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Paul-Gordan-Straße 6, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
Abstract

Thanks to the emerging non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) continue increasing towards the 20% milestone. Nevertheless, important factors for industrial application are mostly neglected, such as photostability and cost potential. Single-component organic solar cells (SCOSCs) employing materials with donor and acceptor moieties chemically bonded within one molecule or polymer, successfully overcome the immiscibility between donor and acceptor as well as the resultant self-aggregation under external stress [1]. To inspire a broader interest, in this work, the industrial figure of merit (i-FOM) of OSCs is calculated and analyzed, which includes PCE, photostability, and synthetic complexity (SC) index [2]. Based on the notable advantages of SCOSCs over the correspondent BHJ OSCs, especially the enhanced stability and simplified film processing, we systematically compare the i-FOM values of BHJ OSCs and the corresponding SCOSCs.

SCMs exhibit overall much higher i-FOM values compared with the BHJ OSCs, and the highest value reaches 0.3, which is even higher than the famous PM6:Y6, even though the PCE (8%) is only half of PM6:Y6. With the increase in efficiency, SCOSCs possess the further potential for a higher i-FOM value. Among all factors, the synthetic complexity of SCOSCs is slightly higher than that of the corresponding BHJ OSCs due to the extra synthetic step for connecting donor and acceptor moieties. This feature however overcomes the large-scale phase separation and stability issue for the corresponding BHJ systems [3]. SCOSCs based on dyad 1 exhibit surprisingly high photostability under concentrated light (7.5 suns and 30 suns), corresponding to almost unchanged device stability up to 10,000 hours under 1-sun illumination. For realizing industrial application, SCOSCs have to give a high efficiency comparable to the current high-efficiency BHJ OSCs, while BHJ should be developed in the direction of less complicated synthesis [4]. With joint efforts of researchers from multidiscipline, SCOSCs will see continuing progress in efficiency, reaching an i-FOM value enough for industrial application.

Session 1C3
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
1C3-IS1
Jung, Hyun Suk
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
Exploring Materials and Process for Commercially Viable Perovskite Solar Cells
Jung, Hyun Suk
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea, KR
Hyun Suk Jung is an associate professor in school of advanced materials science & engineering at Sungkyunkwan university (SKKU). He received his BS, MS, and PhD degrees in materials science & engineering from Seoul National University (SNU), in 1997, 1999, and 2004, respectively. He joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a director’s postdoctoral fellow in 2005. He had worked for Kookmin University (KMU) since 2006 and joined SKKU in 2011. He published over 130 peer-reviewed papers regarding synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and dye-sensitized solar cells. He presently researches perovskite solar cells and flexible solar cells.
Authors
Hyun Suk Jung a
Affiliations
a, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea
Abstract

All solid-state solar cells based on organometal trihalide perovskite absorbers have already achieved distinguished power conversion efficiency (PCE) to over 25% and further improvements are expected up to 27%. Now, the research on perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been moving toward commercialization. To facilitate commercialization of these great solar cells, some technical issues such as long-term stability, large scale fabrication process, and Pb-related hazardous materials need to be solved. Also, flexible perovskite solar cell using plastic substrate can be used in niche applications such as portable electrical chargers, electronic textiles, and large-scale industrial roofing.

This talk is dealing with our recent efforts to facilitate commercialization of perovskite solar cells. For examples, we introduce a recycling technology of perovskite solar cells, which covers the regeneration process of Pb contained perovskite layer as well as recycling process of Au electrodes and transparent conducting oxide glass. Also, simple fabrication technologies for realizing large scale perovskite module are introduced and recent effort for achieving high efficiency module is going to be presented. Finally, recent interesting results regarding ultra flexible perovskite cells will be discussed.

15:30 - 15:45
1C3-O1
Bodnarchuk, Maryna
EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Structural and Compositional Engineering of Superlattices Comprising Halide Perovskite Nanocubes
Bodnarchuk, Maryna
EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH
Authors
Maryna Bodnarchuk a, b, Ihor Cherniukh a, b, Taras Sekh a, b, Alex Travesset c, Rainer Mahrt d, Thilo Stoeferle d, Mariia Svyrydenko a, b, Viktoriia Morad a, b, Gabriele Raino a, b, Rolf Erni a, Maksym Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf 8600, Switzerland
b, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8093, Switzerland
c, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, 50011 Iowa, United States
d, IBM Research Europe — Zurich, Rüschlikon, Switzerland, Säumerstrasse, 4, Rüschlikon, CH
Abstract

Colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (LHP NCs, NCs, A=Cs+, FA+, FA=formamidinium; X=Cl, Br, I) have become a research spotlight owing to their spectrally narrow (<100 meV) fluorescence, tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 400-800 nm, as well as facile colloidal synthesis. These NCs are attractive single-photon emitters as well as make for an attractive building block for creating controlled, aggregated states exhibiting collective luminescence phenomena. Attaining of such states through the spontaneous self-assembly into long-range ordered superlattices (SLs) is a particularly attractive avenue. In this regard also the atomically-flat, sharp cuboic shape of LHP NCs is of interest, because vast majority of prior work had invoked NCs of rather spherical shape. Long-range ordered SLs with the simple cubic packing of cubic perovskite NCs exhibit sharp red-shifted lines in their emission spectra and superfluorescence (a fast collective emission resulting from coherent multi-NCs excited states).

When CsPbBr3 NCs are combined with spherical dielectric NCs, perovskite-type ABO3 binary NC SLs form, wherein CsPbBr3 nanocubes occupy B- and/or O-sites, while with spherical dielectric Fe3O4 or NaGdF4 NCs reside on A-sites. When truncated-cuboid PbS NCs are added to these systems, ternary ABO3-phase form (PbS NCs occuoy B-sites). Such ABO3 SLs, as well as other newly obtained SL structures (binary NaCl, AlB2- and ABO6 types, columnar assemblies with disks etc.), exhibit a high degree of orientational ordering of CsPbBr3 nanocubes. These mesostructures exhibit superfluorescence as well, characterized, at high excitation density, by emission pulses with ultrafast (22 ps) radiative decay and Burnham-Chiao ringing behaviour with a strongly accelerated build-up time. Combining CsPbBr3 nanocubes with large and thick NaGdF4 nanodisks results in the orthorhombic SL resembling CaC2 structure with pairs of CsPbBr3 NCs on one lattice site. We also implement two substrate-free methods of SL formation. Oil-in-oil templated assembly and self-assembly at the liquid–air interface result in the formation of binary supraparticles. [1]

15:45 - 16:00
1C3-O2
Shen, Zhongjin
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK
Molecularly Tailored Photosensitizer with an Efficiency of 13.2% for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Shen, Zhongjin
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK, GB
Authors
Anna Grobelny b, Zhongjin Shen a, Felix T. Eickemeyer a, Szczepan Zapotoczny b, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin a, Michael Grätzel a
Affiliations
a, Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces (LPI), Institute of Chemical Sciences & Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
b, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Abstract

Photosensitizers yielding superior photocurrents are crucial for copper-electrolyte-based highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Herein, we present two molecularly tailored organic sensitizers coded ZS4 and ZS5 through judiciously employing dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) as the p-linker, and hexyloxy-substituted diphenylquinoxaline (HPQ) or naphthalene-fused-quinoxaline (NFQ) as the auxiliary electron-accepting unit, respectively. Endowed with the HPQ acceptor, ZS4 shows more efficient electron injection and charge collection based on substantially reduced interfacial charge recombination as compared to ZS5. As a result, ZS4-based DSCs achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.2% under standard AM1.5 G sunlight, with a high short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 16.3 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.05 V and a fill factor (FF) of 77.1%. Remarkably, DSCs sensitized by with ZS4 exhibit an outstanding stability, retaining 95% of their initial PCE under continuous light soaking for 1000 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the record efficiency reported so far for copper-electrolyte-based DSCs using a single sensitizer. Our work highlights the importance of developing molecularly tailored photosensitizers for highly efficient DSCs with copper electrolyte.

16:00 - 16:15
1C3-O3
Neild, Amy
University Newcastle, UK
Developing Tandem Solid-State DSCs
Neild, Amy
University Newcastle, UK
Authors
Amy Neild a, Elizabeth Gibson a, Pablo Docampo b
Affiliations
a, Energy Materials Laboratory, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, England
b, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, University Pl, G12 8QQ, Glasgow, UK
Abstract

One promising third generation photovoltaic technology is Dye-sensitised Solar Cells (DSCs) as they perform well under higher temperature conditions and diffuse light. They have been demonstrated to perform particularly well for indoor applications powering small devices, such as small sensors for the Internet of Things (IoT).[1] DSCs, although highly tuneable to suit their application, face shortcomings over relatively low power conversion efficiencies and limited durability when utilising a liquid electrolyte.

To overcome the stability issues surrounding the liquid electrolyte, solid-state DSCs (ssDSCs) have been introduced where the liquid electrolyte has been replaced by solid-state alternatives.[2] To increase the theoretical maximum efficiency, n-p tandem structured DSCs have been designed by sandwiching an n-type DSC (n-DSC) with a p-type DSC (p-DSC) to utilise more of the solar spectrum.[3]

The focus of this research is on combining the features of both n-p tandem DSCs and solid-state DSCs in attempt to overcome the current problems with traditional DSCs and lay the foundations for a highly efficient, stable solar cell. The presentation will discuss device fabrication and materials deposition, and will include supporting kinetic data as well as other solar cell characterisation.

