The program is in UTC Time, click here to check your local time.

 

Time Converter

Program
 
Tue Oct 20 2020
08:30 - 08:35
NewOPV Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
PerFun Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
Photon Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
SolFuel Opening nanoGe
NewOPV 1.1
Chair: Mariano Campoy Quiles
08:35 - 08:45
1.1-T1
Andrienko, Denis
Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz
Design rules for non-fullerene acceptors in organic solar cells
Andrienko, Denis
Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, DE

Denis Andrienko is a project leader at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research working on the development of multiscale simulation techniques for charge and exciton transport in conjugated polymers as well as small molecular weight organic semiconductors. After completing his Masters degree in the University of Kiev he obtained his first PhD in optics/structural transitions in liquid crystals from the Institute of Physics, Ukraine (group of Prof. Reznikov) and his second PhD on computer simulations of complex fluids from the University of Bristol, UK (group of Prof. M. P. Allen). He joined MPIP as a Humboldt Fellow doing theoretical studies of the slippage effect, mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, and effective interactions in colloidal systems. Dr. Andrienko has published over eighty journal articles and four book chapters.

Authors
Denis Andrienko a
Affiliations
a, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, Ackermannweg, 10, Mainz, DE
Abstract

Efficiencies of organic solar cells have doubled since the development of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs). Despite this, it is still unclear how the acceptor-donor-acceptor molecular architecture, elongated molecular shape, and planar conjugated core of typical NFAs contribute to the observed efficiency boost. We demonstrate that electrostatics of acceptor-donor-acceptor molecules provides barrierless dissociation of excited states, as well as lossless charge extraction. We also show that the donor-acceptor-donor architecture would be an appropriate design for the donor molecule. Our findings are experimentally supported by analyzing various PCE10:NFA solar cells, with NFAs including Y6, IEICO, O-IDTBR, O-IDTBCN, ITIC, and their halogenated derivatives.

08:45 - 08:55
1.1-T2
Hosseini, Seyed Mehrdad
University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy
Putting order into PM6:Y6 solar cells to reduce the Langevin recombination in 400 nm thick junction
Hosseini, Seyed Mehrdad
University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, DE
Authors
Seyed Mehrdad Hosseini a, Safa Shoaee a, Nurlan Tokmoldin a, Dieter Neher a, Han Young Woo b, Yingping Zou c
Affiliations
a, University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24-25, Potsdam, 14476, DE
b, Korea University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, 145 Anam-ro, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Corea del Sur, Seoul, KR
c, Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China, Yuelu District, Changsha, China, 410083, Changsha, CN
Abstract

One of the great challenges facing organic solar cells (OSCs) for commercialisation, is increasing the active layer thickness without sacrificing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the fill factor (FF). Recently, PM6:Y6 as an OSC based on non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) has excited the community because of its PCE reaching as high as 15.9%; however, by increasing the thickness, the PCE drops due to reduction of the FF. This drop is attributed to change in mobility ratio with increasing thickness. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that by regulating the packing and the crystallinity of the donor and the acceptor, through volumetric content of chloronaphthalene (CN) as a solvent additive, one can improve the FF of thick PM6:Y6 device (~400nm) from 58% to 68% (PCE enhances from 12.2% to 14.4%) [1]. Our data indicates that the origin of this enhancement is the reduction of the structural and energetic disorders in the thick device with 1.5%CN compared with 0.5%CN. This correlates with improved electron and hole mobilities (by 1.4 and 3.6 times, respectively) and a 50% suppressed bimolecular recombination, such that the non-Langevin reduction factor is 180 times. This work reveals the role of disorder on the charge extraction and bimolecular recombination of NFA based OSCs.

Reference:

[1] Hosseini, Seyed Mehrdad, et al. "Putting Order into PM6: Y6 Solar Cells to Reduce the Langevin Recombination in 400 nm Thick Junction." Solar RRL.

08:55 - 09:05
1.1-T3
Perdigon-Toro, Lorena
University of Potsdam, DE
Linking charge carrier recombination to photovoltaic responses in organic solar cells with Y-shaped non-fullerene acceptors
Perdigon-Toro, Lorena
University of Potsdam, DE, DE
Authors
Lorena Perdigon-Toro a, b, Le Quang Phuong b, Yingping Zou c, Safa Shoaee b, Dieter Neher a
Affiliations
a, University of Potsdam, Soft Mater Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, DE
b, University of Potsdam, Optoelectronics of Disordered Semiconductors, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, DE
c, Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China, Yuelu District, Changsha, China, 410083, Changsha, CN
Abstract

Organic solar cells based on Y-shaped non-fullerene acceptors, such as Y6, have gained considerable attention because of their high performance in single layer devices [1]. We recently demonstrated that free charge generation in the blend of Y6 with the donor polymer PM6 is barrierless [2]. It was proposed that the efficient charge separation in this blend is related to the high morphological order in this blend. In this work, we compare the charge carrier dynamics of PM6:Y6 with the blend of PM6 with a less-aggregating Y6-derivative, denoted as N4 [3]. Interestingly, the later blend performs fairly well but displays a significantly lower open-circuit voltage (VOC). This hints at different recombination properties. By performing time delayed collection field (TDCF) and bias assisted charge extraction (BACE) experiments, we found that in both systems, bimolecular recombination is the dominant loss under illuminations equivalent to 1 sun. Surprisingly, the bimolecular recombination rate in PM6:N4 is about five times lower than that in PM6:Y6, in apparent contradiction to the lower VOC of the blend. To study the reasons behind this discrepancy, quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) was applied to the blend film and to the full device to determine the steady state carrier density without and with the presence of electrodes. These measurements consistently unravel a higher concentration of charge carriers in the PM6:N4 blend under comparable illuminations while at the same time ruling out a significant contribution from recombination losses at the interfaces and across the transporting layers in these devices. Thus, considering the data for bimolecular recombination rates, the carrier concentrations and the negligible surface recombination, we propose that the smaller VOC of the PM6:N4 blend is due to larger energetic disorder and a lower energy of the charge transfer states – highlighting the need to establish high structural and energetic order to realize efficient devices.

09:05 - 09:15
1.1-T4
Zuo, Guangzheng
University of Potsdam, Soft Mater Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy
The role of energetic disorder in free charge generation and recombination of Y6-based solar cells
Zuo, Guangzheng
University of Potsdam, Soft Mater Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, DE
Authors
Guangzheng Zuo a, Maojie Zhang b, Martijn Kemerink c, Dieter Neher a
Affiliations
a, University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24-25, Potsdam, 14476, DE
b, Soochow University, Laboratory of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials, College of Chemistry, Wuzhong District, Suzhou, China, 215123, Suzhou, CN
c, Centre for Advanced Materials (CAM), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
Abstract

With the development of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), organic solar cells (OPV) recently have achieved efficiencies beyond 16 % in both single and double junction devices. Due to the disordered nature of organic semiconductors (OSCs), charge transport in OSCs is generally described by ‘hopping’ within an inhomogeneously broadened density of state distribution (DOS), where the energetic disorder plays a critical role. There are, however, conflicting views regarding the role of disorder on both the free charge generation and recombination. Problems in comparing and interpreting these results arise from the often ill-defined morphology of donor-acceptor systems. This asks for detailed experimental and theoretical studies regarding the role of disorder on the generation, extraction, and recombination of charge in well-defined OPV systems.

Here the efficient non-fullerene acceptor Y6 [1] was blended with different donor materials like PTB7Th, PM6, TQ1 and PCDTBT, chosen to cover a wide range in energetic disorder in the neat polymer film. To determine the energetic disorder for those material systems, the temperature dependent JV curves were measured based on both hole- and electron-only blend devices. Whereas the electron transport has almost constant disorder of around 65 meV for the different donor materials the energetic disorder for hole transport varies significnatly, from 65 to120 meV,. Charge transport and charge carrier dynamics was studied as a function of internal field, temperature, and excitation. TDCF results show that almost all 1:1 donor:Y6 blends exhibit field-independent charge generation, which we assign to the presence of an electrostatic interfacial field which for well-crystallized Y6 is large enough to compensate the Coulomb dissociation barrier [2]. To avoid the impact of blended morphologies, blends with a low concentration of the NFA (10 wt%) were studied, using the same set of donor materials with different energetic disorder. The results show that the energetic disorder has deteriorative effect on both free charge generation and recombination, consistent with the results of extensive kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

09:15 - 09:45
Discussion
08:35 - 08:45
PerFun Session Introduction 1.1
08:35 - 08:45
Photon Session Introduction
08:35 - 08:45
SolFuel Session Introduction 1.1
PerFun 1.1
Chair: Monica Lira-Cantu
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Park, Nam-Gyu
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
Perovskite Solar Cells: Efficiency, Stability and Upscaling
Park, Nam-Gyu
Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea, KR

Nam-Gyu Park is professor and SKKU-Fellow at School of Chemical Engineering and adjunct professor at Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University. He got Ph.D. in Inorganic Solid State Chemistry from Seoul National University in 1995. He worked at ICMCB-CNRS, France, from 1996 to 1997 and at National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, from 1997 to 1999 as postdoctoral researchers. He worked as Director of Solar Cell Research Center at Korea Institute of Science and Technology from 2005 to 2009 and as a principal scientist at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute from 2000 to 2005 before joining Sungkyunkwan University in 2009. He has been doing researches on high efficiency mesoscopic solar cells including perovskite solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell since 1997. He is pioneer in solid state perovskite solar cell, which was first developed in 2012. He received awards, including Scientist Award of the Month (MEST, Korea), KyungHyang Electricity and Energy Award (KEPCO, Korea), KIST Award of the Year (KIST, Korea) and Dupont Science and Technology Award (Dupont Korea), SKKU fellowship, and MRS Outstanding Research Award (MRS, Boston) and WCPEC Paper Award (Kyoto, Japan). He published over 230 scientific papers, including Science, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Energy and Nature Communications, 80 patent applications and 8 book chapters. He received H-index of 67 as of May, 2017.

Authors
Nam-Gyu Park a
Affiliations
a, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440, KR
Abstract

Since the seminal work on the solid-state perovskite solar cell (PSC) demonstrating a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7% and stability for 500 h in 2012, perovskite photovoltaics surged swiftly. As a result, a certified PCE of 25.5% was achieved in 2020. According to Web of Science, publications on PSC increase exponentially since 2012, leading to 18,000 as of September 27, 2020, which indicates that PSC is considered as a very promising photovoltaic technology. In this talk, history, progress, and perspective of PSC will be covered in terms of efficiency, stability and upscaling. High photovoltaic performance was realized by compositional engineering, device architecture and coating methodologies for the past 10 years. Toward theoretical efficiency over 30% and commercialization of long-term stable PSC, further studies on suppression of recombination and developments of scalable technologies are required. Importance of interface and grain boundary engineering is emphasized to reach the theoretical efficiency with voltage over 1.3 V and fill factor over 0.9. For commercialization, materials may be issued because the current precursor mixture is problematic due to the underlying aging effect. We developed cost-effective materials based on delta FAPbI3 powder for reproducibly high efficiency PSC. The best PCE of 21.1% was certified using the synthesized perovskite powder. Large-area uniform perovskite coating is pre-requisite in upscaling PSC. Solvent- and/or additive-engineering-based solutions were developed for large-area perovskite films. Regarding stability, except for the encapsulation, a paradoxical approach using a hydrophilic passivation layer was developed, which demonstrated over 90% of the initial PCE after 1000 h.

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Hagfeldt, Anders
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Nanoscale Solar Energy Converters
Hagfeldt, Anders
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH

Anders Hagfeldt is Professor in Physical Chemistry at EPFL, Switzerland. He obtained his Ph.D. at Uppsala University in 1993 and was a post-doc with Prof. Michael Grätzel (1993-1994) at EPFL, Switzerland. His research focuses on the field of mesoporous dye-sensitized solar cells, specifically physical chemical characterization of mesoporous electrodes for different types of optoelectronic devices. He has published more than 370 scientific papers that have received over 35,000 citations (with an h-index of 90). He was ranked number 46 on a list of the top 100 material scientists of the past decade by Times Higher Education. In 2014, 2015 and 2016 he was on the list of Thomson Reuter’s Highly Cited Researchers. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in Stockholm. He is a visiting professor at Uppsala University, Sweden and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Authors
Anders Hagfeldt a
Affiliations
a, EPFL École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Department of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Switzerland, CH
Abstract

In this talk I will overview the virtue of nanomaterials for solar energy conversion using as examples dye-sensitized (DSSC) and perovskite solar cells (PSC).

Some years back we introduced alkoxy functionalized donor groups as a building block in organic dyes as light harvesters for DSSC. This donor group provides a desirable 3-dimensional structure that aids in surface protection of electrons injected into the semiconductor from oxidants in the electrolyte, allowing for record-setting cobalt- and copper-based redox shuttles to be utilized more frequently. With these systems we recently set the world record efficiency for DSSC of 12.25%. DSSCs are ideally suited for ambient light and indoor applications where efficiencies up to 35% have been reached calculated with respect to the fluorescent light source.

In our work on perovskite solar cells (PSC) we have achieved efficiencies above 23% with a mixed composition of iodide/bromide and organic and inorganic cations. With the use of SnO2 compact underlayers as electron acceptor contacts we have constructed planar perovskite solar cells with a hysteresis free efficiency above 22%. Through compositional engineering, larger perovskite grains grown in a monolithic manner are observed and reproducibility and device stability are improved. With regards to lifetime testing, we have shown a promising stability at 85 oC for 500 h under full solar illumination and maximum power point tracking (95% of the initial performance was retained). Our present main directions of developing FAPbI3 perovskites and passivation interface layers will be discussed in the lecture.

09:25 - 09:45
1.1-I3
Milic, Jovana
A Supramolecular Approach to Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics
Milic, Jovana
Authors
Jovana Milic a, Marco Alejandro Ruiz-Preciado a, Dominik Kubicki a, b, Albert Hofstetter b, Lyndon Emsley b, Michael Graetzel a
Affiliations
a, EPFL École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Switzerland, CH
b, EPFL École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, Switzerland, CH
Abstract

Hybrid perovskites persist as one of the leading materials in photovoltaics due to remarkable solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies.[1-2] Their limited stability under device operation conditions, however, remains challenging.[1-2] This stimulates the development of layered perovskite analogs based on the assemblies of organic and inorganic components featuring higher stabilities under operating conditions.[3-7] To this end, supramolecular chemistry provides a powerful tool for controlling the properties of hybrid materials by tailoring noncovalent interactions. We demonstrate its utility through molecular modulation based on fine-tuning various noncovalent interactions (i.e. supramolecular engineering),[7-10] such as metal coordination,[10]   hydrogen[6,9-10] or halogen bonding,[8] and π-interactions,[7] among others,[11] in a manner that has been uniquely assessed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.[5-6,8-10] As a result, perovskite solar cells that exhibit superior performances can be obtained, which is accompanied by enhanced operational stabilities.[6-10] Moreover, the underlying molecular design can be extended into creating layered perovskite architectures to enable further stability enhancements.[3-7] This has been investigated by using a combination of techniques complemented by solid-state NMR to unravel the design principles and highlight the supramolecular approach in advancing hybrid photovoltaics.

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
Photon 1.1
Chair: Jordi Martorell
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Maier, Stefan
Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) Munich
Nanoantennas for light harvesting and energy conversion
Maier, Stefan
Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, DE
Authors
Stefan Maier a
Affiliations
a, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Königinstraße 10, München, DE
Abstract

Metallic and dielectric nanostructures provide distinct and unique means for shaping the electromagnetic near field, and for channelling radiation from the far field to the nanoscale. The associated electromagnetic field hot spots can be exploited for the enhancement of interactions between light and matter, most prominently for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing, the boosting of non-linear interactions, and also for nanoscale spatial control over chemical reactions.

 

In my lecture I will approach plasmonic and dielectric nanoantennas from the viewpoint of being a means for energy conversion at the nanoscale. With example materials systems such as gold and silver (plasmonic), gallium phosphide (dielectric), and silicon carbide (polar dielectric), I will highlight applications such as non-linear optics, photon-phonon interactions for the launching of acoustic surface waves, and the plasmon-assisted triggering of redox reactions.

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Míguez, Hernán
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
ROLE OF PHOTONIC MATERIALS IN ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES AND DEVICES
Míguez, Hernán
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), ES

Hernán Míguez (born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1971) is Research Professor of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) in the Institute of Materials Science of Seville. He studied Physics in the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and did his PhD in the Institute of Materials Science of Madrid. After a postdoctoral stay at the University of Toronto in the group of Prof. Ozin, he returned to Spain and joined the CSIC in 2004. He leads the group of Multifunctional Optical Materials, whose activities are devoted to the development, characterization and modeling of new photonic architectures for applications in different fields, among them solar energy conversion and light emission. He has received an ERC starting grant (2012, Consolidator Modality) and the “Real Sociedad Española de Física-Fundación BBVA 2017” Prize in the modality of “Physics, Innovation and Technology”.

Authors
Hernán Míguez a
Affiliations
a, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (ICMS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, Sevilla, ES
Abstract

Control over the interplay between electromagnetic radiation and matter is central to optimize the performance of energy conversion devices such as solar cells or LEDs. In this talk, the fundamental photonic concepts behind efficiency enhancement in energy conversion devices, as well as a variety of approaches to prepare and integrate photonic materials in such devices, will be presented. Photonic crystals, aperiodic media, plasmonic nanostructures, corrugated surfaces and optically disordered media are among the different kinds of materials that will be discussed.[1-5] For each case, a specific example of integration in a device and its effect on the related energy conversion process (namely, luminous to electric, electric to luminous, luminous to thermal, luminous to luminous) will be presented.

09:25 - 09:45
Discussion
SolFuel 1.1
Chair: Víctor A. de la Peña O'Shea
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Domen, Kazunari
University of Tokyo, Japan
Photocatalytic water splitting for solar hydrogen production
Domen, Kazunari
University of Tokyo, Japan, JP

Name: Kazunari DOMEN Affiliation: The University of Tokyo Adjunct affiliation: Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, Education: 1976 B.E. The University of Tokyo 1979 M.E. The University of Tokyo, School of Science 1982 Ph.D. The University of Tokyo, School of Science Professional experience: 1982-1990 Associate Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology 1990-1996 Associate Professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology 1996-2004 Professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology 2004-present Professor, The University of Tokyo, Japan (Visiting Scientist at IBM Almaden Research Center from 1985 to 1986.) Academic interests: Development of Photocatalysts for Water Splitting Study on Heterogeneous Catalysis Reactions by Infrared Spectroscopy Surface Reaction Dynamics by Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy Development of New Functional Materials for Catalysis Academic/social contribution: 1. Editorial Board, Journal of Catalysis 2. Associate Editor, Catalysis Today 3. Director, The Chemical Society of Japan 4. Director, Catalysis Society of Japan 5. Member, The Engineering Academy of Japan

Authors
Kazunari Domen a, b
Affiliations
a, Research Initiative for Supra-Materials, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553, Japan
b, The University of Tokyo, Japan, 2-11-6 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JP
Abstract

Sunlight-driven water splitting is studied actively for production of renewable solar hydrogen [1]. Both the efficiency and the scalability of water-splitting systems are essential factors for practical utilization of renewable solar hydrogen. It is desirable to develop particulate photocatalysts and their reaction systems that efficiently split water, because particulate photocatalyst systems can be spread over wide areas by inexpensive processes potentially.

The author has studied various oxide, (oxy)nitride, and (oxy)chalcogenide photocatalysts [2]. The water splitting activity of SrTiO3 can be improved by two orders of magnitude by doping Al. The quantum efficiency of photocatalytic overall water splitting has reached almost unity in the near UV region [3]. This is the highest reported to date and confirms that particulate photocatalysts can drive the uphill overall water splitting reaction as efficiently as the photon-to-chemical conversion process in photosynthesis. 

The author has also been developing panel reactors for large-scale applications. A prototype panel reactor containing Al-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst sheets splits water and releases product H2 and O2 gas bubbles at a rate expected at a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (STH) of 10% under intense UV illumination [4]. A 1-m2-sized photocatalyst panel reactor splits water under natural sunlight irradiation without a significant loss of the intrinsic activity of the photocatalyst sheets. A larger size (100 m2) solar hydrogen production system was constructed and its performance and system characteristics are currently under investigation.

To realize a sufficient STH, it is essential to develop photocatalysts active under visible light irradiation. Ta3N5 [5] and Y2Ti2O5S2 [6] show activity in overall water splitting via one-step excitation under visible light irradiation. Photocatalyst sheets consisting of La- and Rh-codoped SrTiO3 and Mo-doped BiVO4 split water into H2 and O2 via two-step excitation, referred to as Z-scheme, and exhibit STH exceeding 1.0% [7,8]. Some other (oxy)chalcogenides and (oxy)nitrides with longer absorption edge wavelengths are also applicable to Z-schematic photocatalyst sheets.

In my talk, the latest progress in photocatalytic materials and reactors will be presented.

 

[1] Hisatomi et al. Nat. Catal. 2019, 2, 387.

[2] Chen et al. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2017, 2, 17050.

[3] Takata et al. Nature, 2020, 581, 411.

[4] Goto et al. Joule 2018, 2, 509.

[5] Wang et al. Nat. Catal. 2018, 1, 756.

[6] Wang et al. Nat. Mater. 2019, 18, 827.

[7] Wang et al. Nat. Mater. 2016, 15, 611.

[8] Wang et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 1675.

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Simonov, Alexandr
School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Towards genuine electrocatalytic synthesis of ammonia from dinitrogen
Simonov, Alexandr
School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

Alexandr (Sasha) earned his MSci (2004) and PhD (2007) degrees in Chemistry at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), and worked there until 2012. Initially his research focused on monosaccharide chemistry, but since 2009 he has directed his attention to electrochemistry and electrocatalysis. In 2012, he joined Monash University as a postdoctoral fellow, and took up an academic appointment at Monash in 2018, where he currently leads a Solar Fuels group. Research in the group focuses on emerging photovoltaic technologies and (photo)electrocatalytic processes for converting renewable electricity into energy-rich chemicals. The major emphasis of the studies in electrocatalysis are on the hydrogen and oxygen electrode reactions, although recent work also focuses on electrochemical activation of N2 and NH3 oxidation. Alexandr's personal major research interests are in the design of catalytic and photovoltaic electromaterials, and understanding their properties via the use of advanced electroanalytical and ex situ/in situ spectroscopic techniques.

Authors
Alexandr Simonov a, Douglas MacFarlane a
Affiliations
a, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Abstract

Electrosynthesis of ammonia via the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) has recently become a topic of stirring research. The process attracts attention from both industry and academia as a possible future alternative to the classical catalytic technology and is expected to enable the renewable-powered, distributed production of “green” NH3 – both for the chemical/fertiliser industry and as an energy carrier.

Notwithstanding a truly significant investigative effort invested worldwide, the recent progress in advancing the NRR technology remains questionable to the extent that the majority of the reports on the successful electrochemical conversion of N2 to NH3, in the first place those using aqueous electrolyte media, cannot be considered fully reliable. The introductory part of the talk will critically assess the state-of-the-art in the NRR field, will identify the most common missteps and will aim to provide a simple guide for undertaking reliable N2 reduction experiments.

The second part of the talk will focus on the solutions to the fundamental problems of the NRR in aqueous media, viz. suppression of the competing dihydrogen evolution and promoting the availability of N2, through the application of the aprotic electrolyte media. Our progress towards the direct electrocatalytic reduction of dinitrogen and the redox-mediated conversion of N2 to ammonia under these conditions will be presented, with a specific focus on the challenges and possible pathways towards further improvements in the NH3 electrosynthesis technology.

09:25 - 09:45
1.1-I3
Hammarström, Leif
Uppsala University, Sweden
Capturing intermediates of solar fuels catalysts by transient UV-VIS and mid-IR spectroscopy
Hammarström, Leif
Uppsala University, Sweden, SE
Authors
Leif Hammarström a, Shihuai Wang a, Belinda Peterson Rimgard a, Nora Eliasson a, Reiner Lomoth a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry − Ångström Laboratory, Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Sweden, SE
Abstract

Rational design and comparative studies of catalysts rely on detailed information about the mechanism of catalysis that in most cases is not available. We have used time-resolved UV/VIS and mid-IR spectroscopy to resolve highly reactive catalyst intermediates on the nano- to millisecond time scale, elucidate their structures and measure their reactivity in proton- and electron transfer reactions of the mechanistic cycle [1].

The azadithiolate bridge of FeFe-hydrogenase active sites has been taken as an example design for proton relays in the second coordination sphere, facilitating protonation and deprotonation of the metal centre. We have shown that for the corresponding model complexes, the aza-group has no role as proton shuttle in the FeIFe0 state, as had been proposed [2]. Instead, the effect of aza protonation is to shift the catalyst reduction potential, surprisingly with no or only little reduction in the rate of subsequent metal protonation by external acid.

We have also been able to follow the charge transfer dynamics via mid-IR signals of the catalyst in catalyst-semiconductor systems, with both band-gap excitation and dye-sensitization. Ultra-fast (<300 fs) catalyst reduction of molecular catalysts for CO2 or proton reduction is observed on CuInS2 quantum dots ([3] and manuscript in progress).

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
09:00 - 09:05
NCFun Opening nanoGe
09:00 - 09:05
SolPow Opening nanoGe
09:05 - 09:15
NCFun Session Introduction 1.1 - Iwan Moreels
09:05 - 09:15
SolPow Session Introduction 2.1 - Teresa Andreu
NCFun 1.1
Chair: Iwan Moreels
09:15 - 09:35
1.1-I1
Buonsanti, Raffaella
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Metal oxide shells to study nanoscale phenomena in quantum dots
Buonsanti, Raffaella
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH

Raffaella Buonsanti obtained her PhD in Nanochemistry in 2010 at the National Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Salento. Then, she moved to the US where she spent over five years at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, first as a postdoc and project scientist at the Molecular Foundry and after as a tenure-track staff scientist in the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis. In October 2015 she started as a tenure-track Assistant Professor in the Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering at EPFL. She is passionate about materials chemistry, nanocrystals, understanding nucleation and growth mechanisms, energy, chemical transformations.

Authors
Raffaella Buonsanti a
Affiliations
a, EPFL École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Department of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Switzerland, CH
Abstract

The ability to tune thin metal oxide coatings by wet-chemistry is desirable for many applications, yet it remains a key synthetic challenge. In this work, we introduce a general colloidal atomic layer deposition (c-ALD) synthesis to grow metal oxide shells (AlOx, ZnOx, TiOx) of tunable thickness (1 to 15 nm) around nanocrystalline cores of different compositions, including quantum dots (perovskites-PeQDs, CdSe, C-dots, InP).1

We compare the c-ALD with the previously developed gas-phase ALD in film to highlight its advantages which comprise the preserved colloidal dispersability, the improved optical properties and the stability.2

Finally, we illustrate the importance of such a finely tuned metal oxide shell thickness to study nanoscale phenomena such as energy transfer between PeQDs and CdSe nanoplates, between PeQDs and metal nanoparticles and the anion exchange reaction in PeQDs.1,3-5

09:35 - 09:55
1.1-I2
Raino, Gabriele
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Exciton and multi-excitons recombination dynamics in perovskite CsPbBr3 QDs unveiled by single QD optical spectroscopy
Raino, Gabriele
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH
Authors
Gabriele Raino a, b, Franziska Krieg a, b, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk b, Maksym Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry & Applied Biosciences, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg, 1, Zürich, CH
b, EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
Abstract

Lead-halide perovskite APbX3 (A=Cs or organic cation; X=Cl, Br, I) quantum dots (QDs) are subject of intense research due to their exceptional properties as both classical1 and quantum light sources.2-4 Many challenges often faced with this material class concern the long-term optical stability, a serious intrinsic issue connected with the labile and polar crystal structure of APbX3 compounds. When conducting spectroscopy at a single particle level, due to the highly enhanced contaminants (e.g., water molecules, oxygen) over NC ratio, deterioration of NC optical properties occurs within tens of seconds, with typically used excitation power densities (1-100 W/cm2), and in ambient conditions. By using a suitable polymer matrix, these detrimental effects can be suppressed, and intrinsic exciton and multi-exciton dynamics can be explored at the single particle level. 

Here, we report a comprehensive investigation of the room temperature single QD optical properties. The results reveal the origin of the QD homogeneous PL linewidths, and the peculiar size-dependent exciton and multi-excitons recombination dynamics.  

Such findings guide the further design of robust single photon sources operating at room temperature.  

 

References:

[1] Akkerman et al., Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Nat. Mater. 17, 394–405 (2018).

[2] Becker et al., Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites. Nature 553, 189–193 (2018).

[3] Rainò et al., Superfluorescence from lead halide perovskite quantum dot superlattices. Nature 563, 671–675 (2018).

[4] Utzat et al., Coherent single-photon emission from colloidal lead halide perovskite quantum dots. Science 363, 1068–1072 (2019).

[5] Rainò et al., Underestimated Effect of a Polymer Matrix on the Light Emission of Single CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals. Nano Lett. 19, 3648-3653, (2019).

09:55 - 10:15
1.1-I3
Infante, Ivan
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT)
Green Emission in 0D Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals: Disentangling the Enigma
Infante, Ivan
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), IT
Authors
Ivan Infante a
Affiliations
a, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), IT
Abstract

At the core of the heated debate around 0D lead bromide perovskites is the origin of the green emission, which was observed in bulk powders and single crystals, but not in nanocrystals. Early speculations of an intrinsic emission of the material gradually sedimented into two main lines of thought: some groups point at deep band levels induced by point defects, most likely Br vacancies, while others claim the green emission stems from embedded CsPbBr3 (3D) nanocrystals or some other lower dimensional perovskite structures, whose formation within the bulk 0D material is challenging to be discerned from XRD patterns.  Although the latest research seems to lean toward the 3D contamination induced emission, no final consensus has been achieved so far.

In this work we present ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study Cs4PbBr6 in a wide range of temperatures from 34 K to room temperature, and we analyze the electronic structure of the system at every timestep. We also extended the study to the 0D crystal with Br vacancies and to the 3D perovskite crystal. By comparison of the three systems, we demonstrate that point defects cannot be responsible of the green emission because we observe a fast phonon-mediated quenching mechanism of the intrinsic emission of the material already at low temperatures. This is idea is corroborated by variable temperature photoluminescence studies on 200 nm size non-emissive 0D NC, which lack the impurities present in powders.

10:15 - 10:35
Discussion
SolPow 1.1
Chair: Teresa Andreu
09:15 - 09:35
1.1-I1
Smirnov, Vladimir
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, DE
Integrated photo-electrochemical devices employing multijunction solar cells
Smirnov, Vladimir
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, DE, DE
Authors
Vladimir Smirnov a, J.P. Becker a, K. Welter a, F. Finger a
Affiliations
a, IEK-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany, 52425 Jülich, DE
Abstract

The application of multijunction solar cells in photoelectrochemical (PV-EC) devices is addressed. Integrated PV-EC devices can be composed of a ‘traditional’ photovoltaics (PV) cell combined with electrochemical (EC) cell, presenting a promising approach to produce fuels, for example hydrogen. The requirements for PV-EC devices and strategies for the solar cell development will be addressed. The results on the photovoltaic development of multijunction silicon based cells will be presented, focusing on a wide range of photovoltages and photocurrents in various systems, including the adoption of the cells to function on either cathode or anode sides of the system. A prototype integrated PV-EC system based on silicon multijunction solar cells can yield solar to hydrogen efficiencies (STH) of 9.5%.

The strategies of device upscaling beyond laboratory size and the influence of varied illumination conditions close to obtained outdoor will also be discussed. This includes the effects of spectral quality, intensity and incident angle on the performance of both photovoltaic part and PV-EC devices.

 

 

09:35 - 09:55
1.1-I2
Mendes, Adélio
LEPABE-FEUP
Electrochemical fuels: a promising energy vector?
Mendes, Adélio
LEPABE-FEUP, PT

Professor Adélio Mendes (born 1964) received his PhD degree from the University of Porto in 1993.

Full Professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto. Coordinates a large research team with research interests mainly in dye sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells, photoelectrochemical cells including water splitting and solar redox flow batteries, photocatalysis, redox flow batteries, electrochemical membrane reactors (PEMFC, H-SOFC, chemical synthesis), methanol steam reforming, membrane and adsorbent-based gas separations and carbon molecular sieve membranes synthesis and characterization.

Professor Mendes authored or co-authored more than 300 articles in peer-review international journals, filled 23 families of patents and is the author of a textbook; received an Advanced Research Grant from the ERC on dye-sensitized solar cells for building integrated of ca. 2 MEuros and since 2013 he is partner in 4 more EU projects and leads one EU project. Presently he is the leader of a FET Open project, GOTSolar, on perovskite solar cells. He received the Air Products Faculty Excellence 2011 Award (USA) for developments in gas separation and Solvay & Hovione Innovation Challenge 2011 prize, the Prize of Coimbra University of 2016, and the prize of Technology Innovation - 2017 by the University of Porto. Presently, he is the Coordinator of CEner-FEUP, the Competence Center for Energy of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Porto.

Authors
Adélio Mendes a, Anders Bentien a, Paula Dias a, Tânia Lopes a
Affiliations
a, Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Portugal, Rua Doutor Roberto Frias, Porto, PT
Abstract

            Imagine an energy vector with a round-trip-efficiency > 80 % that is easily and efficiently chargeable using either sunlight or biomass. Imagine that this energy vector can produce dispatchable electricity and chemical fuels. When “solar rechargeable battery” concept was first proposed at the beginning of the 80s [1], it aimed at to play an important role on harvesting and storing sunlight energy[2].[1] However, there was no more research going on in this topic until 2013 when Yang et al. [3] published an article integrating a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a redox flow battery (RFB) for converting sunlight into storable chemical energy, displaying a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of ca. 0.09 %. In 2016, Wedge et al. [4] reported the first solar aqueous alkaline RFB using low cost, environmentally safe and stable materials: hematite photoelectrode and ferrocyanide/AQDS redox pairs. This revamped the idea of using photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for charging two electrochemical fuels in an integrated technology, which was named solar redox flow cell (SRFC). In 2020, the world record solar-to-electrochemical energy conversion efficiency reached 20 % [5], demonstrating the potential of SRFCs over more conventional PEC technologies and over conventional PV-redox flow battery approach – Figure 1.

            This talk will present the latest developments in the field, addressing critical sustainability pathways: i) stable and efficient earth-abundant photo-absorber materials; ii) stable and high energy density redox pairs, made of earth abundant elements, matching with the energy levels of the semiconductors; and iii) optimized SRFC device architectures suitable for large-scale solar fuels production. Mimicking the nature, a SRFC device can be combined with a very recently disclosed Microbial Redox Flow Cell (MRFC) [6] to produce continuously – day and night, summer and winter – the electrochemical fuels. Finally, charged redox pairs can be used to produce dispatchable electricity but also to produce chemicals either through direct redox reactions or following an electrochemical approach.

 

[1] In 1991, Kumar et al. [2] asked “The entire discussion is geared towards answering a relevant question: what has gone wrong to result in the stagnation and failure in commercialization of a PEC based solar cell?”

References

1.         Licht, S., et al., A light-variation insensitive high efficiency solar cell. Nature, 1987. 326(6116): p. 863-864.

2.         Sharon, M., et al., Solar rechargeable battery—principle and materials. Electrochimica Acta, 1991. 36(7): p. 1107-1126.

3.         Liu, P., et al., A Solar Rechargeable Flow Battery Based on Photoregeneration of Two Soluble Redox Couples. ChemSusChem, 2013. 6(5): p. 802-806.

4.         Wedege, K., et al., Direct Solar Charging of an Organic–Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2016. 55(25): p. 7142-7147.

5.         Li, W., et al., High-performance solar flow battery powered by a perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell. Nature Materials, 2020.

6.         Santos, M.S.S., et al., Microbially-charged electrochemical fuel for energy storage in a redox flow cell. Journal of Power Sources, 2020. 445: p. 227307.

09:55 - 10:15
1.1-I3
Bae, Dowon
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University
Thermo-electrochemical Model for Solar-rechargeable Redox Flow Cell System
Bae, Dowon
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, GB

Dowon Bae received his BSc and MSc (Honors) from the Russian State Technological University named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky (current - Moscow Aviation Institute). After research activities within solar cells at the LG Innotek (South Korea; 2008 – 2012), he joined the VILLUM Center for the Science of Sustainable Fuels and Chemicals at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), where he conducted his PhD study and Postdoc under the supervision of Prof. Ib Chorkendorff. His research has focused on PEC (photoelectrochemical) device design for solar-fuel applications. From 2018 to 2020, he has worked as a Postdoc at the Delft University of Technology with LEaDing Fellowship (Marie-Curie COFUND) support. He has held academic appointment as an Assistant Professor at Heriot-Watt University from 2020. His research concerns PEC devices and rechargeable flow-battery systems.

Authors
Dowon Bae a, b, Gerrit Faasse b
Affiliations
a, Heriot-Watt University
b, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, Julianalaan, 136, Delft, NL
Abstract

In terms of technological readiness, the most feasible approach for solar energy utilization would be a photovoltaic (PV) panel. However, the PV is faced with challenges concerning the security of supply because of the intermittent nature of the sun. In this context, solar rechargeable redox flow battery (SRFB) technology is being in the spotlight as a mean of simultaneously storing the solar energy into chemicals, which can be readily utilized to generate electricity via reversible reactions [1,2].

However, the plain fact is that there is that most studies overlook practical challenges arising from the inherent instability and degradation of the system under the light and heat. According to our recent theoretical modeling, silicon-based solar PV system shows a severe power-loss exceeding 20% compared to the ideal case [3]. In this work, above described thermal degradation is quantified by introducing a thermo-electrochemical model, which covers both heat-transfer and electrochemical studies to minimize the gap in performances between the laboratory and practical working environments with drastic temperature change and thermal shocks.

The main focus of the study is on avoiding the thermal efficiency loss at a high temperature, which has been a critical technical barrier for the practical application. In our model system, the electrolyte flow acts as a coolant-storage multi-functional medium, and it stabilizes the operating temperature of the photo-charging system via a heat-transfer regime at solid/liquid interface between the solar-driven device and electrolyte.

10:15 - 10:35
Discussion
09:45 - 09:50
NewOPV Short Break
09:45 - 12:00
Photon Break
09:50 - 10:00
NewOPV Session Introduction 1.2 - Morten Madsen
NewOPV 1.2
Chair: Morten Madsen
10:00 - 10:20
1.2-I1
Vandewal, Koen
Hasselt University
Radiative and non-radiative recombination at electron donor - acceptor interfaces
Vandewal, Koen
Hasselt University
Authors
Koen Vandewal a
Affiliations
a, Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO-IMOMEC), Wetenschapspark, 1, Diepenbeek, BE
Abstract

The power conversion efficiency and open-circuit voltage of organic photovoltaic devices is determined by the recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. In this process, charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between the electron-donating and electron-accepting materials comprising the photo-active layer, play a crucial role.[1] These electronic states are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. Depending on the used donor and acceptor materials, CT states can be very emissive and generate free carriers at high yield.[2] In this talk, I will discuss the fundamental properties of CT states, with focus on high and low frequency vibrational modes, and link them to organic opto-electronic device performance. Furthermore, using a new device architecture, we introduce strong light-matter coupling, resulting in redshifted and steepened absorption edges, as well as reduced energy losses in organic photovoltaic devices.[3]

10:20 - 10:40
1.2-I2
durrant, james
Imperial College London and Swansea University
Charge carrier dynamics and energy loss in organic solar cells employing non-fullerene acceptors
durrant, james
Imperial College London and Swansea University, GB

James Durrant is Professor of Photochemistry in the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London and Ser Cymru Solar Professor, University of Swansea. His research addresses the photochemistry of new materials for solar energy conversion targeting both solar cells (photovoltaics) and solar to fuel (i.e.: artificial photosynthesis. It is based around employing transient optical and optoelectronic techniques to address materials function, and thereby elucidate design principles which enable technological development. His group is currently addressing the development and functional characterisation of organic solar cells and photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. More widely, he leads the UK�s Solar Fuels Network and the Welsh government funded S�r Cymru Solar initiative. He has published over 300 research papers and 5 patents, and was recently awarded the 2012 Tilden Prize by the RSC.