16:15 - 16:30
1C3-O4
Murdey, Richard
Kyoto University, Japan
Halide segregation and the operational stability of monolayer-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells
Murdey, Richard
Kyoto University, Japan, JP
Authors
Richard Murdey a, Yasuhisa Ishikura b, Yuko Matsushige a, Shuaifeng Hu a, Jorge Pascual a, Minh Anh Truong a, Tomoya Nakamura a, Atsushi Wakamiya a
Affiliations
a, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Japan
b, EneCoat Technologies Co.,Ltd.
Abstract

The recent focus on tandem cell structures has generated a renewed interest in mixed-composition perovskite materials with bandgaps in the range of 1.7–1.9 eV. These wide bandgap absorbers are typically obtained by increasing the fraction of bromide ions present in the X-site of the ABX3 perovskite lattice. Indeed, it is already well established that the perovskite bandgap can be reliably tuned over a wide range by adjusting the Br/I ratio.[1] These early studies also revealed, however, that certain compositions are more stable than others, and, in addition, the homogeneous distribution of I- and Br- ions in the perovskite lattice tended to spontaneously and reversibly de-mix under strong light, an effect that is generally referred to as “halide segregation”.[2]

While it is often suggested that halide segregation presents an intrinsic limit for the performance of wide bandgap perovskite solar cells, recent work by Brinkmann et al., featuring monolayer-based n-i-p devices would contradict this assessment, as they were able to obtain an open circuit voltage of 1.35 eV from a perovskite absorber with a 1.85 eV bandgap and 50% bromide fraction.[3]  In light of these new results, it is useful to re-evaluate the influence of the halide ratio on device performance and operational stability.

In this work, two triple-cation mixed halide lead perovskite absorbers are compared, one with high bromide content (Br/I ratio 1:2, bandgap 1.72 eV, 16.1% power conversion efficiency) and one with low bromide content (Br/I ratio 1:11, bandgap 1.57 eV, 19.1% power conversion efficiency).[4] Both materials demonstrated good stability while operating under simulated sunlight at the maximum power point for 100 h. After 100 h operation, however, the measured device efficiency fell temporarily due to a transient loss of output current before returning to the nominal level after a long recovery period in the dark. These transient losses were more apparent in the wide bandgap device under strong light and were likely caused by light-induced halide segregation. After recovery, however, both devices retained good performance under a wide range of light intensities. Overall, we conclude that the monolayer-based p-i-n device structure with wide bandgap perovskite absorber layers shows great promise for long-term deployment in both solar and ambient-light harvesting applications from the standpoint of both efficiency and operational stability.

16:30 - 16:45
1C3-O5
Ishikawa, Ryo
Fabrication of uniform electron transport layer on textured transparent conducting film using polyelectrolyte and colloidal particles and its application to perovskite solar cells
Ishikawa, Ryo
Authors
Ryo Ishikawa a, Hajime Shirai a
Affiliations
a, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura, Saitama, 338, JP
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using organic-inorganic halides as a light-absorbing layer exhibit high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs; 25.7%) in small-area solar cells . The film quality dramatically affects the performance of PSCs and depends on the fine structure of the perovskite layers, including the crystallinity, surface coverage, and roughness. Also, Device structure dramatically affects performance, and the use of transparent conductive films with textured structures with light confinement effects effectively improves short-circuit current density. However, it is difficult to form a uniform electron transport layer on a textured structure using a solution method such as spin coating. The spray and chemical bath deposition methods can deposit films on textured structures without defects, but they require high temperatures or long deposition times.

In this study, a uniform electron transport layer was formed on a textured transparent conductive film by the sequential spin casting of positively charged Poly(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)](PFN) and negatively charged colloidal SnO2 solution, which is applied to perovskite solar cells.

 Uncoated areas were observed around the convexity without PFNs, whereas the SnO2 coverage increased with PFN. This is thought to be due to the electrostatic effect between PFN and SnO2 during deposition. FA1-xCsxPbI3 perovskite thin films were deposited on the electron transport layer using high-boiling co-solvent and Lewis bases as additives in a one-step process and without an antisolvent t[1~3]. Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer was deposited by spin-coating method, and finally an Ag electrode was formed by vacuum evaporation. The PCE of perovskite solar cells with a single SnO2 electron transport layer is 16.2% (13.0%) with JSC = 25.7 (25.7) mA·cm-2, VOC = 0.951 (0.874) V, and FF of 65.7% (57.9%) for the RS (FS),whereas the PFN/SnO2 bilayerd electron transport layer improves all performance factors, resulting in a PCE of 20.5% (20.0%) with JSC = 26.3 (26.4) mA·cm-2, VOC = 1.03(1.03) V, and FF of 75.5% (73.9%) for the RS (FS).

17:00 - 18:30
Poster Session
19:30 - 21:30
Social Dinner
 
Tue Jan 24 2023
08:55 - 09:00
Announcement of the day
Session 2A
Chair not set
09:00 - 09:45
2A-K1
Ryan, James
Swansea University
New Fields for Organic Semiconductors
Ryan, James
Swansea University, GB
Authors
James Ryan a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
Abstract

Organic semiconductors have found application in a number of optoelectronic technologies, most notably light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaics (PV). While organic LEDs (OLEDs) have been in the market for quite some time, organic PV (OPV) is still in its infancy. It is expected that OPV will however find application in a number of emergent applications such as indoor lighting for IoT, aerospace and in agricultural settings (agriPV) due to a number of material and electronic properties (lightweight low-cost materials, high-throughput processing, tuneable electronic properties).[1,2,3] AgriPV in particular is gaining a lot of attention recently thanks to the inherent light-weight and semi-transparent active areas found in OPV, advances in efficiencies and lifetimes, and the inherent ability to tune the bandgap of active layer materials to transmit photons in the photoactive region (PAR) of photosynthesis and absorb light outside of the PAR. [4,5] In this talk I will discuss our initial work in exploring the application of OPV in greenhouse, polytunnel and field applications as well as the challenges involved when scaling ST-OPV devices from the lab to prototype modules.

 

In addition to OLEDs and OPV, organic semiconductors have been used to fabricate a number of other electronic and optoelectronic devices including photodetectors, transistors, electrochemical transistors, and pseudocapacitors. [6] Organic semiconductors are also emerging as potential materials for neuromorphic computing  applications, and is an area that we have are exploring with great interest. [7] I will highlight our recent work in this area, including a study based on a small-molecule nanowire array that demonstrated multi-state memory, non-volatile memory retention and the ability to write a variety of conductance states. [8] There is great scope to further develop this area of research and I will provide a perspective on how this may be achieved.

09:45 - 10:15
2A-I1
Hayase, Shuzi
The University of Electro-Communications, Japan
Perovskite solar cells consisting of Tin
Hayase, Shuzi
The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, JP

The author was graduated from Osaka University in 1978 and received Ph.D from Osaka University in 1983. He joined R&D Center in Toshiba from 1978 to 2000, during which the author was engaged in development of ULSI lithography, solar cells direct methanol fuel cells, and polysilane. He joined polysilane research in Robert West group of Wisconsin University (US) from 1988 to 1990. He was a professor of Kyushu Institute of Technology (National Institute) since 2001. From 2019, the author is a professor in The University of Electro-Communications in Japan. His research interest is printable solar cells.

Authors
Shuzi Hayase a
Affiliations
a, Info-Powered Energy System Research Center (i-PERC), The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585,, JP
Abstract

Tin perovskite solar cells (Sn-PVK PVs) have attracted attention as Pb free PVK PVs having the band gap of about 1.3-1.4 eV, which is the best band gap from the viewpoint of Shockley-Queisser limit. One of the alloyed perovskites, Tin Lead perovskite solar cells (SnPb-PVK PV) is a candidate as the bottom layer of the perovskite tandem solar cells(1). We have reported Ge ion doped Sn-PVK solar cells with the efficiency higher than 14% and SnPb alloyed perovskite solar cells with the efficiency higher than 23%. In this talk, we discuss these high efficiencies from the viewpoint of modified hole transport layers. In almost all Sn-PVK PVs, PEDOT-PSS has been employed. We now report the SnOx (x=1.77) as the hole transporting layer. The normal structure with SnOx layer working as ETL did not give sufficiency efficiency which has been already reported by us(2). However, the inverted structure consisting of SnOx working as the hole transporting layer gave the efficiency of 14. 1%(ACS Energy Letters, accepted). The mechanism is discussed in detail. In addition, we report SnPb-PVK PV with 23.3 % efficiency by using mixed 2PACz/methylphosphonic acid hole transport layer, where we aimed at enhanced surface coverage on FTO by mixing small and large phosphonic acids(3).

10:15 - 10:45
2A-I2
Ho-Baillie, Anita
The University of Sydney
Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells (Invited)
Ho-Baillie, Anita
The University of Sydney, AU

Dr. Anita Ho-Baillie is an Associate Professor at the School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering. She is also the Program Manager for the Perovskite Solar Cell Research at the Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics. Her research interests inlucde PV device (design, fabrication, characterisation, modelling, cost analysis) for high performance Si solar cells; tandem solar cells such as III-V/Si and perovskite/Si; perovskite solar cells (solution process, vapour assisted deposition, dual source evaporation, spray assisted deposition), inorganic perovskites and lead free perovskites.

Authors
Anita Ho-Baillie a
Affiliations
a, The University of Sydney, AU
Abstract

I will give a quick overview of recent progress and future prospects of perovskite tandem solar cells reported in the literature. I will then talk about some of the research activities in my group. Specifically, We will discuss how our perovskite-Si tandem cell monolithic integration strategy has evolved from interface-layer-free design to ultra-thin interface layer design due to the switch from homo-junction Si cells to hetero-junction Si cells for the bottom stack. Recent results include 27.2% power conversion efficiency with a fill factor of 82.4% on 1.0 cm2; 24.2 % efficient 11.8 cm2 cell; and 21.1 % efficient 65.1 cm2 (~4-inch round) cell. I will also talk about the evolution from p-i-n to n-i-p tandem demonstrations. In addition, I will present our results of 20% 3-junction tandem and recent innovations on low-bandgap and high-bandgap perovskites with very high fill factors for the demonstration of perovskite-perovskite tandems with very good yield.           

10:45 - 11:15
Coffee Break
Session 2B
Chair not set
11:15 - 11:45
2B-I1
Miyasaka, Tsutomu
Toin University of Yokohama
Materials and interface engineering for inorganic halide perovskite photovoltaics
Miyasaka, Tsutomu
Toin University of Yokohama, JP

Tsutomu (Tom) Miyasaka received his Doctor of Engineering from The University of Tokyo in 1981. He joined Fuji Photo Film, Co., conducting R&Ds on high sensitivity photographic materials, lithium-ion secondary batteries, and design of an artificial photoreceptor, all of which relate to electrochemistry and photochemistry. In 2001, he moved to Toin University of Yokohama (TUY), Japan, as professor in Graduate School of Engineering to continue photoelectrochemistry. In 2006 to 2009 he was the dean of the Graduate School. In 2004 he has established a TUY-based company, Peccell Technologies, serving as CEO. In 2005 to 2010 he served as a guest professor at The University of Tokyo.

His research has been focused to light to electric energy conversion involving photochemical processes by enhancing rectified charge transfer at photo-functional interfaces of semiconductor electrodes. He has contributed to the design of low-temperature solution-printing process for fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells and solid-state hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells. Since the discovery of the organic inorganic hybrid perovskite as PV material in 2006 and fabrication of high efficiency PV device in 2012, his research has moved to R&Ds of the lead halide perovskite PV device. He has promoted the research field of perovskite photovoltaics by organizing international conferences and by publishing many papers on enhancement of PV efficiency and durability, overall citation number of which is reaching more than 5,000 times. In 2009 he was awarded a Ministry of Science & Education prize on his achievements of green sustainable solar cell technology. In 2017 he received Chemical Society of Japan (CSJ) Award. He is presently directing national research projects funded by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

Authors
Tsutomu Miyasaka a
Affiliations
a, Toin University of Yokohama, Graduate School of Engineering, 1614 Kuroganecho, Aoba, Yokohama, 225-8503, Japan
Abstract

Since perovskite solar cell (PSC) achieved high efficiency over 25%, fundamental studies of PSCs have been directed to stability and durability improvement by defect passivation and interfacial modification while efficiency development is becoming a major issue for large area modules and muti-junction tandem cells.1 We have been tackling interfacial passivation with functional organic molecules, particularly focusing on the method of enabling high voltage output (close to theoretical limit) in photovoltaic performance.2 In compositional engineering, inorganic perovskites are promising in the viewpoints of high thermal stability and potentially high stability against light-assisted phase segregation. Besides the perovskite composition, use of diffusible dopants in hole transport materials (HTMs) are responsible for low stability of perovskites at high temperatures (>120oC). In this respect, use of dopant-free HTMs for all-inorganic perovskite absorbers is highly desired. CsPbI2Br perovskites in combination of dopant-free polymer HTMs achieved PCEs of >17% under 1 sun and >34% under indoor LED illumination, supported by high Voc values and low voltage deficits.3 Phase segregation in CsPbI2Br is less than those for hybrid perovskite and it was not observed under indoor light circumstance. Therefore, inorganic PSCs are promising for applications to the IoT industry. Creation of new inorganic perovskite materials includes lead-free compositions. As a typical composition, Ag-Bi-halide (sulfide) system is an important target for achieving environmentally kind PSCs, where the method to achieve high Voc by interfacial passivation is the key to high efficiency.4

Applications of PSCs in space environments attract attentions because thin perovskite photovoltaic films demonstrate high stability and tolerance against exposure to high energy particle irradiations (proton and electron beams).5 Thin absorbers (<500 nm) avoid accumulation of particles and due to intrinsic defect tolerant nature of perovskites, radiation-induced collision damage is highly suppressed. Based on our current R&Ds, future perspectives of perovskite photovoltaics will be presented.

1. T. Miyasaka, editor, Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics ―From Fundamentals to Advanced Applications―, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2021, ISBN: 978-3-527-34748-3.

2. G. M. Kim, H. Sato, Y. Ohkura, A. Ishii, and T. Miyasaka, Adv. Energy Mat. 2022, 12, 2102856.

3. Z. Guo, A. K. Jena, I. Takei, M. Ikegami, A. Ishii, Y. Numata, N. Shibayama, T. Miyasaka, Adv. Func. Mat. 2021, 31, 2103614.

4. T. Miyasaka, A. Kulkarni, Gyu Min Kim, Senol Öz, A. K. Jena, Adv. Energy. Mat. 2019, 1902500.

5. Y. Miyazawa, M. Ikegami, H.-W. Chen, T. Ohshima, M. Imaizumi, K. Hirose, T. Miyasaka, iScience 2018, 2, 148.

11:45 - 12:15
2B-I2
Mhaisalkar, Subodh
Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
High Performance, slot-die coated methyl-ammonium-free perovskite solar modules
Mhaisalkar, Subodh
Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, SG

Subodh Mhaisalkar is the Tan Chin Tuan Centennial Professor in the School of Materials Science & Engineering at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Subodh is also the Executive Director of the Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), a pan-University multidisciplinary research institute for innovative energy solutions. Prior to joining NTU in 2001, Subodh has over 10 years of research and engineering experience in the microelectronics industry and his areas of expertise and research interests includes semiconductor technology, perovskite solar cells, printed electronics, and energy storage. Subodh received his Bachelors’ degree from IIT-Bombay and his MS/Ph.D. degrees from The Ohio State University.

 

Authors
Subodh Mhaisalkar a, b, Nripan Mathews a, b, Tze Chien Sum b, Teck Ming Koh b
Affiliations
a, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
b, Energy Research Institute@ Nanyang Technological University (ERI@N), Singapore
Abstract

With the efficiencies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) approaching 26%, the focus has turned to the fabrication of long-lasting scaled up devices. In this regard, slot-die coating has emerged as a front runner owing to its large area coating uniformity, high throughput capability, minimal material wastage, as well as compatibility with high volume production. To date, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the state-of-the-art slot-die coated PSCs is over 20% for small-areas and over 19% for large-areas. As variation of crystallization kinetics and the presence of residual solvents can become more significant in large area coating, there is an urgent need for the development of approaches capable of addressing a wide variety of defects. We utilize a hydrophobic all-organic salt to modify the top surface of large area slot-die coated methylammonium (MA)-free halide perovskite layers. Endowed with anchoring groups capable of exhibiting secondary interactions with the perovskite surfaces, the organic salt acts as a molecular lock by effectively binding to both anion and cation vacancies, substantially enhancing the materials’ intrinsic stability against different stimuli. The treated PSCs demonstrate efficiency of 19.28 % for the corresponding mini-module (active area of 58.5 cm2). They also remarkably retain more than 90 % of the initial efficiency for over 850 hours while being measured continuously. The success passivation of this all-organic surface modifiers opens up new paradigm since they provide a facile and fertile playground for tailoring steric and electronic properties through a combination of rational design, structural functionalization, and chemical synthesis.

12:15 - 12:45
2B-I3
Han, Liyuan
The University of Tokyo, Japan
Perovskite solar cells: from efficiency to stability
Han, Liyuan
The University of Tokyo, Japan, JP
Authors
Liyuan Han a
Affiliations
a, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China.
b, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo
Abstract

Highly efficient and low-cost perovskite solar cells (PSCs), one of the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology, triggered intensive research around the world. Up till now, PSCs have achieved the record power conversion efficiency of 25.7% and the device stability has been improved substantially. To push forward the development of PSCs, researchers from home and abroad have been overcoming the obstacles of commercialization. According to our estimation of the levelized cost of electricity, the key to future applications is to reduce the cost of PSCs which strongly depend on high efficiency and long stability. In this presentation, I will introduce our recent works on promoting the efficiency and stability of PSCs from aspects of crystallization, passivation, and ion-migration blocking.