Authors
james durrant b
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus London, London, GB
b, SPECIFIC – Swansea University, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, UK, Bay Campus, Swansea, SA1 8EN,, SWANSEA, GB
Abstract

My talk will focus on the charge carrier dynamics which underlie the performance of organic solar cells employing non-fullerene acceptors. I will start by considering the kinetic competition between exciton decay to ground and charge separation, and how this is particularly important for low bandgap non-fullerene acceptors due to their relatively short exciton lifetime in films. I will go consider the impact of charge trapping in increasing energy loss, and in particular evidence that low energetic disorder in PM6:Y6 blends may be a key factor behind the high performance of this blend. Finally I will consider charge generation in low energy offset blends, and the importance of entropy of driving charge separation in such blends.

10:40 - 11:00
1.2-I3
Brabec, Christoph
What is organic photovoltaics missing to become a TerraWatt technology
Brabec, Christoph
Authors
Christoph Brabec a
Affiliations
a, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Working group:Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology
Abstract

Organic photovoltaics (OPV), like other thin film PV technologies, is not yet part of this global TW scenario. The first OPV products were launched in 2008/2009 for portable chargers at an efficiency of about 2 %. Despite the rather low performance, these first products already showed the characteristic “OPV features” like flexibility, transparency and colour variability. Since then, the OPV community has concentrated on developing novel material systems for higher efficiency – a development which was outstandingly successful. In the last 10 years, organic solar cell performance was increased from about 8 % in 2009 to about 17 % in 2019. The certified record efficiencies beyond 17% were all achieved with non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs). Certified module efficiencies are typically lagging behind the certified cell efficiencies though our research group recently certified organic solar modules with efficiency as high as 12.6 % Despite the great progress in performance, organic PV is still facing the major challenge of overcoming a relatively large exciton without excessively loosing energy. Operation principles of organic solar cells in the limit of negligible potential driving forces for matched donor – acceptor HOMO levels is the currently most promising concept to drive efficiency of OPV towards the 20 % regime. The traditional concept for organic solar cells (OSC) suggests an offset in energy levels (Eoffset) to provide sufficient driving force to split excitons into free charge carriers. Understanding the factors limiting device operation at very small Eoffset is imperative in order to design material composites operating efficiently under such conditions. In this presentation we show that exciton splitting in highly efficient NFA systems at negligible HOMO level offset still takes place, but on ultra-long timescales, even exceeding the exciton lifetime, which obviously becomes the ultimate limit for efficient systems. Moreover, we analyze the voltage losses and surprisingly, in systems where no charge transfer state is detected, we show that the non-radiative voltage losses still correlate with the small but non-negligible EHOMO offset until reaching the pristine materials´ limit.

11:00 - 11:20
Discussion
PerFun 1.2 A
Chair: Anders Hagfeldt
10:05 - 10:15
A-T1
Jariwala, Sarthak
University of Washington, US
Approaching the Limits of Optoelectronic Performance in Mixed Cation Mixed Halide Perovskites by Controlling Surface Recombination
Jariwala, Sarthak
University of Washington, US, US
Authors
Sarthak Jariwala a, Sven Burke a, Sean Dunfield b, Clayton Shallcross c, Margherita Taddei a, Jian Wang a, Giles E Eperon b, Neal R Armstrong c, Joseph J Berry b, David S Ginger a
Affiliations
a, University of Washington, US, Seattle, US
b, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US, Denver West Parkway, 15013, Golden, US
c, Arizona State University, Department of Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, US
Abstract

We demonstrate the critical role of surface recombination in mixed-cation, mixed-halide perovskite, FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3. By passivating non-radiative defects with the polymerizable Lewis base (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) we transform these thin films. We demonstrate average minority carrier lifetimes > 4 {\mu}s, nearly single exponential monomolecular PL decays, and concomitantly high external photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (>20%, corresponding to ~97% of the maximum theoretical quasi-Fermi-level splitting) at low excitation fluence. We confirm both the composition and valence band edge position of the FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 perovskite using multi-institution, cross-validated, XPS and UPS measurements. We extend the APTMS surface passivation to higher bandgap double cation (FA,Cs) compositions (1.7 eV, 1.75 eV and 1.8 eV) as well as the widely used triple cation (FA,MA,Cs) composition and observe significant PL and PL lifetime improvements after surface passivation. Finally, we demonstrate that the average surface recombination velocity (SRV) decreases from ~1000 cm/s to ~10 cm/s post APTMS passivation for FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3. Our results demonstrate that surface-mediated recombination is the primary non-radiative loss pathway in MA-free mixed-cation mixed-halide films with a range of different bandgaps, which is a problem observed for a wide range of perovskite active layers and reactive electrical contacts. This study indicates that surface passivation and contact engineering will enable near-theoretical device efficiencies with these materials.

10:15 - 10:25
A-T2
Muscarella, Loreta A.
AMOLF Institute
Lattice compression increases the activation barrier for phase segregation in mixed-halide perovskites
Muscarella, Loreta A.
AMOLF Institute, NL
Authors
Loreta A. Muscarella a, Eline Hutter b, Francesca Wittmann d, Young Won Woo c, Young-Kwang Jung c, Lucie McGovern a, Jan Versluis a, Aron Walsh d, Huib Bakker a, Bruno Ehrler a
Affiliations
a, Center for Nanophotonics, AMOLF, The Netherlands, Science Park, 104, Amsterdam, NL
b, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, Princetonplein, 1, Utrecht, NL
c, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, KR, KR
d, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Prince’s Consort Road, South Kensington Campus, London, GB
Abstract

The bandgap tunability of mixed-halide perovskites makes them promising candidates for light emitting diodes and tandem solar cells. However, illuminating mixed-halide perovskites results in the formation of segregated phases enriched in a single-halide. This segregation occurs through ion migration, which is also observed in single-halide compositions, and whose control is thus essential to enhance the lifetime and stability of the devices. Using pressure-dependent transient absorption spectroscopy, we find that the formation rates of both iodide- and bromide-rich phases in MAPb(BrxI1-x)3 reduce by two orders of magnitude on increasing the pressure to 0.3 GPa. We explain this reduction from a compression-induced increase of the activation energy for halide migration, which is supported by first-principle calculations. A similar mechanism occurs when the unit cell volume is reduced by incorporating a smaller cation. These findings reveal that stability with respect to halide segregation can be achieved either physically through compressive stress or chemically through compositional engineering.

10:25 - 10:35
A-T3
Gutierrez-Partida, Emilio
Stable double cation perovskites with 18 µs lifetime and high luminescence yield for efficient inverted perovskite solar cells
Gutierrez-Partida, Emilio
Authors
Emilio Gutierrez-Partida a, Hannes Hempel b, Sebastian Caicedo-Davila b, Meysam Raoufi a, Francisco Peña-Camargo a, Max Grischek a, c, René Gunder b, Jonas Diekmann a, Pietro Caprioglio a, c, Kai O. Brinkmann d, Hans Kobler e, Thomas Riedl d, Antonio Abate e, Daniel Abou-Ras b, Thomas Unold b, Dieter Neher a, Martin Stolterfoht a
Affiliations
a, University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24-25, Potsdam, 14476, DE
b, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Department Structure and Dynamics of Energy Materials, Berlin, DE
c, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Young Investigator Group Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells, Berlin, DE
d, University of Wuppertal, Germany, Rainer-Gruenter-Straße, 21, Wuppertal, DE
e, Young Investigator Group Active Materials and interfaces for stable perovskite solar cells, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Kekulestraße, 5, Berlin, DE
Abstract

Recent advancements in perovskite solar cell performance were achieved by stabilizing the α-phase of FAPbI3 perovskites in nip-type cell architectures, enabling power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 25.2%. However, these advancements could not be directly translated into similar PCE improvements in pin-type perovskite cells which limits the possibilities to create highly efficient and stable perovskite photovoltaic cells. We fabricated a high-quality double-cation perovskite (MA0.07FA0.93PbI3) with low bandgap energy (1.54 eV) using a two-step approach on a standard p-type polymer (PTAA). The fabricated neat perovskite films exhibit large grains ( 1 µm) allowing to reach external photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 20% with an unprecedented charge carrier lifetime of over 18 µs without further passivation. The exceptional opto-electronic quality of the neat material was translated into high efficiency pin-type cells with PCEs of up to 22.5% with improved stability under illumination. The low-gap cells (1.54 eV) stand out by their exceptional fill factors of 83% due to reduced charge transport losses and high short-circuit currents ( 24 mAcm-2). Using intensity dependent QFLS measurements, we quantify an implied PCE of 28.4% in the neat material which can be realized upon minimizing interfacial recombination and a further improvement of charge extraction.

10:35 - 10:45
A-T4
Siekmann, Johanna
IEK-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany
High Open-Circuit Voltages of 1.35 V in CH3NH3Pb(I,Br)3 Solar Cells
Siekmann, Johanna
IEK-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Johanna Siekmann a, Zhifa Liu a, Thomas Kirchartz a, b
Affiliations
a, IEK-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany, 52425 Jülich, DE
b, Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics and Center of Nanointegration (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
Abstract

Non-radiative recombination processes are the biggest hindrance to approaching the radiative limit of the open-circuit voltage for wide-band gap perovskite solar cells.

Matched energy levels of charge transport layer are crucial to minimize non-radiative recombination pathways. By tuning the lowest-unoccupied molecular-orbital of electron transport layers via the use of different fullerenes and fullerene mixtures, we demonstrate open-circuit voltages exceeding 1.35 V in CH3NH3Pb(I0.8Br0.2)3 device.

Further optimization of mobility in binary fullerenes electron transport layer can boost the power conversion efficiency as high as 18.6%. We note in particular that the Voc-fill factor product is > 1.085 V, which is the highest value reported for halide perovskites with this band gap.

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
PerFun 1.2 B
Chair: Yulia Galagan
10:05 - 10:15
B-T1
Grischek, Max
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
Finding the Most Promising Route for All-Inorganic Perovskites with PL Measurements: The PCE Potential of the Most Relevant Compositions and Transport Layers
Grischek, Max
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Max Grischek a, b, Pietro Caprioglio a, b, Hannes Hempel c, José Antonio Márquez Prieto c, Ivona Kafedjiska d, Thomas Unold c, Iver Lauermann d, Martin Stolterfoht b, Dieter Neher b, Steve Albrecht a, e
Affiliations
a, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Young Investigator Group Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells, Berlin, DE
b, University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24-25, Potsdam, 14476, DE
c, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Department Structure and Dynamics of Energy Materials, Berlin, DE
d, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Competence Centre Photovoltaics (PVcomB), Berlin, DE
e, Technical University Berlin, Faculty IV – Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 10587 Berlin, Germany.
Abstract

All-inorganic perovskite compositions are highly interesting for solar cell application due to their outstanding thermal stability and tandem-relevant band gap. Although efficiencies over 19 % have been achieved[1], all-inorganic perovskite solar cells still lag behind their organic-inorganic counterparts. These lower efficiencies are largely due to lower open-circuit voltages compared to organic-inorganic perovskites with the same band gap.

This study investigates the efficiency potential of all-inorganic perovskite layers using intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. This contact-less measurement of a neat absorber film or a layer stack allows for the construction of a pseudo JV curve, providing potential performance metrics such as open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor[2]. Based on realistic assumptions on photocurrent generation, an efficiency potential of the film or stack can be calculated. This is a powerful tool to compare the potential of perovskite compositions and transport layers and to identify the dominating loss mechanisms.

For this presentation, DMAI-CsPbI3 films[1] with a band gap of 1.73 eV are fabricated and analysed. Neat films on quartz glass show a PL-derived efficiency potential of 24.2 %, a remarkable value that for the first time quantifies a potential that can be achieved with ideal transport layers. Films on top of a bilayer of compact and mesoporous TiO2 still show an efficiency potential of 22.9 %.

In addition, CsPbI2Br films with a band gap of 1.9 eV are fabricated and compared to CsPbI3 films. Films on top of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecule 2PACz show a very high PL quantum yield (PLQY) of above 12 %. In a previous study on organic-inorganic perovskites, only potassium-passivated triple cation perovskite films showed a higher PLQY[2]. With the measured quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) of 1.54 eV, 97 % of the radiative VOC limit was reached, which is on par with the best organic-inorganic films we measured[2]. The resulting efficiency potential of 22.8 % is surprisingly close to the efficiency potential of CsPbI3 on TiO2 (22.9 %), which has a much lower band gap. These findings suggest very low defect density both in the CsPbI2Br perovskite bulk and at the interface between perovskite and contact layer.

This study shows very high efficiency potentials that can be achieved with ideal transport layers. By comparing the most relevant compositions and transport layers, this study helps to identify the most promising route for all-inorganic perovskites and the main loss-inducing interfaces.

10:15 - 10:25
B-T2
Zillner, Julia
Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart
Interface Optimization in FASnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells
Zillner, Julia
Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart, DE
Authors
Julia Zillner a, Erik Ahlswede a, Michael Powalla a
Affiliations
a, Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70563 Stuttgart, Germany
Abstract

Recently, perovskite solar cells showed power conversion efficiencies (PCE) over 25%. However, commercialization of perovskite solar cells is hampered by environmental concerns due to the toxicity of the used lead. Hence, there is a high interest to substitute the lead by less toxic elements. Tin is a promising candidate, since it has similar electronic properties as lead and so can be easily replaced in the ABX3 perovskite structure. Tin based solar cells also showed an incredible increase in solar cell efficiency of up to 13 % in the last years.[1][2] But those solar cells still lag behind the lead based ones, mainly due to high recombination losses.[3] In order to achieve less recombination losses and thus higher power conversion efficiencies, we modified the hole transport as well as the electron transport layer in our FASnI3 perovskite solar cells (PSC).

We altered the hole transport interface by introducing nanoparticles in between the HTL and perovskite absorber. An improvement in efficiency from 3 % to 4 % could be achieved. It seems, that the nanoparticles reduce the back reflection at the hole transport-perovskite-interface and lead to a smoother perovskite layer with less pinholes, which is beneficial for further depositions from solution and the prevention of shunts.

To further minimize VOC losses, we evaluated three different C60 derivatives (PCBM, ICBA, bis-PCBM) as electron transport layer to optimize the band alignment and interface towards the perovskite absorber. By this we could reach a nearly doubling of the open circuit voltage with ICBA from 380 mV to 650 mV and 480 mV for bis-PCBM in comparison to the commonly used PCBM in our Sn-based perovskite solar cells. This leads to an improvement in efficiency from an average of 3.6 % for PCBM to 5.6 % for ICBA as ETL. Detailed analysis about this phenomenon will be presented.

To sum up by modifying the charge transport layers, we could reach nearly 6 % for FASnIdevices without further additives except of the generally used SnF2.

10:25 - 10:35
B-T3
Masi, Sofia
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Stabilization of FAPbI3 by PbS quantum dots and nanoplatelets
Masi, Sofia
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES
Authors
Sofia Masi a, Juan Ignacio Climente Plasencia b, Iwan Moreels c, Iván Mora-Seró a
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
b, Universitat Jaume I, Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
c, Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Belgium, Krijgslaan 281-S3, Ghent, BE
Abstract

Perovskite bulk materials and inorganic quantum dots, are the most competitive materials for the future photovoltaics. Their outstanding properties in terms of photoconversion efficiency (PCE) led to a big progress, reaching an impressive PCE of 25.1%.[1] Formamidinium based perovskite solar cells present the maximum theoretical efficiency of the lead perovskite family. However, formamidinium perovskite exhibits significant degradation in air. [2] Here PbS (quantum dots and nanoplatelets) are employed to control the morphological and optoelectronic properties and a lot of efforts are dedicated in the understanding the chemical interactions and the physical process involved in the stabilization of the perovskite material. The use of PbS nanoplatelets with (100) preferential crystal orientation potentiates the effects on the crystal growth of perovskite grains and improves the stability of the material and the solar cell. A stable incident photon to current efficiency in the infrared region of the spectrum for 4 months have been obtained, one of the best stability achievement for planar perovskite solar cells. On the other hands the energetic trends revealed by our DFT calculations make clear that the origin of thermodynamically favoured black FAPbI3 upon inclusion of PbS is due mainly to two distinct, but both needed, mechanisms: first, the structure stabilization that destabilizes the yellow phase due to its large surface energy and, second, the crucial chemical stabilization by chemical bonds between the PbS and FAPbI3 that stabilizes the black phase.[3]

10:35 - 10:45
B-T4
Rastogi, Prachi
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France
Infrared Detection in Perovskite Nanocrystals via PbS Nanocrystals Doping
Rastogi, Prachi
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, FR
Authors
Prachi Rastogi a, Audrey Chu a, b, Grégory Vincent b, Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
b, ONERA−The French Aerospace Lab, 6, Chemin de la Vauve aux Granges, BP 80100, F-91123 Palaiseau, France, FR
Abstract

Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as a potential material for LED and solar cell applications [1]. However, despite of their promising performance, the band gap of lead halide perovskite NCs remains large that limit the absorption in infrared (IR) part of spectrum [2]. In this work, we explore the possibility to harvest the IR spectrum using formamidinium lead iodine (FAPI) perovskite nanocrystals by doping of PbS NCs. As a short wave IR absorber, PbS NCs has attracted much attention yet it suffer with high dark current eventually that limit the device performance. By mixing the two compounds with an optimum ratio, it is possible to preserve most of the IR absorption while the transport driven by the wider band gap of the perovskite, this enabling a dark current reduction. In addition to understand the electronic structure of FAPI/PbS hybrid, we fabricated an FET using high capacitance solid state gating. Using this strategy, we show that the hybrid material has an n-type nature with a charge carrier mobility of 2 x 10-3 cm2 V-1s-1.

However, as FAPI is introduced into the PbS NCs array, the benefit of the reduced dark current is partly mitigated by a reduced IR absorption. This problem is address by introducing a plasmonic resonator. The latter relies on a grating that generate a multi passes of the light into the absorbing layer thus enhancing the IR absorption [3]. The resonant electrode enhances the light-matter coupling within the NCs film that enhance the IR absorption up to 3 times [4]. In addition, the reduction of the interelectrode spacing enable photoconduction gain leading to an improved responsivity and detectivity by two order of magnitude in comparison to pristine PbS.

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
SolFuel 1.2
Chair: Kazunari Domen
10:05 - 10:15
1.2-T1
Sachs, Michael
From charge generation to hydrogen evolution with conjugated polymer photocatalysts
Sachs, Michael
Authors
Michael Sachs a, Hyojung Cha a, Jan Kosco b, Catherine M. Aitchison c, Laia Francàs a, Sacha Corby a, Chao-Lung Chiang d, Anna A. Wilson a, Robert Godin a, Alexander Fahey-Williams a, Andrew I. Cooper c, Reiner Sebastian Sprick c, Iain McCulloch b, James R. Durrant a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, GB
b, Department of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Solar Centre (KSC), Saudi Arabia, SA
c, Department of Chemistry and Materials Innovation Factory, University of Liverpool, U.K., GB
d, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Taiwan, Hsin Ann Road, 101, TW
Abstract

While the field of sunlight-driven fuel generation has traditionally been dominated by inorganic materials, organic semiconductors are currently gaining substantial momentum for application as photocatalysts - particularly due to their much higher synthetic flexibility. For instance, their optical band gap can be tuned continuously throughout large parts of the solar spectrum by copolymerizing selected monomers in defined ratios. This tunability has sparked intense research interest in organic photocatalysts,[1] however, the fundamental understanding of photoinduced processes in these systems and the characterisation of their catalytically active sites have stayed behind the rapid development of new materials.