We introduced a perovskite crystal array (PCA) with regular distribution to assist the growth of the perovskite absorption layer. The PCA provided nuclei where the crystallization can commence without overcoming the critical Gibbs free energy for nucleation and induces a controllable bottom-up crystallization process under solvent annealing. As a result, the device achieved power conversion efficiency of over 25.1%. Furthermore, we constructed a composite electrode of copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloy stabilized by in situ grown bifacial graphene. The device with the copper-nickel electrode showed an efficiency of 24.34% (1cm2) and stability: 95% of their initial efficiency is retained after 5,000 hours at maximum power point tracking under continuous 1 sun illumination.

12:45 - 13:15
2B-I4
Shin, Hyunjung
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
Crystallization Kinetics of a-FAPbI3-based Perovskite Solar Cells and High Stability Enabled by ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition)
Shin, Hyunjung
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea, KR
Authors
Hyunjung Shin a, b
Affiliations
a, Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea
b, SKKU Institute of Energy Science & Technology (SIEST), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea
Abstract

Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has increased dramatically and has reached to 25.7%. For even higher PCE, the increase of open-circuit voltage (Voc) as well as fill factor (FF) will be a main challenge to be solved since the short circuit current density (Jsc) is almost approaching the theoretical limit (i.e., 28.97 mAcm-2). The reason for low Voc and FF must be related with the energy loss of charge carriers which is originated from the recombination through defects, inefficient charge extraction from the absorbers on the surfaces/interfaces, and current leakage through shunt paths. As recent studies reported incorporation of methylammonium chloride (MACl) to stabilize α-FAPbI3, herein, we propose that crystallization process of α-FAPbI3 can be kinetically controlled by adjusting MACl concentration. We examined higher concentration of MACl induces slower crystallization kinetics, resulting in larger grain size and [100] preferred orientation. This indicates the impact of controlling the crystallization kinetics to result a preferred orientation and a large grain size, which leads to high PCEs. Furthermore, we present an amorphous TiO2 and V2O5-x passivation layers, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperature (< 50 ℃), on Spiro-OMeTAD to prevent metal-induced interfacial degradation while maintaining the overall performance. Finally, we have fabricated perovskite solar cells (FTO/SnO2-based ALD-ETL/FAPbI3/2Dperovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au) and confirmed increased PCE (23.91 %) measured under AM 1.5 G. Not only PCE, but also device stability with ALD-TiO2 and V2O5-x layers was dramatically improved. It was confirmed through ion contents profiling using ToF-SIMS that the improvement of the stability in PSC adopting ALD-TiO2 and V2O5-x comes from preventing the metal ion diffusion. In conclusion, we have demonstrated high PCE and stability of PSCs. 

13:15 - 15:00
Lunch break
Session 2C1
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
2C1-IS1
Shen, Qing
The University of Electro-Communications, Japan
Hot carrier cooling and extraction dynamics of perovskite quantum dots
Shen, Qing
The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, JP

Prof. Qing Shen received her Bachelor’s degree in physics from Nanjing University of China in 1987 and earned her Ph.D. degree from the University of Tokyo in 1995. In 1996, she joined the University of Electro-Communications, Japan and became a full professor in 2016. In 1997, she got the Young Scientist Award of the Japan Society of Applied Physics. In 2003, she got the Best Paper Award of the Japan Society of Thermophysical Properties and the Young Scientist Award of the Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics of Japan. In 2014, she got the Excellent Women Scientist Award of the Japan Society of Applied Physics. She has published nearly 140 peer-reviewed journal papers and book chapters. Her current research interests focus on solution processed nano-materials and nanostructures, semiconductor quantum dot solar cells and perovskite solar cells, and especially the photoexcited carrier dynamics (hot carrier cooling, multiple exciton generation, charge transfer at the interface) in perovskite solar cells, quantum dot and dye sensitized solar cells, organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

Authors
Qing Shen a, Yusheng Li a, Hua L a, Shota Yajima a, Chao Ding a
Affiliations
a, The Univ. of Electro-Commun
Abstract

Recently, photoexcited hot carriers (HCs) relaxation dynamics in halide perovskite materials have attracted much attention since the HCs cooling lifetimes was found to be unusually slow with orders of magnitude longer compared to those of the conventional semiconductor. On the other hand, the HCs cooling in perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) is size-dependent and the cooling time was observed to be around two orders of magnitude longer than that of their bulk counterparts [1], which suggests that the PQDs are promising candidates for hot-carrier solar cells (HCSCs). Therefore, a deeply understanding the hot carrier cooling and extraction dynamics in the PQDs has a profound implication for further developing the disruptive HCSCs. In this talk, we will introduce our recent research results on hot carrier cooling and extraction dynamics in PQDs, including both experimental results obtained using transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and DFT theoretical calculation. We will discuss on how the A-site cations cross-exchange of the PQDs affects the hot carrier relaxation dynamics, and how about the hot carrier extraction from the PQDs to inorganic metal oxide substrates and fullerene [2-4].

15:30 - 15:45
2C1-O1
Kober-Czerny, Manuel
University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, UK
Long-Range Charge Carrier Mobilities in Perovskites
Kober-Czerny, Manuel
University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, UK, GB
Authors
Manuel Kober-Czerny a, Silvia G. Motti a, Philippe Holzhey a, Bernard Wenger a, Laura M. Herz a, Jongchul Lim a, b, Henry J. Snaith a
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, GB
b, Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungham University
Abstract

Charge carrier mobility is a fundamental property of semiconductor materials that governs many electronic device characteristics. For metal halide perovskites, a wide range of charge carrier mobilities have been reported using different techniques. For nanosecond to millisecond transient methods, early-time recombination and exciton-to-free-carrier ratio hinder accurate determination of free-carrier population after photoexcitation. By considering both effects, we can estimate long-range charge carrier mobilities over a wide range of photoexcitation densities via transient photoconductivity measurements (TPC). We determined long-range mobilitiesa variety of three-dimensional perovskites and find that the processing of polycrystalline films significantly affects their long-range mobility.
Afterwards, we expanded our material scope to layered two-dimensional perovskites.They have been used to greatly improve the stability of metal halide perovskite thin films and devices. However, the charge carrier transport properties in layered perovskites are still not fully understood. We therefore investigated the sum of the electron and hole mobilities (Σμ) in thin films of PEA2PbI4, using TPC with our corrections. After careful analysis, a long-range mobility of 8.0 +/− 0.6 cm2 (V s)–1, which is about ten times greater than the long-range mobility of a comparable 3D material FA0.9Cs0.1PbI3 is determined. These values are compared to ultra-fast transient time-resolved THz photoconductivity measurements, which are sensitive to early-time, shorter-range (tens of nm length scale) mobilities. Mobilities of 8 and 45 cm2 (V s)–1 in the case of the PEA2PbI4 and FA0.9Cs0.1PbI3, respectively, are obtained. This concurrence between the long-range and short-range mobility in a 2D material indicates that the polycrystalline thin films already have single-crystal-like qualities. Hence, their fundamental charge carrier transport properties should aid device performance, while keeping the benefits for stability as well.

Adapted from [1] and [2]

15:45 - 16:00
2C1-O2
Pitaro, Matteo
University of Groningen
Carbazole Based Self-assembly Monolayers for Highly Efficient Sn/Pb- based Perovskite Solar Cells
Pitaro, Matteo
University of Groningen, NL
Authors
Matteo Pitaro a, Javier Sebastian Alonso a, Lorenzo Di Mario a, Karolina Tran a, Malin Johansson b, Erik Johansson b, Maria Antonietta Loi a
Affiliations
a, Photophysics and OptoElectronics Group, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
b, Molecular Biomimetics, Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
Abstract

Highly performing mixed tin-lead perovskite materials are among the most promising options as an alternative active layer in perovskite solar cells to reduce Pb content. Moreover, these compounds open the possibility of fabricating full perovskite tandem devices, owing to their reduced band gap. The most efficient single junction mixed Sn/Pb perovskite solar cells have been fabricated using methylammonium cations (MA+), and a p-i-n structure where poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) is implemented as hole transport layer (HTL).[1] The record devices were reported to show limited stability, this can be attributed to two major reasons: i) MA+ cations easily desorb at high temperature (85 C°) from the perovskite surface, introducing MA vacancies; ii) PEDOT: PSS, due to its hygroscopic and acid nature, reacts with the perovskite active layer, affecting the long-term stability.

In this work we employed a MA+ free perovskite composition, namely, Cs0.25FA0.75Sn0.5Pb0.5I3 and 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) ethyl) phosphonic acid (2-PACz), and [2-(3, 6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl) ethyl] phosphonic acid (Br-2PACz) as hole transport layers, with the aim of replacing PEDOT: PSS. Moreover, the fact that 2PACz and Br-2PACz can form a monolayer may allow reducing parasitic recombination.

Cs0.25FA0.75Sn0.5Pb0.5I3 deposited on SAMs showed absence of pinholes, higher crystallinity (XRD), and larger grain size (SEM) when compared with the layers of PEDOT: PSS.

 

The fabricated solar cells using PEDOT: PSS as HTL exhibited a champion device efficiency of 16.33%, while devices fabricated on 2PACz and Br-2PACz showed an improved efficiency of 18.44% and 19.57%, respectively. The 19.57% efficiency is the record for the aforementioned perovskite composition.