In this presentation, I will demonstrate how transient and operando optical spectroscopic techniques can be used to track the evolution of photogenerated reaction intermediates in polymer photocatalysts on timescales of femtoseconds to seconds after light absorption. To this end, short laser pulses are used to study these photocatalysts under transient conditions whereas long LED pulses are employed to establish operando catalytic conditions, and photogenerated reaction intermediates are then probed optically. Firstly, these techniques reveal insights into the yield of photogenerated charges, which enables an understanding of differences in hydrogen evolution activity between different materials.[2] Secondly, these techniques allow to monitor the transfer of photogenerated electrons to catalytically active sites as well as their accumulation under operando photocatalytic conditions, where differences in electron transfer time translate into different kinetic bottlenecks of the hydrogen evolution reaction for different polymers.[3] To illustrate these points, I will draw direct comparisons between nanoparticle photocatalysts made from the polymers F8BT, P3HT, and the dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone homopolymer, P10, which is one of the most performant polymer photocatalysts reported to date.[2]

10:15 - 10:25
1.2-T2
Alfonso-González, Elena
Institute IMDEA Energy, Spain
Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Photoanodes Based on Conjugated Porous Polymers Prepared by Electropolymerization
Alfonso-González, Elena
Institute IMDEA Energy, Spain, ES

Elena Alfonso González graduated in Chemistry from the Complutense University of Madrid in 2014. Her Bachelor thesis was “Search of high-temperature superconductors based on M-1212 structure with Ru in the charge reservoir”. She got a Master of Science degree in Advanced Spectroscopy in Chemistry from Lille and Leipzig Universities in 2016, with a Master thesis entitled “Z-scheme based photocatalytic water splitting by modification of TiO2 and Fe2O3 semiconductors with Pt and RuOx promotors”.

In the professional field, she did an internship in IMDEA Energy Institute in 2015 about the characterization by DRIFTS in situ of catalysts based on TiO2 for the photorredution of CO2. She also did an internship in the CSIC Institute of Ceramics and Glass in 2013 concerning the synthesis and characterisation of thermoelectric materials.

Since February 2017 she is a predoctoral researcher in the Photoactivated Processes Unit in IMDEA Energy Institute.

Authors
Elena Alfonso-González a, Carmen G. López-Calixto a, Diego García Heredia a, Miguel Gómez Mendoza a, Freddy E. Oropeza a, Marta Liras a, Mariam Barawi a, Víctor A. de la Peña O'Shea a
Affiliations
a, IMDEA Energy Institute, Photoactivated Processes Unit, Spain, Avenida Ramón de La Sagra, 3, Móstoles, ES
Abstract

Artificial photosynthesis by photoelectrocatalysis is one of the most promising ways to store solar energy in the form of fuels, thus constituting a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels [1,2]. Conjugated polymers (CPs) are used as part of some photoelectrodes due to their good conductivity and the possibility to tailor their optoelectronic properties at the molecular level. Some of the most used CPs, such as PEDOT, have a linear structure; which makes them easy to process as thin films, but also unstable under UV illumination if they are in contact with water [3]. Conjugated Porous Polymers (CPP) [3-5] show higher stability due to their 3D structure. However, it is difficult to produce thin films with them by conventional methods such as drop casting or spin coating because of their morphology.

Thanks to the electropolymerization process, we are able to prepare homogeneous, transparent and light-absorbing CPP films both on conducting glass substrates and on inorganic semiconductors. One of these CPPs, IEP-19 (Imdea Energy Polymer-19), has been synthesized for the first time and it shows promising photocurrents, which are significantly higher than those of a previously known CPP with a similar structure: CPP-3TB. Moreover, hybrid photoanodes where the CPP is electropolymerized on top of the inorganic semiconductor present higher photocurrents than the semiconductors alone, showing a synergistic effect between the organic and inorganic semiconductors. These results will be explained according to the optical, photoelectrochemical and morphological properties of the photoanodes.

10:25 - 10:35
1.2-T3
Bozal-Ginesta, Carlota
Department of Chemistry and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, White City Campus
Charge Accumulation Kinetics in Multi-redox Molecular Catalysts Immobilised on TiO2 for Solar Fuels Production
Bozal-Ginesta, Carlota
Department of Chemistry and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, White City Campus, GB
Authors
Carlota Bozal-Ginesta a, Camilo Mesa a, Annika Eisenschmidt b, Laia Francàs a, Ravi Shankar c, Daniel Antón-García b, Julien Warnan b, Janina Willkomm b, Anna Reynal a, Erwin Reisner b, James Durrant a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus London, London, GB
b, University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, GB
c, Barrer Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London United Kingdom, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Road, London, GB
Abstract

Multi-redox catalysis requires the transfer of more than one charge carrier and is crucial for solar energy conversion into fuels and valuable chemicals. In photo(electro)chemical systems, however, the necessary accumulation of multiple, long-lived charges is challenged by recombination with their counterparts. In this context, we have investigated charge accumulation in two model multi-redox molecular catalysts for CO2 and proton reduction attached onto mesoporous TiO2.[1,2] Transient absorption spectroscopy and spectroelectrochemical techniques have been employed to study the kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer from the TiO2 to the molecular catalysts in acetonitrile, with triethanolamine as the hole scavenger. Under an applied electrochemical bias and at high light intensities, we detect charge accumulation in the millisecond timescale in the form of multi-reduced species. The redox potentials of the catalysts and the capacity of TiO2 to accumulate electrons play an essential role in the charge accumulation process at the molecular catalyst. Recombination of reduced species with valence band holes in TiO2 is observed to be faster than microseconds, while back electron transfer from multi-reduced species to the conduction band occurs in the millisecond timescale. Finally, under steady state irradiation conditions, we show how the redox state of the catalyst is regulated as a function of the applied bias and the excitation light intensity.[3]

10:35 - 10:45
1.2-T4
Luke, Sibimol
Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University
Catalyst in a Stable Matrix: Engineering Robust Water Splitting Anodes for Long Term Operation at High Temperature in Acidic Media
Luke, Sibimol
Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University
Authors
Sibimol Luke a, b, Manjuanth Chatti c, Asha Yadav d, Jiban Kangsabanik d, Akshat Tanksale b, Aftab Alam d, Aswani Yella a, Alexandr N Simonov c
Affiliations
a, ME&MS, IITBombay, Powai,Mumbai, Mumbai, 400076, IN
b, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University
c, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
d, IIT Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department Physics, IN
Abstract

Currently, water electrolysers (WE) based on acidic electrolytes, viz. proton-exchange membranes (PEM), are becoming a preferred technology for the electrolytic generation of green hydrogen fuel. One key limitation of PEM-WE is the low stability of anode catalysts, which are nowadays exclusively based on one of the rarest and most expensive metals – iridium. The less expensive transition metal oxide catalysts are most commonly less active and even more unstable. The instability problem can be overcome via integration of the catalytically active component, transition metal oxide, into a highly-conductive matrix that is thermodynamically stable under the conditions of the operating PEM-WE anode, i.e. at low pH and high temperature. The present report demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach with the antimony oxide matrix that is used to stabilise non-noble third row transition metal catalysts and ruthenium. Significantly improved stability as compared to that reported in the literature is demonstrated, in particular on a week timescale at industrially relevant temperature of 80oC at pH 0.3. Factors affecting the activity and stability as well as possible strategies for further improvements will be also presented and discussed.

10:35 - 10:45
1.2-T5
Conesa, José C.
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC
Enzyme-sulphide combinations for visible light-induced water splitting
Conesa, José C.
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, ES
Authors
Cristina Tapia a, Carmen Jarne a, Logan Paul a, Raquel Lucena a, Sonia Zacarias b, Ines A. C. Pereira b, Sergey Shleev c, José C. Conesa a, Marcos Pita a, Antonio L. De Lacey a
Affiliations
a, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Madrid, Madrid, ES
b, Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, PT
c, Malmö University, Biomedical Sciences, Fac. of Health and Society, Sweden, SE
Abstract

Main group sulphides such as In2S3, SnS2 or ZnIn2S4, with bandgaps in the 2.0-2.2 eV range, can use significant amounts of visible light. So we have shown in earlier studies of their photocatalytic response, evidencing that they are active in the oxidative photodegradation of aqueous HCOOH with photons having wavelengths ≤ 650 nm. In addition, they are more photoactive in the same reaction than the typical reference compound CdS, and the first two (especially SnS2) are also more resistant to photocorrosion in oxidative environments than the same photocatalyst CdS, as shown by the analysis of sulphide components detected in solution after prolonged photocatalysis.

More recently we have undertaken the study of their combination with enzymes for photoinduced water splitting. Thus, combining In2S3 with a hydrogenase enzyme allowed the photocatalytic generation of H2 using a sacrificial agent [1]; the results suggested furthermore that the process was not limited by the transfer of electrons from the semiconductor to the enzyme. Later we have verified, for the first time ever, the photoelectrochemical generation of O2 coupling a laccase-type enzyme with these sulphides; first with In2S3 [2] and later with SnS2 [3]. It could be shown that a substantial decrease in the overvoltage needed was found in the presence of light. There were some problems with the stability of these enzymes in these O2 generation conditions; as expected, SnS2 could be shown to be more stable than In2S3.

A summary of all the mentioned results will be presented here.

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
10:35 - 12:00
NCFun Break
10:35 - 12:00
SolPow Break
11:15 - 12:00
PerFun Break
11:15 - 12:00
SolFuel Break
11:20 - 12:30
NewOPV Break
12:00 - 12:05
NCFun Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
PerFun Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
Photon Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
SolFuel Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
SolPow Announcement nanoGe
NCFun 1.2
Chair: Iwan Moreels
12:05 - 12:15
1.2-T1
Carwithen, Ben
Department of Chemistry and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, White City Campus
Size, Shape and Substance - What Controls Carrier Cooling in Perovskite Nanomaterials
Carwithen, Ben
Department of Chemistry and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, White City Campus, GB
Authors
Ben Carwithen a, Thomas Hopper a, Franziska Krieg b, c, Federico Montanarella b, Maryna Bodnarchuk b, c, Maksym Kovalenko b, c, Artem Bakulin a
Affiliations
a, Molecular Sciences Research Hub and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, Londres W12 0BZ, Reino Unido, GB
b, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry & Applied Biosciences, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg, 1, Zürich, CH
c, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
Abstract

The relaxation of above-gap (‘hot’) carriers is responsible for major efficiency losses in present-day solar cells, and involves a complex interplay between carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon coupling. Unravelling the mechanisms of cooling is therefore an essential step for both understanding and developing emerging photovoltaic materials. Perovskite nanomaterials are an exciting class of compounds because they offer facile and broad optoelectronic tunability by size, dimensionality and composition. Here, we aim to elucidate the effects of these properties on carrier cooling by employing ultrafast pump-push-probe spectroscopy. This three-pulse technique allows cooling to be isolated from a melee of other excited state processes, while also allowing independent control over the hot and cold (band-edge) carrier subpopulations. These experiments show that while carrier cooling is generally indifferent to nanocrystal size in moderately confined systems, intriguing results are obtained upon altering the shape of the nanocrystal, and are also influenced greatly by material composition.

12:15 - 12:25
1.2-T2
Rastogi, Prachi
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France
Infrared Detection in Perovskite Nanocrystals via PbS Nanocrystals Doping
Rastogi, Prachi
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, FR
Authors
Prachi Rastogi a, Audrey Chu a, b, Grégory Vincent b, Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
b, ONERA−The French Aerospace Lab, 6, Chemin de la Vauve aux Granges, BP 80100, F-91123 Palaiseau, France, FR
Abstract

Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as a potential material for LED and solar cell applications [1]. However, despite of their promising performance, the band gap of lead halide perovskite NCs remains large that limit the absorption in infrared (IR) part of spectrum [2]. In this work, we explore the possibility to harvest the IR spectrum using formamidinium lead iodine (FAPI) perovskite nanocrystals by doping of PbS NCs. As a short wave IR absorber, PbS NCs has attracted much attention yet it suffer with high dark current eventually that limit the device performance. By mixing the two compounds with an optimum ratio, it is possible to preserve most of the IR absorption while the transport driven by the wider band gap of the perovskite, this enabling a dark current reduction. In addition to understand the electronic structure of FAPI/PbS hybrid, we fabricated an FET using high capacitance solid state gating. Using this strategy, we show that the hybrid material has an n-type nature with a charge carrier mobility of 2 x 10-3 cm2 V-1s-1.

However, as FAPI is introduced into the PbS NCs array, the benefit of the reduced dark current is partly mitigated by a reduced IR absorption. This problem is address by introducing a plasmonic resonator. The latter relies on a grating that generate a multi passes of the light into the absorbing layer thus enhancing the IR absorption [3]. The resonant electrode enhances the light-matter coupling within the NCs film that enhance the IR absorption up to 3 times [4]. In addition, the reduction of the interelectrode spacing enable photoconduction gain leading to an improved responsivity and detectivity by two order of magnitude in comparison to pristine PbS.

12:25 - 12:35
1.2-T3
Di Giacomo, Alessio
Gent University, Department of Chemistry, BE
Synthesis of Size-Controlled, Bright Blue CdSe Nanoplatelets
Di Giacomo, Alessio
Gent University, Department of Chemistry, BE, BE
Authors
Alessio Di Giacomo a, Carmelita Rodà a, Ali Hossain Khan a, Iwan Moreels a
Affiliations
a, UGent
Abstract

Colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) have recently emerged as a novel and exciting class of materials. While several established procedures are available for highly luminescent 4.5 monolayer and thicker NPLs, with emission spanning the green and red spectral region, typical synthesis protocols to prepare blue-emitting CdSe NPLs (λ ≈ 460 nm) yields particles with large surface areas and poor photoluminescence quantum efficiency, often accompanied by a strong emission peak from intragap trap states. Further applications may therefore be hampered by their high surface-to-volume ratio.

Here we present our work on the development of a synthesis protocol that achieves improved control over the lateral size, by exploiting a series of long-chained carboxylate precursors, varying from cadmium octanoate (C8) to cadmium stearate (C18). The length of the metallic precursor is key to tune the width and aspect ratio of the final NPLs (from 3:1 to 15:1), as well as the overall reaction yield, which increases for shorter chain length. The reduced NPL lateral dimensions lead to enhanced photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, reaching up to 30%, and good colloidal stability. As the width can be tuned down to 3.7 nm, we were able to construct also a convenient sizing curve, relating the NPL absorption position and width, and careful comparison with 4.5 monolayer NPLs demonstrate that the blue-emitting NPLs are characterized by faster emission lifetimes and a higher absorption coefficient. Via a slight adjustment, we also obtained 2.5 monolayers NPLs, with near-UV emission (λ ≈ 400 nm), and a quantum efficiency up to 11%. Our results contribute to achieving stable and efficient sources for applications such as blue and UV light emitting devices or lasers, or fast quantum light sources.

12:35 - 12:45
1.2-T4
Boldt, Klaus
University of Konstanz, Germany
Quantification of Material Gradients in Nanocrystals
Boldt, Klaus
University of Konstanz, Germany, DE
Authors
Klaus Boldt a, Stuart Bartlett b, Nicholas Kirkwood c, Bernt Johannessen d
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry & Zukunftskolleg, Box 710, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
b, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom
c, ARC Centre in Exciton Science, School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
d, ANSTO Australian Synchrotron, Australia, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia, Clayton, AU
Abstract

Core/shell nanocrystals in which the materials change gradually from core to shell are very very promising structures to optimise the opto-electronic properties and quantum efficiencies of nanoscale semiconductors. Gradients are able to minimise crystal defects, lattice mismatch, and can be used to engineer the envelope wave function of excitons in order to suppress non-radiative Auger processes. However, due to the small size of the particles, so far no reliable method exists to quantify the extent of such a gradient.

In this work we have measured the material gradient of ZnSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals, which were synthesised at elevated temperatures (260 and 290 °C), which controls the rate of radial ion migration [1]. We used EXAFS spectroscopy to determine the average coordination of selenium ions, which were fitted to a continuum model for the radial distribution of cations and anions [2].

It could be shown that for the 260 °C sample the data shows strong cation migration, which transports significant amounts (> 50%) of cadmium into the core, while the anion gradient is consistent with negligible ion migration beyond the interfacial monolayer. This is significant, because many shell growth protocols that are assumed to produce sharp interfaces are performed at similar temperatures. At higher temperatures of 290 °C the data deviates strongly from the model, with effectively less cation migration. This is explained by the formation of an ordered Zn0.5Cd0.5Se superlattice in the core in order to mitigate the lattice mismatch die to the increasing CdSe content of the core [3]. Raman spectroscopy shows selective resonant enhancement of the core LO phonon overtones, which indicates that the exciton is primarily localized in the core and at interfacial traps, and that the electronic structure flips from a type-II to a type-I system.

Hence, the combination of X-ray and Raman spectroscopy is able to identify both the chemical and electronic structure of core/shell particles and produces an accurate gradient model that can be employed in more precise and predictive structural calculations. The high-temperature product sheds light on why some highly emissive nanocrystals still blink and struggle to reach unity quantum yield [4].

12:35 - 12:45
1.2-T5
Kavanagh, Seán R.
Imperial College London and University College London
Enhanced Optical Absorption via Mixed-Valent Doping of Vacancy-Ordered A3B2X9 Triple Perovskites
Kavanagh, Seán R.
Imperial College London and University College London, GB
Authors
Seán R. Kavanagh a, b, c, Robert G. Palgrave a, e, David O. Scanlon a, c, e, Aron Walsh b, d
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ, GB
b, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Prince’s Consort Road, South Kensington Campus, London, GB
c, Thomas Young Centre, University College London, UK, GB
d, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, KR, KR
e, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom
Abstract

Vacancy-ordered triple perovskites have recently come under the scientific spotlight as promising materials for high-performance next-generation optoelectronic technologies.[1,2] Their A3B2X9 stoichiometry facilitates the replacement of the toxic Pb2+ cation with a benign isolectronic B3+ cation (e.g. Bi3+ or Sb3+), while preserving the perovskite crystal structure. Unfortunately, however, these materials tend to exhibit large bandgaps (> 2 eV), impeding their application in many photo-catalytic/voltaic devices.[3,4]

In this work, we demonstrate a drastic shift of over 1 eV in the optical absorption onset of Cs3Bi2Br9 (from 2.58 eV to 1.39 eV), upon doping with tin. Through a combination of detailed theoretical and experimental characterisation of this novel material, we elucidate the origin of broadband absorption. Sn is found to disproportionate in the doped material, inducing a strong intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transition, whilst preserving the structural integrity of the perovskite framework.

Our work provides valuable insight regarding the effects of mixed-valency and structure-property relationships in perovskite-inspired materials, guiding design strategies and expanding the compositional space of candidate materials. Moreover, we anticipate that this massive reduction in absorption onset could aid charge transport and/or photo-catalytic performance, opening the door to unexplored applications of this material class.

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
PerFun 1.3 A
Chair: Nam-Gyu Park
12:05 - 12:15
A-T1
Buizza, Leonardo
University of Oxford
Charge-carrier dynamics, mobilities and diffusion lengths of 2D-3D lead halide perovskites
Buizza, Leonardo
University of Oxford, GB
Authors
Leonardo Buizza a, Zhiping Wang a, Timothy Crothers a, Rebecca Milot b, Henry Snaith a, Michael Johnston a, Laura Herz a
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, GB
b, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry, United Kingdom
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells have improved drastically over the past decade, overcoming hurdles of temperature- and water-induced instability to achieve efficient, stable devices. Three-dimensional (3D) perovskites have excellent properties including high charge-carrier lifetimes and mobilities, strong absorption and good crystallinity – ideal for photovoltaic devices. However, 3D perovskite materials struggle especially with moisture-induced degradation1. The addition of large, hydrophobic organic cations can lead to the formation of two-dimensional (2D) perovskite structures. Devices made with 2D perovskites show much greater stability, but with far lower power conversion efficiencies than their 3D cousins2. Materials combining 2D and 3D structures have thus recently become one the most promising candidates for use in solar cells3,4. In order to fully understand the optoelectronic properties of these 2D-3D hybrid systems we look at BAx(FA0.83Cs0.17)1-xPb(I0.6Br0.4)3 across the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 80 %5. We find that small amounts of butylammonium (BA) help to improve crystallinity and passivate grain boundaries, thus reducing monomolecular charge-carrier recombination, and boost charge-carrier mobilities. Excessive amounts of BA lead to poor crystallinity and inhomogeneous films forming, greatly reducing charge-carrier transport capabilities. For low amounts of BA the benevolent effects of reduced recombination and enhanced mobilities lead to outstanding diffusion lengths.