It furthermore interesting to note that encapsulated Br-2PACz based solar cells retained 80% of the initial efficiency after 230 hours under continuous working condition, while device fabricated on PEDOT: PSS maintained 79% only for 72 hours. In addition, the shelf-life test in N2 atmosphere showed much more stable devices when using Br-2PACz, with 89% of the initial efficiency after 42 days, when compared to PEDOT: PSS based devices, which solely preserve the 71% of the initial PCE. Moreover, the Br-2PACz-based device retained the 80% of the initial efficiency after 138 days in N2 atmosphere.

16:00 - 16:15
2C1-O3
Zargar, Fatemeh
IMO-IMOMEC
The Effect of Phenylethylammonium Halides Additives for Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells
Zargar, Fatemeh
IMO-IMOMEC, BE
Authors
Fatemeh Zargar a, Hans-Gerd Boyen a, Derese Desta a, Momo Safari a, An Hardy a, Julia Zillner b, Erik Ahlswede b, Koen Vandewal a, Melissa Van Landeghem a, Philip Schulz c, Javid Hajhemati c
Affiliations
a, IMO-IMOMEC, Wetenschapspark, Diepenbeek, BE
b, Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70563 Stuttgart, Germany
c, Institut Photovoltaïque d'Ile-de-France, Palaiseau, France
Abstract

                        The Effect of Phenylethylammonium Halides Additives for Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells

Fatemeh Zargar1, Derese Desta1, Momo Safari1, An Hardy1, Julia Zillner2, Erik Ahlswede2, Koen Vandewal1, Melissa Van Landeghem1, Philip Schulz3, Javid Hajhemati3, Hans-Gerd Boyen1

 

           1 Hasselt University, Institute for Material Research (IMO), Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium

           2 Center for Solar energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg Meitnerstraße 1, 70563 Stuttgart, Germany

           3 IPVF, Institut Photovoltaïque d'Ile-de-France, Palaiseau, France

 

 

Abstract

 

Tin-based perovskites solar cells (PSCs) have attracted much interest as a promising alternative to traditional PSCs, which usually contain toxic lead. Nevertheless, the fast reaction of Sn2+ with moisture to form Sn4+ leads to a significant loss of open circuit voltage (Voc) in the device. Another critical challenge, which causes low photovoltaic performance of Sn-based PSCs, is uncontrolled and rapid crystallization. Among various approaches suggested to overcome oxidation and non-uniform morphology of Sn-based PSCs, additive engineering is the most effective. Adding bulky organic cations such as phenylethylammonium (PEA) to form two-dimensional (2D) perovskite phases not only helps to improve the stability of Sn-based PSCs against oxygen because of their hydrophobic nature but also induces better crystallinity and well-defined orientation, which results in suppressing tin oxidation and reducing the number of tin vacancies[1]. Although many researchers have demonstrated the positive effect of PEA on the performance of Sn-based PSCs, the knowledge about the underlying cause is still largely unknown.

In this work, we incorporated PEA into perovskite precursor solutions to fabricate PEAxFA1-xSnI3 and PEAxFA1-xSnI3-xBrx -based perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films were fabricated with a solvent engineering approach using an antisolvent. Inverted planar PSCs show a champion conversion efficiency of 9.09 %, along with enhancements in open circuit voltage, short circuit current ISC, and fill factor FF. The introduction of Br not only improves the orientation and the crystallinity of the perovskite films but also increases Voc and the band gap of the absorber material.

 

 

16:15 - 16:30
2C1-O4
Wang, Shuanglong
Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany
Grain Engineering for Improved Charge Carrier Transport in Two-Dimensional Lead-Free Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors
Wang, Shuanglong
Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany, DE
Authors
Shuanglong Wang a, Sabine Frisch b, Heng Zhang a, Okan Yildiz a, Mukunda Mandal a, Naz Ugur a, Beomjin Jeong a, Charusheela Ramanan a, c, Denis Andrienko a, Hai Wang a, Mischa Bonn a, Paul Blom a, Milan Kivala b, Wojciech Pisula a, d, Tomasz Marszalek a, d
Affiliations
a, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg, 10A, Mainz, DE
b, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Centre for Advanced Materials, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
c, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
d, Department of Molecular Physics, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology
Abstract

Title: Grain Engineering for Improved Charge Carrier Transport in Two-Dimensional Lead-Free Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Shuanglong Wang1, Sabine Frisch2, Heng Zhang1, Okan Yildiz1, Mukunda Mandal1, Naz Ugur1, Beomjin Jeong1, Charusheela Ramanan1,3, Denis Andrienko1, Hai Wang1, Mischa Bonn1, Paul W. M. Blom1, Milan Kivala2, Wojciech Pisula,1,4,* and Tomasz Marszalek1,4,*

 

Address: 1Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany

2 Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Centre for Advanced Materials, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands

4 Department of Molecular Physics, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland

 

Email: wangs2@mpip-mainz.mpg.de, pisula@mpip-mainz.mpg.de, marszalek@mpip-mainz.mpg.de

 

Controlling crystal growth and reducing number of grain boundaries are crucial to maximize the charge carrier transport in polycrystalline perovskites field-effect transistors (FETs). Herein, the crystallization and growth kinetics of Sn(II)-based 2D perovskite, using 2-thiopheneethylammonium (TEA) as the organic cation spacer, was effectively regulated by the hot-casting method. With increasing crystalline grain size, the local charge carrier mobility is found to increase moderately from 13 cm2V–1s–1 to 16 cm2V–1s–1, as inferred from terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. In contrast, the FET operation parameters, including mobility, threshold voltage, hysteresis, and subthreshold swing improve substantially with increasing grain size, especially for large channel lengths. This behavior is mainly attributed to screening of the applied electric fields by ion migration that becomes severe for small grain sizes and high densities of grain boundaries. Electrical characterization at various temperatures (from 295K to 100K) presents an influence of the ion migration on the charge carrier transport in transistors architecture. Moreover, it is confirmed by grazing incident wide angle x-ray scattering and theoretical unit cell prediction that hot-casting method does not change the molecular organization in deposited thin films but only reduce the number of grain boundaries. The optimized 2D (TEA)2SnI4 transistor exhibits hole mobility of up to 0.34 cm2V−1s−1 at 295 K and higher value of 1.8 cm2V−1s−1 at 100 K. These insights provide important guidance for the grain engineering for high-performance 2D perovskite FETs.

Session 2C2
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
2C2-IS1
Kogo, Atsushi
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba
Crystal Growth Management of CuSCN for Perovskite Solar Cells
Kogo, Atsushi
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, JP
Authors
Atsushi Kogo a
Affiliations
a, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Higashi, Ibaraki, JP
Abstract

Organolead halide perovskite solar cells have been attracting enormous attention as high efficiency and cost-effective solar cells. However, they suffer from low stability under heat, light, and humid condition due to instability of organic hole-transport materials such as spiro-OMeTAD. To address this issue, robust inorganic CuSCN as an alternative hole-transport material has been developed. The solution-processed CuSCN-based perovskite solar cells exhibit low efficiency compared to conventional spiro-OMeTAD-based solar cells owing to low crystallinity and ununiform morphology of the CuSCN layers. Here in this study, we demonstrate crystal control of CuSCN layers by tuning atmospheric condition during the aging process and post-treatment. The enhanced crystallinity of CuSCN layers at high humidity exhibits higher photovoltaic performance than the layers formed by conventional coating condition. Post-treatment with various solvents to CuSCN further improved crystallinity and yielded the layers of flat and uniform morphology resulting in high power conversion efficiency and high stability of solar cells.

15:30 - 15:45
2C2-O1
KHADKA, DHRUBA B.
Surface Passivation with Multifunctional Fluoroarene Molecule for High-Efficiency and Stable MA-Free Perovskite Solar Cells
KHADKA, DHRUBA B.
Authors
DHRUBA B. KHADKA a, Yasuhiro SHIRAI a, Masatoshi YANAGIDA a, KENJIRO MIYANO a
Affiliations
a, Photovoltaic Materials Group, Center for GREEN Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with state-of-the-art efficiencies consist of thermally unstable methylammonium (MA). Though the MA-free perovskite has superior thermal stability, there is a challenge to control the formation of the δ-perovskite phase which decreases device performance. This work reports on the surface passivation method with multifunctional fluoroarene molecule which suppresses the formation of PbI2 and δ-perovskite phase in MA/Br-free perovskite film. [1]  We found that the fluoroarene passivation has significantly impacted the morphology, interface chemistry, and optoelectronic properties of HaP films. The fluoroarene hydrazine passivation effectively mitigates the defects at surface or grain boundaries in perovskite film with fluoroarene-embedded interfacial layer due to stronger halogen bonding with fluoroarene moieties. Therefore, the PSC achieved superior operational stability and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 22 % with a large area of ~1 cm2 which is a record-level PCE for MA/Br-free inverted PSCs. [1] This approach is also equally effective in improving the PCE of both narrow and wide bandgap perovskite systems by lowering the open-circuit voltage deficit. [1-4] This report will shed light on the synergetic effect of fluoroarene molecular passivation in film growth and photo-physics of PSCs. [2,5]

15:45 - 16:00
2C2-O2
Jenatsch, Sandra
Fluxim AG, CH
Analysis and Quantification of Ionic Charge Carriers in Perovskite Solar Cells
Jenatsch, Sandra
Fluxim AG, CH, CH
Authors
Andreas Schiller a, b, Sandra Jenatsch a, Stijn Lammar c, Renàn Escalante d, Balthasar Blülle a, Antonio J. Riquelme d, Gerko Oskam d, Juan A. Anta d, Beat Ruhstaller a, b
Affiliations
a, Fluxim AG, 8400 Winterthur, Switzerland
b, ZHAW – Institute of Computational Physics, 8401 Winterthur, Switzerland
c, Imec, imo-imomec, Thin Film PV Technology – partner in Solliance, Thor Park 8320, 3600 Genk, Belgium
d, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, (Univ. Pablo de Olavide), Sevilla, Spain
Abstract

Several short and long-term effects in perovskite solar cells, such as the hysteresis in the current-voltage (IV) curve,[1] partial performance recovery during interrupted operation[2] and permanent cell degradation are assigned to the presence of mobile ionic charge carriers. Their characterization in full devices is therefore of outmost importance to improve this type of solar cell.

In this study, we first discuss the characteristics of formamidinium-based perovskite solar cells with non-stochiometric compositions. It is found that a 1-1.5% excess of formamidinium precursor (FAI) leads to an improved stabilized device performance while further increasing the FAI excess detrimentally affects the fill factor. Through electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements, it is revealed that the increased FAI excess leads to a higher ionic conductivity. In order to further distinguish between the density and mobility of the ions, we simulate IV and impedance data with the simulation software Setfos.[3] The experimental trends with increasing FAI excess can only be reproduced with an increased density of ions in the simulation.[4]

In general, one would like to distinguish directly between ionic mobility and density in a single solar cell. A method that has been introduced decades ago[5] and was applied recently to perovskite solar cells is the transient ion drift measurement.[6] The analytical model describing the capacitance over time is based on several assumptions that are not necessarily fulfilled in a perovskite devices. We use drift-diffusion simulations in Setfos to model the transient ion drift experiment and thereby confirm the limitations of the analytical model. We further show that those limitations can be overcome by combining measurement and simulations, allowing the application of the method to a broader set of devices.

16:00 - 16:15
2C2-O3
Flores-Diaz, Natalie
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK
Hybrid Photocapacitors for Ambient-Light Applications
Flores-Diaz, Natalie
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK, GB
Authors
Natalie Flores-Diaz a, Marina Freitag a
Affiliations
a, Newcastle University
Abstract

The Internet of Things comprises a billion smart wireless objects that share data in real-time via sensors and collaborate to achieve common goals, creating a new technology revolution. Although IoT devices typically use modest power (µW to mW), securing a reliable energy supply is a significant challenge. In addition to high maintenance and limited placement options, using wired or battery systems limits energy use. With the IoT ecosystem's exponential expansion, millions of batteries will need to be replaced regularly.[1]

The energy provided by most indoor lightbulbs has the potential to power small IoT devices and replace batteries. It is possible to design near-perpetual intelligent IoT devices with lifetimes of 10–20 years exploiting ambient light collected by Indoor Photovoltaic devices (IPVs) tailored explicitly for ambient light. The spectra of most interior illumination lamps, such as CFL or LED bulbs, range between 380 and 780 nm.[2] This spectral area supplies widely available, untapped energy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are the best at capturing ambient light. PCEs up to 34%,[3] outperforming the established silicon technology and thin-film solar cells made from toxic materials. Fast charge separation in sensitizers, tuneable energy levels in copper complexes, and low recombination allow DSCs to sustain a high photovoltage near 1 V under ambient light.

We designed and implemented a photocapacitor architecture for ambient light harvesting, which powers wireless IoT devices. The photocapacitor has a DSC and a double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC supercapacitors can store intermittent energy with fast charge-discharge processes, high specific power, and long life cycles.[4][5] Organic conductive materials, such as Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPy), have previously demonstrated excellent charge-storing properties as electrodes in symmetrical supercapacitors separated by a Nafion ion exchange membrane.[6][7] We have developed new highly stable electrodes with organic polycationic polymers known as polyviologens, which have previously demonstrated excellent capabilities for charge storage.[8] The novel polyviologen systems were deposited into poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) electrodeposited onto FTO substrates. PEDOT acts as a thin-porous layer to increase the polymer material's mass-loading and generate a pseudocapacitive response to delay capacitor discharge. To create a full photocapacitor, the supercapacitors based on polyviologens will be coupled to DSCs using copper complexes as hole transporter materials (HTM). This project intends to overcome the gap in energy supply availability during day-night cycles by storing surplus charges converted by the DSC in polyviologen supercapacitors.

16:15 - 16:30
2C2-O4
Raifuku, Itaru
Nara Institute of Science and Technology - Japan
Hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells under LED illumination
Raifuku, Itaru
Nara Institute of Science and Technology - Japan, JP
Authors
Yoji Torii a, Itaru Raifuku a, Yukiharu Uraoka a
Affiliations
a, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 日本 〒630-0192, 生駒市, JP
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells have attracted much attention due to its high power conversion efficiency and low cost processability. Thanks to the band gap tunability of perovskite compounds, perovskite solar cells are available under various light sources which have different spectrum. For example, perovskite solar cells show high power conversion efficiency even under indoor lightings [1]. A power conversion efficiency of over 40% has been achieved under 824.5 lx LED illumination [2]. Although perovskite solar cells are one of a promising candidates for indoor energy harvesting as above, they show quite large hysteresis under low illuminance conditions even there are no hysteresis under 1 sun condition. Here, we investigated the origin of large hysteresis under low illuminance conditions. Through the characterization of each component of perovskite solar cells under various conditions, we assumed defects in perovskite layer is one of a key factors to reduce the hysteresis under low illuminance conditions. We achieved hysteresis free perovskite solar cells even under 200 lx LED illumination by modification.

Session 2C3
Chair not set
15:00 - 15:30
2C3-IS1
Saeki, Akinori
Osaka University
Exploring Lead and Tin Perovskite Solar Cells by Microwave Conductivity and Machine Learning
Saeki, Akinori
Osaka University, JP

Akinori Saeki received BS and MS degrees in nuclear engineering from Osaka University in 1999 and 2001, respectively. He received Dr of engineering in applied chemistry from Osaka University in 2007. He had been an assistant professor at The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University in 2003-2009, an assistant professor (tenure-track) in 2010-2014, and an associate professor in 2014-2019 at the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University. He had joined in JST-PRESTO research programs of "Photoenergy conversion systems and materials for the next generation solar cells" in 2009-2013 and "Materials Informatics" in 2015-2019. He is currently a professor at Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (2019-present). His research interest is in nanometer-scale dynamics of chemical intermediates in condensed matters such as organic semiconductors, organic liquids, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

Authors
Akinori Saeki a
Affiliations
a, Osaka University, Japan, FRC, 2-1Yamada-oka,, Suita, 565, JP
Abstract

Organic–inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells (Pb-PSC) have attracted considerable attention as low-cost, lightweight, and versatile next-generation solar cells, and their PCEs have been increased to more than 25% in the last decade. Nonetheless, the use of hazardous Pb is a significant concern in commercialization, and drove the development of Pb-free PSCs, in particular, Sn-based PSCs (Sn-PSC). However, the spontaneous degradation of tin perovskites requires special measurement protocols; therefore, numerous experiments should be performed to ensure result reliability. Herein, we report a multivariate analysis for exploring A-site organic cation mixing in tin iodide perovskite (ASnI3) solar cells (PSC), which are the most suitable Pb-free PSC candidates.[1] To address the common drawbacks of Sn perovskites (facile oxidation of Sn2+ to Sn4+ and large degree of mixing), we proposed an efficient experimental screening method (time-resolved microwave conductivity: TRMC[2] etc) using 133 types of environmentally stable A2Sn(IV)I6 zero-dimensional pseudo-perovskites to predict the PCE of ASn(II)I3, in which A is a ternary or quaternary mixed organic cation (namely metylammonium, formamidinium (FA), dimethylammonium, guanidinium, ethylammonium, acetamidinium, trimethylammonium, imidazolium, or phenylethylammonium (PEA)).[4] The high correlation coefficient of our model (0.953) and experimental validation (0.982) allowed us to identify a new (FA0.92IM0.08)0.9PEA0.1SnI3 Sn-PSC with a PCE of 7.22%. Our results provide a basis for exploring A-site cation mixing in Sn-PSCs for improving their performance.