12:15 - 12:25
A-T2
Peña-Camargo, Francisco
Universität Potsdam
Halide Segregation versus Interfacial Recombination in Bromide-Rich Wide-Gap Perovskite Solar Cells
Peña-Camargo, Francisco
Universität Potsdam, DE
Authors
Francisco Peña-Camargo a, Pietro Caprioglio a, b, Fengshuo Zu b, c, Emilio Gutierrez-Partida a, Christian M. Wolf a, Kai Brinkmann d, Steve Albrecht b, Thomas Riedl d, Norbert Koch b, c, Dieter Neher a, Martin Stolterfoht a
Affiliations
a, University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24-25, Potsdam, 14476, DE
b, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Young Investigator Group Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells, Berlin, DE
c, Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, 12489 Berlín, Alemania, Berlín, DE
d, University of Wuppertal, Institute of Electronic Devices and Wuppertal Center for Smart Materials & Systems, 42119 Wuppertal, Alemania, Wuppertal, DE
Abstract

Perovskites offer exciting opportunities to realize efficient multijunction photovoltaic devices. This requires high-VOC and often Br-rich perovskites, which currently suffer from halide segregation. Here, we study triple-cation perovskite cells over a wide bandgap range (∼1.5−1.9 eV). While all wide-gap cells (≥1.69 eV) experience rapid phase segregation under illumination, the electroluminescence spectra are less affected by this process. The measurements reveal a low radiative efficiency of the mixed halide phase which explains the VOC losses with increasing Br content. Photoluminescence measurements on nonsegregated partial cell stacks demonstrate that both transport layers (PTAA and C60) induce significant nonradiative interfacial recombination, especially in Br-rich (>30%) samples. Therefore, the presence of the segregated iodide-rich domains is not directly responsible for the VOC losses. Moreover, LiF can only improve the VOC of cells that are primarily limited by the n-interface (≤1.75 eV), resulting in 20% efficient 1.7 eV bandgap cells. However, a simultaneous optimization of the p-interface is necessary to further advance larger bandgap (≥1.75 eV) pin-type cells.

12:25 - 12:35
A-T3
Datta, Kunal
Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e)
Wide-Bandgap Perovskites in the Spotlight: Multimodal Study of Photo-Induced Halide Segregation in Solar Cells
Datta, Kunal
Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), NL
Authors
Kunal Datta a, Bas van Gorkom a, Matthew Dyson a, Martijn Wienk a, Rene Janssen a
Affiliations
a, Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, NL
Abstract

Segregation of illuminated mixed-halide perovskites into iodide- and bromide-rich domains presents a critical bottleneck in the application of wide-bandgap absorbers in single- and multi-junction architectures. And while its occurrence has been well-studied in thin films, the influence on operational solar cells lacks sufficient understanding.

This work employs a multimodal characterization procedure to observe the slow progression of halide segregation in efficient solar cells prepared in the p-i-n architecture using sequentially processed perovskite absorbers. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the stages that demixing of halide ions entails while simultaneous tracking of photovoltaic parameters allows correlating performance degradation to the migration of ionic species in each stage. A new stage of the process is thus observed upon prolonged illumination. Characterization of sub-bandgap features reveals the occurrence of photo-induced defect formation whose suppression through cationic substitution provides a strategy for stabilization of wide-bandgap compositions against halide segregation.

12:35 - 12:45
A-T4
Pydzińska-Białek, Katarzyna
Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland
The Interface Charge Transport in the Triple-Cation Perovskite Solar Cells
Pydzińska-Białek, Katarzyna
Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland, PL
Authors
Katarzyna Pydzińska-Białek a, Viktoriia Drushliak a, Emerson Coy b, Karol Załęski b, Jessica Flach c, d, Jesus Idigoras e, Lidia Contreras-Bernal e, Anders Hagfeldt c, Juan Anta e, Marcin Ziółek a
Affiliations
a, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 2, Poznań, PL
b, NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, PL, Wszechnicy Piastowskiej, 3, Poznań, PL
c, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, Laboratory of Photomolecular Science, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Station, 6, Lausanne, CH
d, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, 53703, US
e, Pablo de Olavide University, Sevilla, Spain, Carretera de Utrera, km. 1, Montequinto, ES
Abstract

Perovskite solar cells have been attracting the scientific world attention since 2009 due to outstanding absorption and charge transport properties. The possible ion migration, several ion types content and non-mono crystal structure make them really intriguing as well as challenging system to investigate by optical techniques. Electrons in the perovskite system, after light absorption, are promoted from the valence to the conduction band. First few hundreds of femtosecond after absorption are governed by cooling of hot carriers. When the process is finished, sharp absorption bleach due to the band filling phenomena occurs which decay correlates with photoluminescence kinetics and represents the excited carrier lifetime [1,2]. That decay proceeds by several paths such as the recombination (first-, second- and third-order) and charge injection to an electron transporting material (ETM) or a hole transporting material (HTM).        

We focused on a triple cation perovskite FA0.76MA0.19Cs0.05(I0.81Br0.19)3 sandwiched between a spiro-OMeTAD (HTM) and mesoporous TiO2 (ETM) layers prepared under drybox (w/o oxygen and water) or ambient (in the presence of oxygen and ambient room humidity) conditions [3]. We performed femtosecond to nanosecond transient absorption as well as picosecond to nanosecond time-resolved emission studies of the prepared cells. We probed the cells from different sides to obtain information about the charge dynamics at ETM or HTM interfaces. The investigation was also supported by the electrochemical impedance and x-ray diffraction measurements.

The morphological studies indicate that the content of unreacted PbI2 phase in the perovskite structure is much higher near the interface with titania than near the interface with spiro-OMeTAD. The stationary emission spectra and transient bleach peaks of perovskites show additional long-wavelength features close to the titania side. Time-resolved techniques reveal further differences in charge dynamics at both interfaces. The population decay is significantly faster at the ETM side than that at the HTM side for the cells prepared under ambient conditions, and the hole injection is faster for the solar cells with higher photocurrent in the cells prepared under drybox conditions. The charge recombination loss on the millisecond time scale is found to be slower at the interface with titania than with spiro-OMeTAD. The ideality factor of the cells is found to increase with increasing DMSO content in the precursor solution indicating a change in recombination mechanism from bulk to surface recombination [3].

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
PerFun 1.3 B
Chair: Giulia Grancini
12:05 - 12:15
B-T1
Smolders, Thijs J.A.M.
University of Bath
3D to 2D Transition of Anion Mobility in CsPbBr3 under Pressure
Smolders, Thijs J.A.M.
University of Bath, GB

Thijs obtained his MSc degree at the Radboud University Nijmegen, which included a brief visit to the University of Sydney. Currently at the University of Bath, he now works on understanding ion migration in halide perovskites, on various length- and time-scales.

Authors
Thijs J.A.M. Smolders a, Matthew J. Wolf a, Alison B. Walker a
Affiliations
a, University of Bath, Department of Physics, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, GB
Abstract

Unlike typical inorganic semiconductors, lead–halide perovskites (LHPs) exhibit significant ionic conductivity, which is believed to affect their performance and stability. Motivated by a recent experimental study that suggested pressure as a means to control ionic conductivity in CsPbBr3 [1], we present a detailed theoretical study of the atomic scale effects of pressure on anion migration in the low temperature orthorhombic Pnma phase of CsPbBr3. Using nudged elastic band calculations based on density functional theory, we compute all symmetrically inequivalent activation barriers for anion migration to their closest neighbours, as a function of hydrostatic pressure in the range 0.0–2.0 GPa. We then use those values as parameters in a kinetic model which allows us to connect the atomic scale calculations to the macroscopic anion mobility tensor as a function of applied pressure.

We find that the mobility is enhanced by pressure in the plane spanned by the [100] and [001] lattice directions, while along the [010] direction it is diminished, leading to an effective 3D-to-2D transition of the mobility at elevated pressures. This can be explained by the fact that a network of only a few symmetrically inequivalent paths dominates the mobility at elevated pressures. Our results demonstrate the significant influence of pressure on both the rate and direction of anion migration in CsPbBr3, which we consider likely to hold for other LHPs.

12:15 - 12:25
B-T2
Conesa, José C.
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC
Cr2+-substituted lead halide perovskites: materials with an in-gap band
Conesa, José C.
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, ES
Authors
José C. Conesa a, Federico M. Serrano-Sánchez b, Joao E. Rodrigues b, c, Carlo Marini d, José L. Martínez b, José A. Alonso b, Gregorio García-Moreno e, Pablo Palacios e, Eduardo A. Menéndez-Proupin f, Ana L. Montero-Alejo f, Perla Wahnón e
Affiliations
a, Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Madrid, ES
b, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain., C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Madrid, ES
c, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (IFSC), Universidade de São Paulo, BR
d, CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron, Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, ES
e, Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid, 28040, ES
f, Universidad de Chile, Grupo de Modelización de Materiales, Santiago de Chile, Santiago de Chile, CL
Abstract

Lead halide perovskites are becoming subject of intense studies as they are reaching outstanding solar performance figures while they are rather easy to prepare, the main issue with them being their fragility. Our group has carried out theoretical calculations on them using hybrid functionals [1], has dealt with MD studies on them [2] and discussed the effects of ferroelectric domains on the diffusion of electrons and holes [3]. We have in addition tried their substitution with transition metals, trying to obtain the so-called in-gap band structure which has shown promise of enhancing PV solar efficiencies [4].

One case that has led to interesting results is that of partial substitution of Pb2+ by Cr2+, which has given, using GW-type calculations including spin-orbit effects, a band structure with the desired characteristics: a moderately narrow band, partially occupied and separated enough from both conduction and valence bands [5].

Then we tried the synthesis of such material, achieving the preparation of a perovskite MAPb1-xCrxBr3-2xCl2x (x=0.25 and 0.5) using mechano-chemical synthesis methods [6]. Its diffractogram agrees with that expected for a perovskite disordered in both halide and metal atoms, with nanocrystal sizes in the 30-50 nm range. Both magnetic measurements and XANES spectra indicate the almost exclusive presence of Cr2+ ions as Pb2+ substituents, with a magnetic transition to an antiferromagnetic state below 40 K which is confirmed by differential specific heat measurements. Most importantly, UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra show a feature at ca. 1.6 eV of photon energy, absent in the perovskite not substituted with Cr, which is accompanied also by a weaker feature at 0.75 eV. These latter results indicate that the desired in-gap band structure has been achieved, especially since the sum of the energies of these two latter features coincides with the overall bandgap of the perovskite. As far as we know, this is the first time that an isovalent substitution of Pb by Cr in a lead halide perovskite has been achieved.

12:25 - 12:35
B-T3
Krückemeier, Lisa
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, DE
Understanding Transient Photoluminescence in Halide Perovskite Layer Stacks and Solar Cells
Krückemeier, Lisa
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, DE, DE
Authors
Lisa Krückemeier a, Benedikt Krogmeier a, Zhifa Liu a, Uwe Rau a, b, Thomas Kirchartz a, b
Affiliations
a, Forschungszentrum Jülich, IEK5-Photovoltaics, Jülich, DE
b, University of Duisburg-Essen and CENIDE, Faculty of Engineering, Duisburg, DE
Abstract

Transient photoluminescence (tr-PL) measurements are among the most popular characterization techniques to monitor the charge-carrier dynamics and investigate recombination losses in halide perovskite layers and layer stacks.[1-3] In particular, it is imperative to better understand and characterize interfacial recombination losses that often limit device performance in finished perovskite solar cells. However, interpretation of PL transients on multilayer samples including interfaces is a complex endeavour due to the superposition of various transient effects that modulate the charge-carrier concentration in the perovskite layer and thereby the measured PL. These effects include bulk and interfacial recombination, charge transfer to electron or hole transport layers and capacitive charging or discharging.[4-6] The combination of these effects leads to substantial deviations from an exponential decay but is rather difficult to describe analytically. Hence, the state-of-the-art of interpretation of tr-PL decays of layer stacks or even full devices is currently still at an early stage. Data interpretation is often restricted to fitting one or several exponential functions to the decay to extract a “lifetime”. This approach causes a loss of information and impedes fully understanding and using the information contained in PL transients.

Here we combine numerical simulations with Sentauraus TCAD and experiments done over ~7 orders of magnitude in dynamic range on a variety of different sample geometries from perovskite films on glass to full devices to present an improved understanding of this method. We propose a presentation of the differential decay time of the tr-PL decay that follows from taking the derivative of the photoluminescence at every time.[7] Plotting this differential decay time as a function of the time-dependent quasi-Fermi level splitting enables us to distinguish between the different contributions of radiative and non-radiative recombination as well as charge extraction and capacitive effects to the decay.

12:35 - 12:45
B-T4
Jiang, Junke
Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e)
Atomistic and Electronic Origin of Phase Instability of Metal Halide Perovskites
Jiang, Junke
Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), NL

Junke Jiang is pursuing PhD at Eindhoven University of Technology. His PhD research focuses on the fundamental understanding of the optoelectronic properties and stability of lead halide perovskite and lead-free perovskites.

Authors
Junke Jiang a, Feng Liu b, Ionut Tranca c, Qing Shen b, Shuxia Tao a
Affiliations
a, Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, 5600MB, Eindhoven, NL
b, Faculty of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo, JP
c, Energy Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL
Abstract

The excellent optoelectronic properties of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have attracted extensive scientific interests and boosted their application in optoelectronic devices. Despite their attractive optoelectronic properties, their poor stability under ambient conditions remains the major challenge, hindering their large-scale practical applications. In particular, some MHPs undergo spontaneous phase transitions from perovskites to non-perovskites. Compositional engineering via mixing cations or anions has been widely reported to be effective in suppressing such unwanted phase transition. However, the atomistic and electronic origins of the stabilization effect remain unexplored. Here, by combining Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) analysis, we provide insights for the undesired phase transition of pristine perovskites (FAPbI3, CsPbI3, and CsSnI3) and reveal the mechanisms of the improved phase stability of the mixed compounds (CsxFA1-xPbI3, CsSnyPb1-yI3, and CsSn(BrzI1-z)3). We identify that the phase transition is correlated with the relative strength of the M-X bonds as well as that of the hydrogen bonds (for hybrid compositions) in perovskite and non-perovskite phases. The phase transition can be suppressed by mixing ions, giving rise to either increased bond strength for the perovskite or decreased bond strength in their non-perovskite counterparts. Our results present a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms for the phase instability of metal halide perovskites and provide design rules for engineering phase-stable perovskite compositions.

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
Photon 1.2
Chair: Sascha Feldmann
12:05 - 12:15
1.2-T1
Gibert-Roca, Martí
Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain
Near Infrared Organic Photodetectors based on Enhanced Charge Transfer State Absorption by Photonic Architectures
Gibert-Roca, Martí
Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain, ES
Authors
Martí Gibert-Roca a, Pau Molet a, Agustín Mihi a, Mariano Campoy-Quiles a
Affiliations
a, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, ES
Abstract

Near infrared photodetectors are key components in many disciplines, from astronomy and material sciences all the way to medical sciences. Current technologies are now striving to include new aspects in this technology such as wearability, flexibility and tuneability. Organic photodetectors easily offer many of those advantages but their relatively high bandgaps hinder NIR operation. In this work, we demonstrate solution processed organic photodetectors with improved NIR response thanks to a nanostructured active layer in the shape of a photonic crystal. The latter strongly increases the charge transfer state absorption, which is normally weak but broadband, increasing the optical path of light, resulting in remarkable photoresponse significantly below the band gap of the blend.[1-4] We show responsibilities up to 50 mA W-1 at 900 nm for PBTTT:PC70BM based photodetectors. Furthermore, by varying the lattice parameter of the photonic crystal structure, the spectral response of the photodetectors can be easily tuned beyond 1000 nm. Furthermore, our photonic structure that can be easily implemented in the device in a single nanoimprinting step, with minimal disruption of the fabrication process, which makes this approach very promising for upscaling.

12:15 - 12:25
1.2-T2
CHU, Audrey
Guided Mode Resonators in Nanocrystal-Based Detectors: From Absorption Enhancement to Spectral Shaping
CHU, Audrey
Authors
Audrey CHU a, b, Charlie Gréboval a, Grégory Vincent b, Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
b, ONERA−The French Aerospace Lab, 6, Chemin de la Vauve aux Granges, BP 80100, F-91123 Palaiseau, France, FR
Abstract

Regarding low-cost infrared photodetection, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), thanks to their large tunability, appear to be a new interesting building-block.[1] However, due to hopping transport, the diffusion length of the carriers in CQD film is short (typically few 10-100 nm). The absorption depth of the light is much larger (few µm). As a result, there is a trade-off between transport and optical absorption: usually thin films are used then, and only few % of the incident light is absorbed.[2] Light-matter coupling based on sub-wavelength resonators are used to tackle this issue.

Our device relies on guided mode resonators (GMR) and is made of a slab of CQDs (waveguide) onto a gold grating. The latter has two roles: it focuses the light into the nanocrystal film increasing its absorption, and it plays the role of electrode. The device is designed to induce a resonance and to achieve 100% of absorption at the targeted wavelength, for one of the polarization.[3] This particular design also enables photoconductive gain to occur. Both those effects generate a boost of responsivity of few orders of magnitude. This method is versatile and can be applied at different wavelengths (1.55 µm SWIR and 2.5 µm extended SWIR) with different materials (HgTe, PbS and a mix of perovskite/PbS).[3,4]

The introduction of nano-resonators not only generates a responsivity enhancement but enable spectral shaping oh this responsivity. First, it is possible to tune the position peak (of few hundreds of nm) by changing geometrical parameters such as the period of the grating.[3] Secondly, polarized devices can be made by inducing unmatched resonances in TE and TM polarizations. Then it is possible to achieve broadband absorption by introducing multi-resonances.

12:25 - 12:35
1.2-T3
Mauck, Catherine
Kenyon College
Donor-acceptor molecular doping enables tunable exciton binding energy in n = 1 lead halide perovskites
Mauck, Catherine
Kenyon College, US
Authors
Catherine Mauck a, William A. Tisdale b
Affiliations
a, Kenyon College, 203 North College Rd, Gambier, US
b, MIT, 77 Mass Ave. Rm. 18-292, Cambridge, 2139, US
Abstract

The strength of electron-hole-pair Coulomb interactions in organic and two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors strongly affects the performance of such excitonic materials in optoelectronic devices. An important target for these materials is the tuning of the exciton binding energy independent of the electronic band gap. By incorporating donor-acceptor interactions into the organic sublattice of a layered lead iodide perovskite, we observe a reduction in exciton binding energy of almost 50%, due to enhanced electrostatic screening of the exciton with greater polarizability in the organic lattice. We present temperature dependent absorption and photoluminescence measurements to investigate the optical effects of this structural modification. The synthetic strategy developed here for 2D hybrid layered perovskites enables highly modular tuning of exciton binding energies with negligible modification of the inorganic structure.The strength of electron-hole-pair Coulomb interactions in organic and two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors strongly affects the performance of such excitonic materials in optoelectronic devices. An important target for these materials is the tuning of the exciton binding energy independent of the electronic band gap. By incorporating donor-acceptor interactions into the organic sublattice of a layered lead iodide perovskite, we observe a reduction in exciton binding energy of almost 50%, due to enhanced electrostatic screening of the exciton with greater polarizability in the organic lattice. We present temperature dependent absorption and photoluminescence measurements to investigate the optical effects of this structural modification. The synthetic strategy developed here for 2D hybrid layered perovskites enables highly modular tuning of exciton binding energies with negligible modification of the inorganic structure.