15:30 - 15:45
2C3-O1
Nagalingam, Rajamanickam
Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST)
Bandgap engineering on hybrid organic-inorganic halide-based perovskites solar cells: Effect of Mn doping
Nagalingam, Rajamanickam
Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), ES
Authors
Rajamanickam Nagalingam a, Eugenia Martinez-Ferrero a, Emilio Palomares a, b
Affiliations
a, Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Tarragona – 43007, Spain
b, ICREA, Passeig LLuis Companys 23, E-08010, Spain
Abstract

In recent years, the hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites compounds have attracted numerous attentions and remarkable performance as active layers in the fabrication of highly efficient solar cells, photonics, and other optoelectronic devices. Extensive efforts on the controlled synthesis of perovskite nanostructures have been made towards potential device applications. As well, a simple established strategy of chemical doping has been used to achieve the highest efficiency and high stability perovskite-based solar cells. The band gap engineering in perovskites tuning its electronic and optical properties, which is one of the key factors to make an efficient and multifunctional optoelectronic device. In this work, the effect of Mn doping in organic-inorganic perovskite CsFAMA (Cs0.05[MA0.17FA0.83Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3]0.95) has been studied with a power conversion efficiency over 20%. The rational design and fabrication of CsFAMA lead to the enhancements of all the photovoltaic parameters, such as charge and electron transport. To incorporate Mn can effectively eliminate the trap-assist and bi-molecular recombination. Particularly, the occurrence of magnetism in CsFAMA has been studied and confirmed from magnetization measurements. The influence of Mn doping in CsFAMA films, structural and morphological has been analyzed in detail. Due to the eminent double exchange and super exchange interactions in between the Mn2+-I--Mn3+ ions in Mn doped CsFAMA giving rise to the charge/spin transport in perovskite based photovoltaic devices. We explicitly determined the role of intrinsic spin–orbit coupling (SOC) in Mn-doped CsFAMA perovskites.  Our finding offers an alternative pathway for spintronic, light controlled magnetic and photovoltaic devices.

15:45 - 16:00
2C3-O2
Jeon, Jihun
Kyoto University, Japan
Effect of Charge Collection and Recombination on Fill Factor in All-Polymer Solar Cells
Jeon, Jihun
Kyoto University, Japan, JP
Authors
Jihun Jeon a, Hyung Do Kim a, Hideo Ohkita a
Affiliations
a, Department of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto University
Abstract

  Recently, all-polymer solar cells consisting of donor- and acceptor- conjugated polymers have become a promising next-generation energy source with various advantages such as, flexibility, lightweight, high thermal stability, and cost-saving by solution processes.  Despite of these advantages, all-polymer solar cells still lag behind compared to conventional silicon solar cells or perovskite solar cells in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE).  For further improvement in PCE, short-circuit current density (JSC) should be increased.  It is therefore essential to fabricate all-polymer solar cells with a thick active layer.  Unfortunately, however, it is known that as the active layer thickness increases, bimolecular charge recombination becomes dominant rather than charge collection, resulting in a decrease in the fill factor (FF).  In other words, there is a trade-off relationship between JSC and FF.  Here, we have focused on all-polymer solar cells based on crystalline donor polymers with different side chains (J51, J61, and J71) and a naphthalene diimide-based acceptor polymer (N2200) to discuss how charge collection and recombination impact on FF in the all-polymer solar cells with different active layer thicknesses.  For the J51:N2200 and J61:N2200 devices, FF was drastically degraded down to 0.4 with increasing active layer thickness.  For the J71:N2200 device, on the other hand, FF was only slightly decreased and maintained as high as 0.6 even for thicker active layers.
  To get further insight into the origin of such a different tendency in FF, we analyzed the charge recombination dynamics measured by transient photovoltage/photocurrent (TPV/TPC) and charge extraction (CE) for these devices.  On the basis of experimental data obtained, we estimated the reduction factor for charge recombination, which is defined by ζ = krec/kL where krec is bimolecular recombination rate constant and kL is the diffusion-limited Langevin recombination rate constant.  For all the devices, ζ was evaluated to be about 10−2 order, suggesting suppressed bimolecular recombination compared to the diffusion-limited Langevin recombination.
  Subsequently, we simulated the J–V curve using the recombination kinetic parameters obtained in order to examine how recombination dynamics impacts on FF.  Assuming that the bimolecular recombination is a dominant current loss, the J–V curve can be represented by J(V) = JGEN(V) + JBR(V) where JGEN(V) is photogenerated current density and JBR(V) is the current density loss caused by bimolecular recombination. The simulation result shows that only J71:N2200 device is in good agreement with the experimental J–V curve, indicating that the decrease in FF is mainly derived by bimolecular recombination.  In stark contrast, for the J51:N2200 and J61:N2200 devices, the simulated J–V curve is not in agreement with the experimental one.  This is because the charge carrier density is underestimated in these devices.  Interestingly, the J–V curve is well reproduced by considering additional charge carriers, suggesting that there is an additional recombination driven by isolated charge carriers.  On the basis of the figure of merit α, proposed by Neher et al.,[1] we conclude that high FF observed for the J71:N2200 device is due to charge collection 2500 times faster than charge recombination.

16:00 - 16:15
2C3-O3
kumari, sarika
Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ)
Enhanced Luminescence of Perovskite Light Emitting Diodes by the doping of Dysprosium
kumari, sarika
Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), ES
Authors
sarika kumari a
Affiliations
a, Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Tarragona – 43007, Spain
Abstract

Enhanced Luminescence of Perovskite Light Emitting Diodes by the doping of Dysprosium

 

Sarika Kumari*a, b, Nagalingam Rajamanickam a, Eugenia Martinez-Ferrero a , Emilio Palomares a,c.

 

a Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Tarragona – 43007, Spain.

bUnit of Functional Printing & Embedded Devices, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya EURECAT, Avda. Ernest Lluch 7, Mataró, E-08302, Spain.

cICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, E08010, Spain

 

Email: *skumari@iciq.es

 

Abstract:

 

Organometallic trihalide perovskites (CH3NH3PbX3, MAPbX3, X = I, Br, and Cl) and optoelectronic devices have attracted considerable research attention because of their high-power conversion efficiency (>25%) in solar cells. Among these materials, MAPbX3 perovskites show excellent optoelectronic characteristics and have great potential for luminescent devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasing devices. The improved light-emitting efficiency of these devices is related to the morphology and grain size of MAPbX3 perovskite layers, which are very sensitive to the synthesis method, composition, and structural details. B-site engineering for perovskite materials has been an important strategy for improving the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). In recent years, rare earth Lanthanide ions doped perovskites have the attention for their potential application in photovoltaics and LEDs[1]. Lanthanide series materials like Ce3+, Tb3+, Yb3+, and Dy3+ were recently reported for improved performance in metal halide perovskites-based LEDs, especially white light LEDs[2]. In this work, we employed the Dysprosium-doped MAPbBr3 perovskite as an emissive layer in PeLEDs. The devices with MAPbxDy1-xBr3 perovskite-based emissive layer have been characterized with different doping concentrations and compared with the pristine perovskite device. Interestingly, the luminance of PeLEDs has increased linearly by the effect of Dy ions concentration increasing in the perovskite matrix up to 5 wt.%. Further increments of Dy ions in perovskites have decreased device performances gradually.  This doping technique in perovskite has created a new paw way for commercial LED applications.

 

 

 

References:

 

Chen Y, Liu S, Zhou N, Li N, Zhou H, Sun LD, et al. An overview of rare earth coupled lead halide perovskite and its application in photovoltaics and light emitting devices. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2021, 120, 100737

Yao JS, Ge J, Han BN, Wang KH, Yao H Bin, Yu HL, et al. Ce3+- doping to modulate photoluminescence kinetics for efficient CsPbBr3 nanocrystals based Light-Emitting Diodes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140(10), 3626–3634

 

16:15 - 16:30
2C3-O4
Wang, Feng
Linköping University, Sweden
Ion modulated Doping Strategy of Spiro-OMeTAD for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
Wang, Feng
Linköping University, Sweden, SE
Authors
Feng Wang a
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-58183, Sweden
Abstract

Metal halide perovskites have achieved impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the past thirteen years.1,2 However, a key challenge for their practical applications lies in the inferior stability of devices, an issue determined by not only the perovskite materials3 but also the charge transport layers4. Currently, all high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with > 24% PCE are based on the bench-mark hole transport layer, spiro-OMeTAD doped by lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBP), which negatively affect the stability of devices.5 Additionally, the complex in-situ oxidation processes makes it challenging to understand the mechanism of conventional spiro-OMeTAD doping, and further limit the development of stable HTLs with high PCEs.

We have developed a clean and free-post-oxidization doping recipe for spiro-OMeTAD by using stable organic radicals as the dopant and ionic salts as the doping modulator (referred to as ion-modulated (IM) radical doping)6. The doped spiro-OMeTAD based on our IM radical doping strategy delivered a high PCE of over 25% and excellent stability (T80 for ~ 1200 h under 70±5% relative humidity and T80 for ~ 800 h under 70±3 °C without encapsulation), minimizing the trade-off between efficiency and stability of PSCs. In this doping strategy, the radicals provide hole polarons that instantly increase the conductivity and work function, and ionic salts further modulate the work function by affecting the energetics of the hole polarons. More attractively, the IM radical doping strategy provides a facile yet effective approach to optimize separately the conductivity and WF of organic semiconductors for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

16:30 - 17:00
Coffee Break
Session 2D
Chair not set
17:00 - 17:30
2D-I1
Diau, Eric Wei-Guang
National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University
Tin Perovskite Solar Cells
Diau, Eric Wei-Guang
National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, TW

Dr. Eric Wei-Guang Diau has received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, in 1991, and has been a faculty member in the Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University since 2001. He is interested in the understanding of interfacial electron transfer, light capture energy transfer and light energy conversion kinetic systems. His current research focuses on the development of novel functional materials for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications such as perovskite solar cells and CO2 reduction.