12:35 - 12:45
Abstract not programmed
12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
SolFuel 1.3
Chair: Sophia Haussener
12:05 - 12:15
1.3-T1
Gimenez, Sixto
Photoelectrochemical production of solar fuels and chemicals with earth-abundant semiconductor materials
Gimenez, Sixto
Authors
Sixto Gimenez a, Miguel Garcia-Tecedor a, Roser Fernandez-Climent a
Affiliations
a, University Jaume I, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

The development of sustainable strategies for the production of added-value chemicals and fuels using renewable resources is particularly attractive to promote a transition towards a more sustainable energetic landscape, overcoming the dependence of fossil fuels at a global scale.[1],[2] One of the most promising alternatives involves the use of renewable electricity (wind, solar, hydropower, etc…) to power electrochemical conversion processes, which convert abundant molecules (e.g., water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) into higher-value products (e.g., hydrogen, hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and ammonia). In all these processes, electrocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation stands out as the preferred reaction to provide the protons and electrons needed for the target reduction reactions. In this context, metal oxides are identified as excellent candidates, since these materials can fulfill most of the needed requirements, although their performance should be significantly improved for a more realistic technological assessment. Consequently, in order to boost the performance of these materials, as a preliminary step, a clear mechanistic understanding of the physical-chemical processes taking place in the bulk and at the interface with the liquid solution is essential. In the present talk, we will address different examples of the metal oxides (TiO2, Fe2O3, BiVO4...) combined with catalytic layers (Fe-Co Prussian Blue,[3],[4] CoOx,[5] Ag3PO4,[6] NiOx,[7], [8] 2D-Sb,[9] etc…), emphasizing the mechanistic insights leading to enhanced performance. Our studies focus on the correlation of the photoelectrochemical response of the materials with a detailed structural, optoelectronic and photoelectrochemical characterization carried out by different microscopic and spectroscopic tools.

12:15 - 12:25
1.3-T2
Gottesman, Ronen
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
Overcoming Phase-purity Challenges in CuBi2O4 Photoelectrodes
Gottesman, Ronen
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE

Born in Canada, Ronen Gottesman received his B.Sc. in Biophysics from the Department of Physics at Bar-Ilan University (BIU), Israel. He later conducted his Ph.D. at BIU in Physical Chemistry on the study of fundamental working mechanisms in photovoltaic systems which are based on nanoporous electrodes and hybrid perovskite absorbers. Currently, as a postdoc in the Institute for Solar Fuels at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) his research topic is new complex metal oxides and oxynitrides photoabsorbers for solar fuels production, and the development of syntheses methods based on PLD+RTP and combinatorial approaches.

Authors
Ronen Gottesman a, Igal Levine b, Markus Schleuning a, Rowshanak Irani a, Daniel Abou-Ras c, Thomas Dittrich b, Dennis Friedrich a, Roel van de Krol a, d
Affiliations
a, Institute for Solar Fuels, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz, 1, Berlin, DE
b, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, Berlin, DE
c, Institute for Solar Fuels, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz, 1, Berlin, DE
d, Technical University of Berlin (TU), Straße des 17. Juni, Berlin, DE
Abstract

We will present an approach to synthesizing single-phase complex metal oxides thin film photoelectrodes and discuss the challenges involved using CuBi2O41 as a model material. CuBi2O4 films with thickness gradients were deposited on 50x50 mm2 FTO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a pure CuBi2O4 target. The relationship between the crystal structure, synthesis conditions, and properties (including photoelectrochemical performance) has been studied over a thickness range of 25 – 250 nm using combinatorial, high-throughput approaches.2 A comparative study with conventional furnace annealing (FA) reveals the importance of radiative heat transfer during rapid thermal processing (RTP)3 at temperatures that exceed the normal thermal stability limit of the substrates (in this case, transparent conductive oxide films on glass). This study shows that single-phase CuBi2O4 is formed after RTP at 650 °C. In contrast, similar films heated up to 12 h by FA at 400 and 500 °C did not, and the films’ thicknesses had a substantial effect on the formation of phase impurities. Phase-pure CuBi2O4 photoelectrodes exhibit higher photocurrents, longer carrier lifetimes, higher photo-conversion efficiency, and better stability than non-pure photoelectrodes. Additionally, pure CuBi2O4 demonstrates typical photocurrent vs. thickness behavior of a single-photoabsorber photoelectrochemical device. However, non-pure photoelectrodes showed an unexpected photocurrent vs. thickness behavior, suggested to derive from different photoelectrochemically active impurity phases in the films.

12:25 - 12:35
1.3-T3
Fermin, David
University of Bristol, United Kingdom
LaFeO3 Thin-Films with Photovoltages Above 1.4 V vs RHE Towards the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.
Fermin, David
University of Bristol, United Kingdom, GB
Authors
David Fermin a, Xin Sun a, Devendra Tiwari a
Affiliations
a, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, GB
Abstract

Fe2O3 based photoanodes have been extensively studied in the context of solar fuels, with a variety of different strategies being proposed to mitigate their limited performance associated with short carrier lifetimes and surface recombination phenomena [1]. On the other hand, significantly less is known about other types of ferrite materials such as perovskites (general formula AFeO3), which typically exhibit p-type conductivity. Our initial studies on phase pure LaFeO3 and YFeO nanostructured electrodes have shown photocurrent responses towards the hydrogen evolution reaction with onset potentials (photovoltages) above 1.2 V vs RHE [2,3]. Despite the high photovoltages, the performance of these perovskites is limited by quantum yields below 1% [2-4]. In this contribution, we will examine different strategies to improve the photocurrent responses in these complex materials including surface modification and A-site substitution.

Our contribution initially focuses on pure rhombohedral LaFeO3 featuring crystalline domains in the range of 60 nm, which are prepared by thermolysis of an ionic-liquid precursor and subsequently deposited onto FTO electrode by spin-coating [5]. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy clearly show a p-type behavior with a flat band potential located at 1.44 V vs RHE. As the potential is swept into the accumulation regime, a faradaic current is observed associated with interfacial hole transfer (i.e. oxygen evolution reaction). Interestingly, a significant increase in the photocurrent responses is observed upon deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 layer by solution-based methods. We demonstrate that TiO2 forms an abrupt heterojunction which act as barrier to hole-extraction, leading to photovoltages of 1.47 V vs RHE, which are among the highest reported for a single absorber. The introduction of Pt clusters further improves the quantum yield, but only in the presence of the TiO2 overlayer. We shall also discuss the effect of introducing divalent cations such as Ca2+, Ba2+ and Sr2+ on the photoelectrochemical responses of LaFeO3 [6]. These cations occupy La sites, introducing significant changes in the density of acceptor states as well as creating deep states associated which strongly accelerates the photoelectochemical oxygen reduction reaction. The complex relation between doping levels and photocurrent efficiency will be briefly discussed.

12:35 - 12:45
1.3-T4
Schnell, Patrick
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
Interfacial SnO2 Formation Limits the Photovoltage of α-SnWO4/NiOX Photoanodes Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Schnell, Patrick
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Patrick Schnell a, b, Moritz Kölbach a, Markus Schleuning a, Keisuke Obata a, Rowshanak Irani a, Ibbi Y. Ahmet a, Moussab Harb c, David E. Starr a, Roel van de Krol a, b, Fatwa F. Abdi a
Affiliations
a, Institute for Solar Fuels, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz, 1, Berlin, DE
b, Technical University of Berlin (TU), Straße des 17. Juni, Berlin, DE
c, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), SA, SA
Abstract

In order to obtain high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies, a suitable semiconducting material with a band gap of 1.7 to 1.9 eV is needed as the top absorber in tandem solar water splitting devices [1]. An interesting candidate is α-SnWO4, a ternary metal oxide with an ideal band gap of 1.9 eV. Recently it was reported that a record photocurrent density of 0.75 mA/cm2 and extended stability can be achieved with NiOx protected films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) [2]. However, the use of NiOx protection layer limits the photovoltage as observed from the cyclic voltammetry and open circuit potential (OCP) analysis. This suggests that the interface between α-SnWO4 and NiOx is not ideal and understanding this interface is crucial to improve the performance further.

In this study, we present a thorough α-SnWO4/NiOx interface investigation by means of synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). These data are complemented with OCP analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Monte-Carlo-based photoemission peak intensity simulation. We found that the deposition of NiOx with PLD introduces a strong upwards band bending (~400 meV) at the interface, which is favorable for charge separation. However, a significant oxidation of Sn2+ to Sn4+ can be simultaneously observed at the interface with increasing NiOx layer thickness. Our photoemission spectra simulation indicates that this can be attributed to the formation of SnO2 at the interface. A ~2 nm-thick SnO2 layer is estimated after the deposition of 20 nm NiOx. The implications of this SnO2 layer to the interface junction properties and the limited photovoltage will be discussed and verified using a series of control experiments. Overall, our findings provide an important insight that future efforts need to be focused on the development of overlayers which do not oxidize the surface of α-SnWO4, in order to further improve the performance of α-SnWO4 photoanodes.

12:35 - 12:45
1.3-T5
Mesa, Camilo A.
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Impact of the Synthesis Route on the Water Oxidation Kinetics of Hematite Photoanodes
Mesa, Camilo A.
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES
Authors
Camilo A. Mesa a, b, Ludmilla Steier a, Benjamin Moss a, Laia Francàs a, c, James E. Thorne a, Michael Grätzel d, James R. Durrant a
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
b, Molecular Sciences Research Hub and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, Londres W12 0BZ, Reino Unido, GB
c, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Campus UAB Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193, ES
d, Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland, CH
Abstract

Artificial photosynthesis, inspired by natural photosynthesis, is considered a promising technology to store solar energy into chemical bonds (e.g., hydrogen) via (photo)electrochemical water splitting. In this process, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) water acts as electron donor and it is considered to be the bottleneck of the process when using metal-oxide photoanodes. The efficiency of these photoanodes does not only depend on the nature of the metal oxide but also on the methodology used to synthesise them due to morphological, surface facets and doping variations, amongst others.[1] However, the mechanism of the OER on metal oxides as well as the nature of the efficiency loses remains elusive.

In this talk, I will present recent advances on the understanding of the kinetics of OER on different metal-oxide photoelectrocatalysts, focusing particularly on hematite synthesised by different deposition methods. A detailed mechanistic analysis of the OER on hematite photoanodes will be presented by the study of the water oxidation rate law under different physicochemical conditions.[2] I will also show evidence of the OER exhibiting equivalent kinetics despite the exhibited different overall performance and the correlation of lower photoanode performance with the presence of intragap states.[3]

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
SolPow 1.2
Chair: Cristina Flox
12:05 - 12:15
1.2-T1
Gouda, Laxman
Tuning the Selectivity of Biomass Oxidation over Oxygen Evolution on NiO-OH Electrodes
Gouda, Laxman
Authors
Laxman Gouda a, Laurent Sévery b, Thomas Moehl b, Elena Mas-Marzá a, Francisco Fabregat-Santiago a, David Tilley b
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
b, Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, CH-8057
Abstract

Energy generation devices have been grown tremendously from fast few decades, but the system is still limited with energy storage devices. Storing energy in the batteries is not the permanent solution, nevertheless energy can’t be store longer period. Only way to store energy for longer period is storing energy in chemical bonds, such as fuels, gas or chemicals. Therefore, concept of electrochemical energy storage device has been rising recently, especially electrochemical organic synthesis, has made a footprint for the green synthesis of value-added chemicals. Impotently these electrochemical processes can be renewable.  Considering, carbon neutral industry promise – biomass has great potential for providing many flatform chemicals. The one of the elements of biomass, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its oxidized form 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is a monomer of biobased polymer and its properties are superior than the PET. We have investigated efficient electrochemical conversion of HMF to FDCA using abundant nickel as a catalyst. We investigated the key factors for tuning the chemical selectivity for HMF oxidation over the competing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the catalyst surface. We show that the selectivity for HMF oxidation is enhanced by removing trace impurities of iron species as well as adjusting the composition of the alkali hydroxide electrolyte solution. LiOH electrolyte without iron impurities is more favorable for HMF oxidation and whereas CsOH with iron species present is more active for OER and unfavorable for HMF oxidation. Under optimized condition we have achieved 98% faradaic efficiency for the production of FDCA from HMF, with iron free 1M LiOH electrolyte (pH 14). This simple approach can be used as model system for other electrochemical organic synthesis, where OER is competing process.

12:15 - 12:25
1.2-T2
Chakraborty, Monalisa
Dep. Advanced Materials for Energy. Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC).
Facing Water Migration Issues In Aqueous zinc-iodide Flow Batteries
Chakraborty, Monalisa
Dep. Advanced Materials for Energy. Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC)., ES
Authors
Monalisa Chakraborty a, Sebastián Murcia-Lopez a, Joan Ramon Morante a, b, Teresa Andreu a
Affiliations
a, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adria del Besos, ES
b, University of Barcelona, Carrer de Martí i Franquès, 1, Barcelona, ES
Abstract

Redox flow batteries offer a reliable solution for future grid-scale energy storage. In comparison with mostly investigated and commercialized vanadium flow batteries, aqueous zinc-iodide flow battery is a highly promising contender due to its cost-effectiveness, environment friendliness, safety, and high energy density. However, there are still obstacles to overcome before utilizing its full potential. Therefore, various research is under investigation to improve the battery design by optimizing its components towards the development of high-performance batteries. Among those cell components, electrolyte has a major contribution in scaling up cell performance. Due to an imbalance of concentration of solutes between the anode and cathode compartments during electrochemical cycling, the differential osmotic pressure results in water migration through the ion-permeable membrane from the compartment with lower ionic strength to the compartment with higher ionic strength, which is usually overlooked by using a static positive compartment, limiting its capacity. The addition of extra solute to the electrolyte solution is a way out to resolve this issue and reach an ionically balanced situation between two compartments. In this work, we have carried out the experimental analysis of a lab-scale Zn-I flow battery as per our theoretical ionic strength calculations to reach an overall balanced system. From the theoretical calculation, it has been proven that by adding extra 2 M potassium iodide (KI) to an electrolyte of 1.5 M ZnI2: KI, the ionic balance between the compartments could be achieved. We have performed electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) technique as a tool to study the solution resistance and ionic conductivity of the half-cell compartments. Further full cell cycling following post-mortem analysis of the half-cell electrolytes ensured no water migration between compartments during cycling, also excellent cycling efficiencies have been achieved. Overall, this mechanism shows an efficient path for the improvement in the electrolyte design in the development of high-performance Zn-I flow batteries, which enlighten a step forward to the research in next-generation aqueous flow batteries.

Keywords: Aqueous Zn-iodide flow batteries, water migration, osmotic pressure, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

12:25 - 12:35
1.2-T3
Ünlü, Feray
University of Cologne
Towards Lead-free Perovskites for Sustainable and Low toxic Solar cell Application
Ünlü, Feray
University of Cologne, DE
Authors
Feray Ünlü a, Ashish Kulkarni b, Sudip Chakraborty c, Sanjay Mathur a
Affiliations
a, University of Cologne, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Greinstraße, 6, Köln, DE
b, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-5 Photovoltaics, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich, DE
c, Materials Theory for Energy Scavenging (MATES) Lab, Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Indore, Khandwa - Indore Road, Simrol, IN
Abstract

Organic-inorganic and all-inorganic lead halide perovskites (APbX3) have made a huge step towards highly efficient emergent photovoltaic (PV) technology with already 25.2% power conversion efficiency. The high defect tolerance as well as their suitable and tunable optoelectronic properties made them an attractive alternative to the silicon and thin film PV technologies. Apart from that, perovskites show versatility in their applications fields e.g. in LEDs or photoconductors but also in energy storage such as perovskite solar cell coupled self-rechargeable batteries. However, one of the major problems encountered with Pb halide perovskites, apart from structural and chemical stability, is the toxicity associated with heavy metal lead. Potentially less toxic bismuth (Bi) halide perovskites were reported to possess promising optoelectronic properties including a high absorption coefficient and can be processed from solution using a variety of wet chemical deposition techniques and additives. In this work, different Bismuth based perovskite-like materials were screened by varying the A-site of the A3Bi2I9 with organic monovalent cations like CH3NH3+ (methylammonium, MA), CH(NH2)2+ (formamidinium, FA), (CH3)2NH2+ (dimethylammonium, DMA), (guanidinium, NH2)3+ (GA), C5H6N (pyridinium, Pyr), new C4H5N2 (pyridazinium, Pyz) and inorganic alkali metal cations for photovoltaic application. Furthermore, Silver bismuth iodides have gained recent attention as a stable alternative to lead perovskite photovoltaics. Ag3BiI6 represents a rudorffite structure and can be used in the same solar cell architecture. Herein, Ag3BiI6 thin films were investigated experimentally and theoretically as solar cell absorbers and their degradation was attributed to ion diffusion of highly mobile AgI.

12:35 - 12:45
Abstract not programmed
12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
12:30 - 12:35
NewOPV Announcement nanoGe
12:35 - 12:45
NewOPV Session Introduction 1.3 - Koen Vandewal
NewOPV 1.3
Chair: Koen Vandewal
12:45 - 13:05
1.3-I1
Yan, He
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry
Achieving non-fullerene organic solar cells with near 18% efficiency
Yan, He
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, HK
Authors
He Yan a
Affiliations
a, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, HK
Abstract

Organic solar cells (OSCs) are flexible, semi-transparent and environmentally friendly devices which can be installed in areas where silicon panels are not suitable (such as glass windows on buildings). Conventional OSCs are based on fullerene acceptors as a key component. However, fullerene-based OSCs can only achieve modest efficiency of 12% at best, due to their large voltage loss (above 0.8V), and poor device stability.

Recently, there has been a major revolution in the OSC field, as researchers developed many high-performance non-fullerene acceptors that can overcome the limitation of traditional fullerene acceptors and open a new era for the OSC field. One of the unique features of non-emerging non-fullerene OSCs is the surprisingly small voltage losses of the devices (~ 0.5V). Since 2016, our team at HKUST has developed a range of non-fullerene systems that can simultaneously generate high photocurrent (near 100% yield) with small voltage losses (first published in Nature Energy). Moreover, we have recently achieved record-breaking OSCs based on a state-of-the-art non-fullerene acceptor, achieving an unprecedented efficiency of 16.7% in single-junction OSC device. Our work clearly indicate that OSCs have the potential to reach the high efficiency of inorganic solar cells.

Our results show that the key factor is the long charge transfer life-time that allows for efficient charge separation despite of a small energy offset. In the other aspect, we study structure-property relationship of high-performance donor and non-fullerene acceptor materials and reveal the key structure features that enable highly efficient non-fullerene organic solar cell devices with over 16% efficiency. With these understandings of mechanism and structure-property relationship, it is feasible to further increase the efficiency of organic solar cells to the range of 18 to 20% in near future.

13:05 - 13:25
1.3-I2
Heeney, Martin
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Developing high performing ladder-type materials as solar cell accetors
Heeney, Martin
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, GB

Martin Heeney is a Professor of Organic Materials Chemistry and Royal Society Wolfson Fellow at Imperial College London. He is a graduate of the University of East Anglia and received his PhD from the same institution in 1999 under the supervision of Prof. Michael Cook. Following eight years in industry, he joined the Materials Department at Queen Mary University of London as a senior lecturer in 2007 before moving to Imperial in 2009. His research interests include the design, synthesis and characterisation of solution processed materials for a variety of applications. He has published over 250 research papers, 5 book chapters and over 100 patents. In 2013 he was awarded the RSC Corday-Morgan Medal for most meritorious contributions to chemistry by a scientist under the age of 40. For the last five years, he has been named by Thomson Reuters as a HighlyCited researcher in the field of Materials Science.

Authors
Martin Heeney a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus London, London, GB
Abstract

Ladder type fused aromatic monomers have been at the forefront of conjugated semiconductor development, finding use as the active component in both transistor and solar applications. Here I discuss our recent efforts to develop flexible synthetic routes to a range of such monomers which allow the ready manipulation of the solubilizing sidechains, as well as the aromatic heterocycle in the fused unit. We show that the nature of the sidechain is important for both donor polymers and non-fullerene acceptors. Changing from commonly used arylalkyl to simple alkyl sidechains is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of materials in single junction solar cells. We also demonstrate that the nature of the fused heterocycle has an important impact on the optoelectronic properties and device properties, highlighting that fused electron rich heterocycles are attractive building blocks for both donor and acceptor materials.

13:25 - 13:45
1.3-I3
Zou, Yingping
Cental South University
A-DA'D-A type acceptor based organic solar cells
Zou, Yingping
Cental South University, CN

Yingping Zou is a full professor in Central South University (CSU). She received her Ph. D. degree from Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS) in 2008 with Prof.Yongfang Li, then performed her postdoctoral research at Laval University from 2008 to 2010 with Prof.Mario Leclerc. She was an assistant professor in 2008 and promoted to full professor in Feb, 2014 in CSU. She did her visiting research in Stanford University from 2012 to 2014, in Stanford University. Currently her researches focus on the organic small molecules/polymers for high performance optoelectronic devices. She has published more than 170 peer-review papers including Nature Photonics, Joule, Nature Communications, J.Am.Chem.Soc, Adv Mater, etc. with more than 6000 citations and H index is 42, and she also obtained more than 10 Chinese invention patents and 3 PCT patents. More than 40 invited/plenary/keynote talks have been delivered. Recently she developed a new molecular strategy, based on this strategy, she obtained word-record NREL efficiency in organic solar cells for several times.

Authors
Yingping Zou a
Affiliations
a, Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China, Yuelu District, Changsha, China, 410083, Changsha, CN
Abstract

Over more than two decades of research, organic solar cells have achieved tremendous progresses in materials & device engineering and applications. For further advance, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic solar cells need to be substantially improved. 

Inspired by the recent success in non-fullerene electron acceptors (NFAs), we have developed a design strategy defined as “A-DA¢D-A” to obtain a series of high-performing NFAs, called as Y series. D = electron donor unit while A and A¢ = electron acceptor unit. The key to this molecular innovation is introducing an electron-deficient moiety (A¢) such as benzotriazole or benzothiadiazole into the central fused ring. Generally, these electron acceptors show extended absorption in the NIR region and provide considerably low energy losses in organic solar cells, hence having set new records for the certified power conversion efficiencies by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

It is worth mentioned that our research on these newly designed electron acceptors has attracted extensive attention. For instance, the research paper on the Y6 acceptor (Joule, 2019, 3, 1140) was cited over 800 times by the others within a very short time since its publication. More importantly, the certified power conversion efficiency of more than 17% has been reported by our fellow researchers based on the commercially available Y6. The underlying role of these acceptors has been actively investigated at home and abroad. While first achieving the 15% PCE in the single-junction solar cells, Y6 appears to be a universal electron acceptor and contributes to developing semi-transparent and flexible organic solar cells.

 

Keywords: Organic solar cells; Power conversion efficiency; Electron acceptor; Bulk heterojunction

 

References

1. Joule, 2019, 3, 1140-1151;

2.Adv. Mater., 2019, 31, 1807577;

3.Joule, 2019, 3, 3020-3033;

4. Nat. Photon., 2020,14,300-305;

5. Nat.Commun, 2019, 10, 570.

13:45 - 14:05
Discussion
13:15 - 13:20
NCFun Short Break
13:15 - 13:20
PerFun Short Break
13:15 - 13:30
Photon Short Break
13:15 - 13:40
SolFuel Short Break
13:15 - 13:20
SolPow Short Break
13:20 - 13:30
NCFun Session Introduction 1.3 - Matthew Beard
13:20 - 13:30
PerFun Session Introduction 1.4
13:20 - 13:30
SolPow Session Introduction 2.3
NCFun 1.3
Chair: Matthew Beard
13:30 - 13:50
1.3-I1
Lian, Tianquan
Emory University
Rational Design of Quantum Dot/Mediator Interfaces for Efficient Triplet- Annihilation-Based Photon Upconversion Systems
Lian, Tianquan
Emory University, US

Tianquan (Tim) Lian received his PhD degree from University of Pennsylvania (under the supervision of Prof. Robin Hochstrasser) in 1993. After postdoctoral training with Prof. Charles B. Harris in the University of California at Berkeley, Tim Lian joined the faculty of chemistry department at Emory University in 1996. He was promoted to associate professor in 2002, full professor in 2005, Winship distinguished research Professor in 2007, and William Henry Emerson Professor of Chemistry in 2008. Tim Lian is a recipient of the NSF CAREER award and the Alfred P. Sloan fellowship. Tim Lian research interest is focused on ultrafast dynamics in photovoltaic and photocatalytic nanomaterials and at their interfaces.

Authors
Tianquan Lian a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Abstract

Photon upconversion, where two or more low energy photons are converted into one high energy photon, shows great potential in bioimaging, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Photon upconversion has traditionally been realized with lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, or organic dye sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) based upconversion platforms. In recent years, QD sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation based upconversion systems have achieved impressive upconversion quantum efficiency and demonstrated many unique advantages, including high photostability, large extinction coefficient, high spectral coverage and tunability, and low singlet-triplet energy gap. In this talk, we discuss our recent work in developing and understanding QD/mediator interface for efficient QD-sensitized photon upconversion. We summarize the main results of time-resolved spectroscopic studies of various factors affecting the rate of triplet energy transfer (TET) from the QD to the surface attached mediator (TET1) and from the mediator to the emitter in solution (TET2). To identify the key design rules, we compare three PbS sensitized upconversion systems using three mediator molecules with the same tetracene triplet acceptor at different distances from the QD. Our results show that the mediator triplet state is mostly formed by direct TET from quantum dot. With increasing distance between the mediator and PbS QD, the efficiency of the TET1 from the QD to the mediator decreases due to a decrease in the rate of this triplet energy transfer step, while the efficiency of the TET2 from the mediator to emitter increases due to a reduction in the QD induced mediator triplet state decay (via the external heavy atom effect). The rate constant of TET2 is three orders of magnitude slower than the diffusion limited value. We show that the effect of QD/mediator on the total unconversion efficiency measured under CW illumination conditions can be well accounted for by the independently determined efficiencies of TET1 and TET2 steps, providing important insight on the design and rational improvement of efficient photon upconversion systems.

13:50 - 14:10
1.3-I2
Roberts, Sean
The University of Texas at Austin
Designing Semiconductor Interfaces for Triplet Energy Transfer
Roberts, Sean
The University of Texas at Austin, US

Sean T. Roberts received his BS in Chemistry from the University of California Los Angeles in 2003 and his PhD in Physical Chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute in Technology in 2010 for work using multidimensional infrared spectroscopy to study proton transport in liquid water with Andrei Tokmakoff. In 2010, Sean was awarded an NSF ACC-F postdoctoral fellowship and undertook a position at the University of Southern California where he worked in the groups of Stephen Bradforth and Alexander Benderskii on collaborative projects organized by the Center for Energy Nanoscience, a DOE supported Energy Frontier Research Center. In 2014, Sean started his independent career at the University of Texas at Austin where he leads a research group that uses and develops ultrafast spectroscopic techniques to understand how the mesoscopic ordering of semiconductor nanomaterials impacts their ability to manipulate energy and transport charge. Sean is a recipient of the NSF CAREER award, was named a Cottrell Scholar in 2018, and has lead projects funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Robert T. Welch Foundation, and the ACS Petroleum Research Fund. Sean has also won numerous teaching awards and currently leads an ACS and NSF-funded education and research program, GReen Energy At Texas (GREAT), that works with community colleges to increase student retention and degree attainment in the physical sciences.

Authors
Sean Roberts a, Emily Raulerson a, Inki Lee a, Danielle Cadena a, Pan Xia b, Devin Coleman b, Carter Gerke c, Mohammed Jabed d, Svetlana Kilina d, Lorenzo Mangolini b, e, Ming Lee Tang b, c
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX, United States, US
b, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California Riverside, United States., US
c, Department of Chemistry, University of California Riverside, United States., US
d, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States., US
e, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, United States., US
Abstract

Singlet exciton fission is a process that occurs in select organic materials wherein a spin-singlet exciton redistributes its energy to form a spin-correlated triplet exciton pair. Incorporating singlet fission materials into light harvesting platforms offers potential to enhance their performance by 40% while singlet fission’s ability to create entangled spin states at room temperature makes it attractive for quantum computing devices. Likewise, singlet fission’s inverse process, triplet fusion, has been used to create photon upconversion systems that produce high-energy excitons from pairs of low-energy photons. Such systems can enable new near-infrared sensors and photocatalysts driven by low-energy light. Intrinsic to the design of any singlet fission or triplet fusion-based device, however, is the exchange of energy, typically in the form of a spin-triplet exciton, between an organic material from an inorganic semiconductor. Hybrid materials consisting of semiconductor quantum dots functionalized with organic molecules are a premier platform for study of this energy transfer process. The high surface to volume ratio of these materials effectively means they consist entirely of interfacial molecules and the energy level tunability of quantum dots allows exploration of how the redox properties of the interface impact energy transfer.

Here, we report results on both PbS and Si quantum dots interfaced with a range of acene and rylene energy acceptors. We find that by tuning the energy level alignment of PbS quantum dots to that of rylene acceptors, the transfer of charge carriers across the interface can be varied by an order of magnitude. Interestingly, electronic structure calculations suggest this rate variation stems from electrostatic effects that both alter interfacial energy level alignment and shift the average orientation of molecules tethered to PbS. For Si quantum dots, energy transfer to acene and rylene acceptors is decidedly slow, unfolding on nanosecond to microsecond timescales due to weak coupling. Nevertheless, this process is highly efficient due to a lack of competing deactivation pathways. Interestingly, we find subtle changes in the structure of the triplet exciton energy acceptor lead to large changes in the energy transfer rate. These rate changes are unexpected on the basis of electronic structure calculations performed on molecules tethered to Si(111) surfaces, suggesting more exotic surface structures may play a key role in facilitating triplet energy transfer from silicon to organic molecules.

14:10 - 14:30
1.3-I3
Dukovic, Gordana
University of Colorado Boulder, US
Trapped-hole diffusion in semiconductor nanocrystals
Dukovic, Gordana
University of Colorado Boulder, US
Authors
Gordana Dukovic a
Affiliations
a, University of Colorado Boulder, US
Abstract

Although colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have been widely studied for three decades, the understanding of their excited-state dynamics continues to evolve. Charge-carrier trap states on nanocrystal surfaces play an essential role in processes such as electron–hole recombination and charge transfer but their dynamics are challenging to probe spectroscopically. Photogenerated holes in CdS and CdSe nanocrystals trap to the orbitals of undercoordinated S and Se atoms on the particle surface on a picosecond timescale. We recently presented evidence that trapped holes on the surfaces of CdS and CdSe nanocrystals are not stationary but instead undergo a diffusive random walk at room temperature. The initial evidence came from interpretation of electron-hole recombination dynamics in transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy data of non-uniform CdS and CdSe nanorods. More recently, temperature-dependent TA data provided insights into the mechanisms of trap-to-trap hole hopping. The experimental data, together with theoretical insights from our collaborators Joel Eaves and coworkers, builds an increasingly precise description of trapped-hole diffusion in nanocrystals. This presentation will feature our most recent progress in this area.

14:30 - 14:50
Discussion
PerFun 1.4
Chair: Mohammad Nazeeruddin
13:30 - 13:50
1.4-I1
Walker, Alison
University of Bath
Multiscale modelling of perovskite solar cells
Walker, Alison
University of Bath, GB

Alison Walker's research is on multiscale modelling of materials and devices, focussing on organic and perovskite opto-electronic and electronic devices. She took her undergraduate and postgraduate degrees at the University of Oxford, followed by postdocs at Michigan State University in the US and at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK.  Then she took up a lectureship at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, moving to the University of Bath in 1998, holding a Royal Society Industry Fellowship with Cambridge Display Technology 2003-2006.  Since then she has coordinated four EU projects, including the currently running Horizon 2020 Innovative Training Network, Maestro,MAking pErovskiteS TRuly explOitable.  She is a partner in the Horizon2020 project EoCoE -II, Energy Oriented Centre of Excellence for Energy, towards exascale for energy and coleads the Centre for Doctoral Training in New and Sustainable Photovoltaics involving 7 UK universities.  In 2019 she chaired the Solar Commission aimed at publicising the role of solar in the UK economy - see her website https://people.bath.ac.uk/pysabw/. She is a member of the physics assessment sub panel for assessing UK research in 2021.  

 

Authors
Alison Walker a, Matthew Wolf a, Lewis Irvine a, Thijs Smolders a
Affiliations
a, University of Bath, Department of Physics, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, GB
Abstract

I will describe our use of multiscale modelling techniques to explore electron and ion dynamics in perovskite materials. My talk will focus firstly on mesoscale modelling of carrier dynamics in halide perovskites using ensemble Monte Carlo methods adapted from inorganic device simulation. I will explain how we can identity the effects of large polaron formation in MAPbI3 on carrier scattering and mobilities, and explore the evolution of hot carrier distribution functions due to carrier-carrier scattering and its effects on carrier cooling. Secondly, I will describe our studies of the influence of hydrostatic pressure on ion migration in CsPbBr3, using a transition matrix based microkinetic model parametrised from the results of DFT calculations. The phase diagram of CsPbBr3 closely resembles the hybrid counterparts, making it a good proxy for studying ion mobility in other halide perovskites.

13:50 - 14:10
1.4-I2
Vaynzof, Yana
Technical University (TU) Dresden
A General Approach to High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells by Any Antisolvent
Vaynzof, Yana
Technical University (TU) Dresden, DE

Since 2019, Yana Vaynzof holds the Chair for Emerging Electronic Technologies at the Technical University of Dresden. Prior to that (2014-2019), she was a juniorprofessor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University (Germany). She received a B.Sc degree (summa cum laude) in electrical engineering from the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (Israel) in 2006, and a M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University, (USA) in 2008. She pursued a Ph.D. degree in physics under the supervision of Prof. Sir. Richard Friend at the Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (UK), and investigated the development of hybrid polymer solar cells and the improvement of their efficiency and stability. Upon completing her PhD in 2011, she joined the Microelectronics group at the University of Cambridge as a Postdoctoral Research Associate focusing on the research of surfaces and interfaces in organic and hybrid optoelectronics. Yana Vaynzof was the recipient of a number of fellowships and awards, including the ERC Starting Grant, Gordon Y. Wu Fellowship, Henry Kressel Fellowship, Fulbright-Cottrell Award and the Walter Kalkhof-Rose Memorial Prize.

Authors
Yana Vaynzof a
Affiliations
a, Integrated Centre for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials and Centre for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technical University of Dresden, Germany, Nöthnitzer Straße, 61, Dresden, DE
Abstract

One of the most common methods for the deposition of perovskite layers in photovoltaic devices is the antisolvent engineering method. In this method, during the spin-coating of the perovskite precursor solution, an antisolvent is dripped onto the sample, triggering the removal of the host solvent and the crystallization of the perovskite layer. A few selected antisolvents have emerged as the most successful in the deposition of high quality perovskite layers, however, they do not seem to share any common properties with both polar and nonpolar, high and low boiling point solvents employed for device fabrication.

In this talk, I will introduce a general method that allows the fabrication of highly efficient perovskite solar cells by any antisolvent. Through a detailed study of perovskite films and devices fabricated by 14 different antisolvents, we identify the two key antisolvent properties that influence the deposition procedure that would lead to the formation of high quality perovskite films. When taking these properties into account, each antisolvent can be utilized to produce high performance devices with efficiencies up to 22%.

14:10 - 14:30
1.4-I3
Grancini, Giulia
University of Pavia, Italy
2D/3D Hybrid Perovskite Dynamical Interfaces Stable and Efficient Solar Cells
Grancini, Giulia
University of Pavia, Italy, IT

Giulia is Associate Professor at Physical Chemistry Unit at University of Pavia, leading the PVsquared2 team, and running the European Grant ERCStG Project “HYNANO”aiming at the development of advanced hybrid perovskites materials and innovative functional interfaces for efficient, cheap and stable photovoltaics. Within this field, Giulia contributed to reveal the fundamental lightinduced dynamical processes underlying the operation of such advanced optoelectronic devices whose understanding is paramount for a smart device development and for contributing to the transition of a green economy.

Giulia received an MS in Physical Engineering in 2008 and obtained her PhD in Physics cum laude in 2012 at the Politecnico of Milan. Her experimental thesis focused on the realisation of a new femtosecond-microscope for mapping the ultrafast phenomena at organic interfaces. During her PhD, she worked for one year at the Physics Department of Oxford University where she pioneered new concepts within polymer/oxide solar cell technology. From 2012-2015, she was a post-doctoral researcher at the Italian Institute of Technology in Milan. In 2015, she joined the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) with a Co-Funded Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellowship. From 2016 to 2019, she has been awarded by the Swiss Ambizione Energy Grant providing a platform to lead her independent research group at EPFL focused on the developemnt of new generation hybrid perovskite solar cells.

She is author of 90 peer-reviewed scientific papers bringing her h-index to 44 (>13’000 citations), focused on developement and understanding of the interface physics which governs the operation of new generation solar cells.

Recently, she received the USERN prize in Physical Science, the Swiss Physical Society Award in 2018 for Young Researcher and the IUPAP Young Scientist Prize in Optics. She is currently USERN Ambassador for Italy and board member of the Young Academy of Europe.

More can be found at https://pvsquared2.unipv.it.

Weblink: https://people.epfl.ch/giulia.grancini?lang=en

Authors
Giulia Grancini a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, IT
Abstract

Solar energy can lead a “paradigm shift” in the energy sector with a new low-cost, efficient, and stable technology. Nowadays, three-dimensional (3D) methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells are undoubtedly leading the photovoltaic scene with their power conversion efficiency (PCE) >25%, holding the promise to be the near future solution to harness solar energy [1]. Tuning the material composition, i.e. by cations and anions substitution, and functionalization of the device interfaces have been the successful routes for a real breakthrough in the device performances [2]. However, poor device stability and still lack of knowledge on device physics substantially hamper their take-off. Here, I will show a new concept by using a different class of perovskites, arranging into a two-dimensional (2D) structure, i.e. resembling natural quantum wells. 2D perovskites have demonstrated high stability, far above their 3D counterparts [3]. However, their narrow band gap limits their light-harvesting ability, compromising their photovoltaic action. Combining 2D and 3D into a new hybrid 2D/3D heterostructure will be here presented as a new way to boost device efficiency and stability, together. The 2D/3D composite self-assembles into an exceptional gradually

organized interface with tunable structure and physics. To exploit new synergistic function, interface physics, which ultimately dictate the device performances, is explored, with a special focus on charge transfer dynamics, as well as long term processing happening during aging. As shown in Fig.1, when 2D perovskite is used on top of the 3D, an improved stability is demonstrated. 2D perovskite acts as a sheath to physically protect the 3D underneath. In concomitance, we discovered that the stable 2D perovskite can block ion movement, improving the interface stability on a slow time scale. The joint effect leads to PCE=20% which is kept stable for 1000 h [3,4]. Incorporating the hybrid interfaces into working solar cells is here demonstrated as an interesting route to advance in the solar cell technology bringing a new fundamental understanding of the interface physics at multi-dimensional perovskite junction. The knowledge derived is essential for a deeper understanding of the material properties and for guiding a rational device design, even beyond photovoltaics.

14:30 - 14:50
Discussion
Photon 1.3
Chair: Hernán Míguez
13:30 - 13:50
1.3-I1
Garnett, Erik
Center for Nanophotonics, AMOLF, The Netherlands
Understanding and controlling hot-electron photochemical reactions with nanophotonics
Garnett, Erik
Center for Nanophotonics, AMOLF, The Netherlands, NL
Authors
Erik Garnett a
Affiliations
a, Center for Nanophotonics, AMOLF, The Netherlands, Science Park, 104, Amsterdam, NL
Abstract

Plasmonic resonances can decay by internal damping mechanisms that create hot-electrons. Although these excited charge carriers typically relax on the femtosecond to nanosecond timescale, they can alter both chemical reaction rates and selectivity, which may prove useful for solar fuels. There is an ongoing and vigorous debate over the mechanism(s) causing the observed reactivity perturbations. Several possibilities proposed include: direct plasmon energy transfer to specific molecular adsorbate states, hot-electron (either thermal or non-thermal) transfer to molecular adsorbates, elevated local temperature and increased local electric field. This talk will discuss recent results in our group using single particle spectroscopy and finite element simulations to try and understand and control hot-electron driven chemistry, while looking towards further possibilities for the future.