Authors
Eric Wei-Guang Diau a
Affiliations
a, Department of Applied Chemistry, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300093, Taiwan
Abstract

Even though the performance of tin perovskite solar cell (TPSC) has been reported to attain PCE 14.8%,1 the hole-transport layer was based on a hydrophilic polymer, PEDOT:PSS, and this is the case for most TPSC reported in the literature. PEDOT:PSS is hygroscopic and this could easily degrade the device performance due to moisture penetration. Other HTM has not been reported in the literature until recently. This is because the reaction of SnI2 with FAI to form FASnI3 is a much more rapid process than for its lead analogue, control of crystal growth and nucleation rates are important factors to be considered. The traditional one-step method did not work for other hydrophobic HTM because of the poor hydrophilic nature of the film that enables retarded nucleation comparable to the crystal growth. We therefore developed a two-step method2 with the procedure to deposit SnI2 first for its rapid and smooth nucleation and to retard the crystal growth in the second step using an appropriate solvent and additive. This is a very important development for tin PSC because of the versality of the two-step method which can be applied for all the charge-transport materials developed elsewhere. For example, it is possible to fabricate a HTM-free tin-based PSC using the concept of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to modify the ITO surface with tin perovskite layer deposition in a two-step approach.3 We also deposited a smooth and uniform tin-perovskite layer on a hydrophobic conducting polymer, (bis (4-phenyl) (2,4,6-trimethylphenylamine) (PTAA), on modification of the PTAA surface with an organic ammonium salt, phenylethylammonium iodide (PEAI), according to a two-step approach.4 Our approach is also applicable to other prospective HTL materials to match the energy levels between perovskite and HTL so as to enhance further the performance of the device in the future.

 

References:

[1] B. B. Yu, Z. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, B. Han, G. Chen, X. Zhang, Z. Du and Z. He, Adv. Mater. 2021, 33, 2102055.

[2] S. Shahbazi, M.-Y. Li, A. Fathi and E. W.-G. Diau, ACS Energy Lett. 2020, 5, 2508-2511.

[3] D. Song, S. Narra, M.-Y. Li, J.-S. Lin and E. W.-G. Diau, ACS Energy Lett. 2021, 6, 4179-4186.

[4] C.-H. Kuan, G.-S. Luo, S. Narra, S. Maity, H. Hiramatsu, Y.-W. Tsai, J.-M. Lin, C.-H. Hou, J.-J. Shyue and E. W.-G. Diau, Chem. Eng. J. 2022, 450, 138037.

17:30 - 18:15
2D-K1
Park, Nam-Gyu
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
Research directions in perovskite solar cells
Park, Nam-Gyu
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea, KR

Nam-Gyu Park is professor and SKKU-Fellow at School of Chemical Engineering and adjunct professor at Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University. He got Ph.D. in Inorganic Solid State Chemistry from Seoul National University in 1995. He worked at ICMCB-CNRS, France, from 1996 to 1997 and at National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, from 1997 to 1999 as postdoctoral researchers. He worked as Director of Solar Cell Research Center at Korea Institute of Science and Technology from 2005 to 2009 and as a principal scientist at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute from 2000 to 2005 before joining Sungkyunkwan University in 2009. He has been doing researches on high efficiency mesoscopic solar cells including perovskite solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell since 1997. He is pioneer in solid state perovskite solar cell, which was first developed in 2012. He received awards, including Scientist Award of the Month (MEST, Korea), KyungHyang Electricity and Energy Award (KEPCO, Korea), KIST Award of the Year (KIST, Korea) and Dupont Science and Technology Award (Dupont Korea), SKKU fellowship, and MRS Outstanding Research Award (MRS, Boston) and WCPEC Paper Award (Kyoto, Japan). He published over 230 scientific papers, including Science, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Energy and Nature Communications, 80 patent applications and 8 book chapters. He received H-index of 67 as of May, 2017.

Authors
Nam-Gyu Park a
Affiliations
a, School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), KR, Suwon, KR
Abstract

Since the ground-breaking report of the 9.7% efficient and 500 h-stable solid-state perovskite solar cell (PSC) in 2012 based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), perovskite photovoltaics have been surged swiftly due to high power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtainable via facile fabrication procedure. As a result, a PCE of 25.7% was recorded in 2022. According to Web of Science, number of publications on PSCs increases exponentially since 2012, leading to the accumulated publications of more than 28,000 as of June, 2022. PSC is regarded as a game changer in photovoltaics because of low-cost and high efficiency surpassing the conventional high efficiency thin film technologies. High photovoltaic performance was realized by compositional engineering, device architecture and fabrication methodologies for the past 10 years. Toward theoretical efficiency over 30% along with long-term stability, exquisite control of light absorptivity and photo-excited charges is highly required, along with thermodynamic phase stability of alpha phase formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3). In this talk, light-morphology relation is discussed, where a specific crystal facet is found to have strong interaction with photon, leading to high photocurrent. Compressive strain via wrinkling process is found to control the top surface tensile strain of perovskite film, which is beneficial to charge carrier transport and lifetime. As a result, we could achieve a QSS-measured PCE approaching 25%  under one sun illumination.

18:15 - 18:30
Closing
 
Posters
Kshetramohan Dehury, Vijaya Prakash G
Structural Dependent Excitons in Primary Cyclic Ammonium (CnH2n-1NH2; n=3-8) Based Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Semiconductors Series
Kazaoui Said, Turkevych Ivan
Synthesis of MASnI3 Perovskite Films by Reaction of Sn Metallic Flm with MAI Vapor
Tianhao Wu, Yabing Qi
Elimination of Light-Induced Degradation at the Nickel Oxide-Perovskite Heterojunction towards Long-Term Operationally Stable Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells
Teng Ma
Overcome the main challenge of back-contact perovskite solar cells
Suraj Manikandan, Jens Andreasen
Domain Morphology of Organic Solar Cell Bulk Heterojunctions revealed by GHz Spectroscopy
Bing-Huang Jiang, Yu-Chi You, Chih-Ping Chen, Ken-Tsung Wong
Achieving high-performance ternary organic photovoltaics by introducing the unfused-ring core based small-molecule acceptors
Ta-Hung Cheng, Yung-Chung Chen, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Chih-Ping Chen
Interfacial Passivation of Perovskite Solar Cells by Methylene Fluorene Based Small Molecules
Huan BI, Qing SHEN, Shuzi HAYASE
Highly efficient MA-free perovskite solar cells based on multifunctional interface modification
Masatoshi Yanagida, Dhruba B. Khadka, Yasuhiro Shirai, Kenjiro Miyano
SURFACE MODIFICATION OFNICKEL OXIDE HOLE TRANSPORT LAYER FOR THE PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS
Shahrir Razey Sahamir, Qing Shen, Shuzi Hayase
Doping and Interlayer Engineering to Synergistically Improve the Thermal Stability in Tin-Lead Perovskite Solar Cells
Po-Yen Chang, Bing-Huang Jiang, Wen-Ling Wang, Chih-Ping Chen, Ru-Jong Jeng
Crosslinking Fullerene as Interfacial Layer for Organic Photovoltaic Providing Efficient Carrier Extraction and a Performance of 17.5%
Shou-Heng Liu
Morphology-controlled perovskite/α-Fe2O3 heterojunctions for solar energy conversion of CO2
Nobuko Onozawa-Komatsuzaki, Daisuke Tsuchiya, Shinichi Inoue, Atsushi Kogo, Toshiya Ueno, Takurou Murakami N.
Highly Efficient Dopant-Free Cyano-Substituted Spiro-Type Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells
Teruhiro Fukushima, Kenichi Oyaizu, Hiroyuki Nishide, Takeo Suga
Synthesis of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-thiophene Polymers bearing Thermally-cleavable Boc group and their Application to All-inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells
Tomoyuki TOBE, Daisuke AOKI, Hidenori SAITO, Masahide KAWARAYA, Shinichi MAGAINO
Worldwide Round-Robin Inter-Comparison of Maximum Power Measurement for a Perovskite Solar Cell
WonJo Jeong, In Hwan Jung
Development of dopant-free hole transporting polymers with facile synthesis for high-stability perovskite solar cells
Megumi Kojima, Kenichi Oyaizu, Hiroshi Segawa, Hiroyuki Nishide, Takeo Suga
Effective Alkyl Chain Combinations of Dopant-Free Poly(3-alkylthiophene)s and Surface Passivation Salts for All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells
Kota Haseyama, Kenichi Oyaizu, Hiroyuki Nishide, Takeo Suga
Bar-coating Preparation of All-Inorganic Perovskite Layer over 700 nm Thickness from Perovskite Precursor Inks toward High-efficiency Solar Cells
Gulzada Beket, Qilun Zhang, Anton Zubayer, Thomas Österberg, Mats Fahlman, Feng Gao, Jonas Bergqvist
Reduced energy loss at the cathode - active layer interface in laminated OPVs for indoor applications
Aneta Andruszkiewicz, Erik Johansson
Temperature controlled investigation of charge transport and recombination in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells
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