13:50 - 14:10
1.3-I2
Congreve, Dan
Applications of Triplet Fusion Upconversion
Congreve, Dan
Authors
Dan Congreve a, b, Sam Sanders a, Mahesh Gangishetty a, Andrew Pun c, Luis Campos c, Ben Ravetz c, Emily Churchill c, Tom Rovis c
Affiliations
a, Rowland Institute at Harvard, Massachusetts, US, Edwin H Land Boulevard, 100, Cambridge, US
b, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, US
c, Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, US, Broadway, 3000, New York, US
Abstract

Upconversion, the process of turning two low energy photons into one high energy photon, has the potential to revolutionize a number of fields, from optogenetics and bioimaging to anti-counterfeit and displays. Significant hurdles, however, stand between its current implementation, most often in non-polar solvents in air-free vials, and applications in the real world. In this talk, we will detail our attempts to identify and solve these hurdles and show the benefits to various technologies that result when these hurdles can be overcome.

First, we synthesize a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives. These materials are straightforward to synthesize, stable, and easily tunable. By adjusting the pendant groups, we show that the emissive properties can be tuned in ~20 nm steps across the orange-red portion of the spectrum. Further, these materials are stable to air and moisture, opening up real world applications. We show that these materials upconvert with efficiencies on the same order as rubrene. 

Next, we turn to in situ implementation. Any interaction of upconversion with biological materials must be done in an aqueous environment, yet the most efficient molecules are all hydrophobic. This has been addressed via the introduction of upconversion into micelles or nano-encapsulants, yet these materials typically suffer from either low efficiency or low optical clarity, scattering the input excitation beam and limiting applications. We demonstrate a facile micellular synthesis that maintains both high optical clarity and high upconversion efficiency. By driving a high boiling point solvent into the core of the micelle, we maintain strong solvation of the materials and thus efficient upconversion. At the same time, we keep the size of the micelles low, allowing for optical clarity across 10 cm of solution. We demonstrate that this straightforward technique works for five different upconversion systems spanning the visible regime.

Finally, we demonstrate initial efforts into turning these foundational improvements into real world applications. We show that the application of upconversion to photochemistry allows reactions to be performed using only near infrared light, opening up these reactions to in vivo applications.

 

 

14:10 - 14:30
Discussion
SolPow 1.3
Chair: Anders Bentien
13:30 - 13:50
1.3-I1
Dahiya, Ravinder
BEST Group, University of Glasgow
Energy Generating Large Area Electronic Skin
Dahiya, Ravinder
BEST Group, University of Glasgow, GB
Authors
Ravinder Dahiya a
Affiliations
a, University of Glasgow, James Watt School of Engineering, GB
Abstract

Tactile or electronic skin is needed to provide critical haptic perception to robots and amputees, as well as in wearable electronic systems that are used for health monitoring and wellness applications. Energy autonomy of skin is a critical factor in these application to enable portability and longer operation times. This lecture will present an energy autonomous electronic skin based on a novel structure, consisting of graphene based transparent tactile sensitive layer integrated on photovoltaic cells. Transparency of the touch sensitive layer allows the photovoltaic cell to effectively harvest light. The touch sensitive layer requires ultralow power (20 nW/cm2) for its operation and this leads to surplus energy generation by the photovoltaic cells underneath. The lecture will also present our advanced version of electronic skin, where no touch sensor is used and yet the innovative arrangement of solar cells allows touch sensing from large areas. Given that there is not separate touch sensor, this advanced version of electronics skin does not consume any energy for sensing operation and instead only produces energy. If this skin is present over large areas, as human skin is present over whole body, then it could generate sufficient energy to power devices such as actuators used in robotics and prosthetics. Such scenarios enabled by the energy autonomous electronics skin integrated on robotic hand will be presented in the lecture along with the tasks such as grabbing of soft objects.

13:50 - 14:10
1.3-I2
Flox, Cristina
New insight on solar charge vanadium redox flow batteries prototyping
Flox, Cristina
Authors
Sebastian Murcia-Lopez a, Félix Urbain a, Nina M Carretero a, Cristina Flox a
Affiliations
a, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adria del Besos, ES
Abstract

The photovoltaic (PV) module directly integrated of solar conversion and electrochemical energy storage provides a new and promising insight towards solar energy utilization. Particularly, solar rechargeable redox flow batteries (SRFB) offer a cost-effective and compact solution to solve the photovoltaic intermittency issues. Despite of the large state of the art of SRFB, the actual technology is hampered by low efficiencies and “extra” potential is required for charging the battery. Among, all RFB, all vanadium is the chemistry most development and most mature, being worldwide commercialized. The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) presents a standard cell potential is 1.26 V, which in practise could arise up to 1.7V. This operational potential is extremely high to pair with PV commercial modules, supposing a great challenge for the solar recharging process. Herein, the design of several configurations using different materials will be presented, obtaining results quite encouraging towards the realization of the Solar-charged -VRFB (SVRFB). Two approaches have been followed: (1) inexpensive Cu(In,Ga)Se2 modules disposed in 3 and 4 series-connected cells, allowing the full unbiased photocharge under 1 Sun illumination. The resulted SVRFB device can deliver excellent energy efficiency (77%) and solar-to-charge efficiency (7.5%) [1]; (2) Triple junction TF silicon solar cell under illumination (300 mW cm-2), operating at 25 mA cm-2 as bias free-photocurrent [2]. In that case, the energy density achieved values up to 54 Wh L-1, while the solar-to-output electricity efficiency was roughly 10%. Finally, several strategies to increase the photocharge of the negative half-cell reaction in Vanadium redox flow batteries is discussed [3].

14:10 - 14:30
Discussion
13:40 - 13:50
SolFuel Introduction Session 1.4
SolFuel 1.4
Chair: James Durrant
13:50 - 14:10
1.4-I1
Mulfort, Karen
Argonne National Laboratory
Influence of the second coordination sphere and beyond in the mechanism of H2 generation by molecular cobalt catalysts
Mulfort, Karen
Argonne National Laboratory, US

Karen Mulfort is a Chemist in the Solar Energy Conversion Group at Argonne National Laboratory in the USA. She earned her B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 2001 and Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 2008, followed by a Director's Postdoctoral Fellowship at Argonne. Karen was promoted to Assistant Chemist in the Division of Chemical Sciences and Engineering at Argonne in 2010 and Chemist in 2015. Her current research program investigates molecular and supramolecular architectures in systems for artificial photosynthesis. Karen and her work have been recognized with a 2009 Young Investigator Award from the Inorganic division of the American Chemical Society, the 2018 Rising Star Award from the Women Chemists Committee of the American Chemical Society, and the 2018 Early Career Research Program from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Authors
Karen Mulfort a, Andrea Potocny a, Jens Niklas a, Oleg Poluektov a
Affiliations
a, Division of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Argonne National Laboratory, South Cass Avenue, 9700, Lemont, US
Abstract

This talk will describe our group’s recent efforts in the design and mechanistic evaluation of new molecular, macrocyclic Co(II) catalysts for aqueous H2 generation. These catalysts were designed to incorporate redox-active bipyridine groups which are linked by nitrogen groups, both components which can participate in electron and proton transfer steps in the catalytic cycle. In comparing two molecular catalysts that differ by only one linking nitrogen, single crystal analysis reveals a profound impact on the molecular geometry, which in turn influences their relative catalytic activity. Photocatalysis experiments show that both catalysts are highly active for aqueous proton reduction at moderate pH levels, with the closed macrocycle reaching almost 2 x 104 turnovers of H2 when photo-driven by [Ru(2,2’-bipyridine)3]2+ using ascorbate as an electron relay and a phosphine compound as the terminal electron donor.  Measurements of the electrocatalytic activity were used to investigate key steps in the mechanism of proton reduction, and from a detailed analysis of these experiments we propose a mechanism for catalytic proton reduction to H2 that involves both intramolecular proton and electron transfer steps between the macrocycle ligand to the cobalt center. We will also describe how substituting pyrazine groups for the pyridyl groups in the macrocycle influence the redox properties of the macrocycle ligand, and in turn the photocatalytic activity. This work demonstrates the vital role of the second coordination sphere in the catalytic cycle, and places these relatively simple complexes on the pathway toward molecular catalysts that mimic the valuable features of enzymatic catalysis.

14:10 - 14:30
1.4-I2
Toma, Francesca
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
(Photo)electrocatalysis at Work: Understanding Chemical Transformations
Toma, Francesca
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US
Authors
Francesca Toma a
Affiliations
a, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Berkeley, US
Abstract

Carbon neutral energy sources that are scalable, deployable, and cost effective will be required at an unprecedented scale to halt irreversible climate change. To positively affect the status quo, polycrystalline, yet defective and heterogeneous, semiconductor materials are excellent candidates for targeting high efficiency, as well as low production cost, and long lifetimes of the device. However, understanding and controlling how defects, chemical heterogeneity, and microenvironments affect the efficiency and durability of integrated systems for real applications is still challenging. Yet is a necessary task to address mankind’s energy needs. This seminar will focus on the opportunities offered by the utilization of sunlight for solar fuel production. We will discuss the synthesis and the advanced characterization of integrated semiconductors and catalysts for (photo)electrocatalytic systems as they can be used under realistic operating conditions for solar fuel production.

14:30 - 14:50
Discussion
14:30 - 14:35
Photon Closing
14:30 - 14:35
SolPow Closing
15:00 - 16:30
ePoster Session
 
Wed Oct 21 2020
08:30 - 08:35
NewOPV Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
PerEmer Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
PerFun Opening nanoGe
NewOPV Session 2.1
Chair: Stylianos Choulis
08:35 - 08:45
2.1-T1
Hultmark, Sandra
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Suppressing Co-crystallization of Halogenated Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Thermally Stable Ternary Solar Cells
Hultmark, Sandra
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, SE
Authors
Sandra Hultmark a, Sri Harish Kumar Paleti a, Albert Harillo a, Sara Marina a, Ferry Anggoro Ardy Nugroho a, Yanfeng Liu a, Leif Ericsson a, Ruipeng Li a, Jaime Martín a, Jonas Bergqvist a, Christoph Langhammer a, Fengling Zhang a, Liyang Yu a, Mariano Campoy-Quiles a, Ellen Moons a, Derya Baran a, Christian Müller a
Affiliations
a, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Fysikgränd, 3, Gothenburg, SE
Abstract

 

Solution-processed organic solar cells display low thermal stability largely because the nanostructure of the active layer blend changes upon heating. While photovoltaic blends based on non-fullerene acceptors such as indacenodithienothiophene-based ITIC derivatives are touted as more thermally stable than those based on fullerenes, they readily crystallize even far below their nominal glass transition temperature . This can result in a gradual decrease in photovoltaic performance and affects the reproducibility of the devices. We study two halogenated ITIC derivatives that readily co-crystallize upon mixing, which indicates that the use of an acceptor mixture alone does not guarantee the formation of a disordered mixture. The addition of the donor polymer to the acceptor mixture readily suppresses the crystallization which results in a fine-grained ternary blend with nanometer-sized domains that do not coarsen due to a high  ~ 200 ºC. As a result, annealing at temperatures of up to 170 ºC does not markedly affect the photovoltaic performance of ternary devices, in contrast to binary devices that suffer from acceptor crystallization in the active layer. Our results indicate that the ternary approach enables the use of high-temperature processing protocols, which are needed for upscaling and high-throughput fabrication of organic solar cells. Further, ternary devices display a stable photovoltaic performance at 130 ºC for at least 205 hours, which indicates that the use of acceptor mixtures allows to fabricate devices with excellent thermal stability.

  

08:45 - 08:55
2.1-T2
Rodríguez-Martínez, Xabier
Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain
High-Throughput Optimization of Organic Solar Cells Using a Novel Microfluidic-Assisted Blade Coating Platform
Rodríguez-Martínez, Xabier
Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain, ES
Authors
Xabier Rodríguez-Martínez a, Semih Sevim b, Xiaofeng Xu c, d, Carlos Franco b, Paula Pamies-Puig a, Laura Córcoles-Guija a, Romen Rodriguez-Trujillo a, e, Francisco Javier del Campo f, g, h, David Rodriguez San Miguel b, Andrew deMello b, Salvador Pané i, David B. Amabilino j, Olle Inganäs c, Josep Puigmartí-Luis b, Mariano Campoy-Quiles a
Affiliations
a, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, ES
b, ETH Zurich, Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg, 1, Zürich, CH
c, Linköping University, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), SE-581 83, Linköping, Linköping, SE
d, Ocean University of China, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Song Ling Lu, 238, Qingdao Shi, CN
e, University of Barcelona (UB). Dept. Electronics, Martí i Franquès, 1. 08028 Barcelona. Spain, ES
f, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Esfera UAB, Carretera de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, ES
g, BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, UPV/EHU Science Park, Spain., Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, ES
h, IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, ES, Bilbao, ES
i, ETH Zurich, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Tannenstrasse, 3, Zürich, CH
j, University of Nottingham, School of Chemistry, University Boulevard, GB
Abstract

The donor:acceptor ratio in organic solar cells has a strong influence on the device performance. Such feature mostly determines the fraction of light harvested and the efficiency of charge photogeneration and transport to the electrodes in archetypal bulk heterojunction devices. Accordingly, the donor:acceptor ratio requires careful screening each time a novel blend breaks into the state-of-the-art of the organic photovoltaic community. While traditional experimentation relies on the intense prototyping of devices with well-controlled blending ratios to tailor performance, that is still a highly resources-inefficient approach incompatible with the massive screening of donor:acceptor blend combinations, especially when only small synthetic batches of the materials under study are readily available.

Here, we present a novel thin-film processing approach that merges microfluidic technologies with blade coating to generate controllable lateral compositional libraries in solid-state. [1] This approach serves to realize controllable, lateral compositional gradients in films of polymer:small molecule and all-polymer organic photovoltaic blends, thus demonstrating an outstanding versatility. These gradients are exploited to perform the high-throughput optimization of composition in organic solar cells by adopting a measuring-intensive screening scenario. As a result, the optimization process takes place more than one order of magnitude faster than classical Edisonian experimentation. Furthermore, the procedure demonstrates an unbeatable, efficient use of resources as it only requires ca. 2 mg per material to complete the compositional optimization study.

08:55 - 09:05
2.1-T3
Prete, Michela
University of Southern Denmark, SDU NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute
Photochemical and mechanical stabilization of organic solar cells using naturally-occurring antioxidants
Prete, Michela
University of Southern Denmark, SDU NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, DK
Authors
Michela Prete a, Elisa Ogliani b, Mikkel Bregnhøj c, Subham Dastidar d, Michael A. Brook e, Anne Ladegaard Skov b, Peter R. Ogilby c, Adam Printz d, Vida Turkovic a, Morten Madsen a
Affiliations
a, SDU NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern, Alsion, 2, Sønderborg, DK
b, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK
c, Aarhus University - DK, Nordre Ringgade, 1, Aarhus, DK
d, The University of Arizona., The University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721.
e, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
Abstract

In the future of printable electronics, organic solar cells (OPV) – due to their low cost, light weight and mechanical flexibility - hold as the technology with the greatest potential. The latest recorded performances of 18.2 % for single junction and 17.3 % for multijunction cells, disclose the great potential of this technology for future commercialization and filling of the gap left by their silicon counterparts. However, besides a multitude of great advantages, a weak point of OPV is their stability. Among the different stabilization routes, photochemical degradation of organic solar cells can be inhibited by blending stabilizing additives such as antioxidants, radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers, UV absorbers in the active layers [1], resulting in drastically improved cell lifetimes. The presence of such additives can reduce and slow down the degradation processes arising from singlet oxygen and radical chain oxidation processes, which are pronounced under illumination in the presence of oxygen. The importance of this approach is underlined by the fact that encapsulation can only partially block oxygen from entering the cells. Once the oxygen permeates the devices, its diffusion is related to the morphological properties of the layers which are strongly affected by the mechanical stressing they are exposed to. In real working conditions, in addition to oxygen and illumination, the flexible OPV devices are exposed to mechanical stresses. These different degradation mechanisms are expected to interact and foster each other, e.g. mechanical crack formation and delamination, formation of macro radicals and photochemical degradation. This, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. 

The presented work reports on the implementation of a naturally occurring additive in the active layers of two different bulk heterojunction solar cell systems, and elucidates their photochemical stabilization mechanisms [2, 3]. Furthermore, combined photochemical and mechanical stabilization of the cells is investigated. A new additive is designed, combining functional groups that inhibit interaction of the active layer materials with oxygen and the ones that promote mechanical elasticity. Relatively small loss in initial PCE and improvements in the device lifetime upon such combined stabilization is achieved. The reported results are supported with a study of the intrinsic mechanical properties of the active layer (tensile modulus) combined with its intrinsic adhesion properties (cohesive energy measurements) upon addition of stabilizing additives. The improved mechanical and photochemical stability sets out a promising direction for highly flexible and stable OPV devices.

09:05 - 09:15
2.1-T4
Ahmadpour, Mehrad
Southern University of Denmark
Sputtered metal oxide interlayers for scalable organic photovoltaic devices
Ahmadpour, Mehrad
Southern University of Denmark
Authors
Mehrad Ahmadpour a, Michela Prete a, Mariam Ahmad a, Andre Luis Fernandes Cauduro b, Jani Lamminaho a, Brian Julsgaard c, Peter Balling c, Horst-Günter Rubahn a, Andreas K. Schmid b, Vida Turkovic a, Nadine Witkowski d, Morten Madsen a
Affiliations
a, University of Southern Denmark, SDU NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, Alsion, 2, Sønderborg, DK
b, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Center for Electron Microscopy, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, US
c, Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy and iNano, Denmark, Ny Munkegade, 120, Aarhus, DK
d, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP), Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
Abstract

The introduction of non-fullerene acceptors (NFA) has significantly improved the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells recently, reaching now above 18% for single-junction devices. While these developments have provided a strong boost to the OPV field, more efforts have to be devoted to the stability and up-scaling of such high performance NFA OPV devices, which includes development of interlayers that deliver in these areas. Metal oxide thin films have been widely used in OPV devices where they act as contact layers selective to either hole or electron transport (HTL and ETL, respectively), and thus support efficient carrier extraction. Well-known examples are titanium, TiOx, and molybdenum, MoOx, oxides, used in both organic and perovskite solar cells, with new variations appearing as the technologies develop further. In recent work, we have demonstrated that sputtered metal oxides thin films may act as interlayers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, supporting both efficient and stable carrier extraction from such cells.

Here, recent progress made on reactively sputtered metal oxide hole1 and electron2 transport layers is presented. In both systems, a strong correlation between initial material composition and annealing condition to the microstructure of the films is given, leading to a pronounced improvement in their carrier extraction capabilities. Supported by a variety of surface science characterization studies, the importance of the energy band alignment, work function, microstructure, oxygen vacancies, optical and electrical properties and intrinsic stability on their performance as contact layers in OPV devices is discussed. A new crystalline TiOx layer is shown to lead to an efficient electron extraction without s-shape current-voltage characteristics, in striking contrast to established TiOx interlayers. Furthermore, for both sputtered MoOx HTL and TiOx ETL interlayers, a pronounced improvement on OPV stability is demonstrated, leading to prolonged lifetime for both fullerene and non fullerene based OPV devices. In order to meet the requirements on scalable OPV development, the up-scaling of these new metal oxide interlayer systems is also discussed, considering recent results on industrially relevant OPV device development3

09:15 - 09:25
2.1-T5
Würfel, Uli
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany
Detailed characterization of a >1cm^2 organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell with record certified efficiency based on commercially available materials
Würfel, Uli
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany, DE
Authors
Uli Würfel a, b, Jared Faisst a, b, Mathias List a, b
Affiliations
a, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany, Heidenhofstraße, 2, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE
b, University of Freiburg, Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, Freiburg, 79104, DE
Abstract

The efficiency of organic solar cells has been increased strongly in recent years, mostly by smart choice of new acceptor materials that show strong complimentary absorption with regard to the donor material.

We have used the absorber material combination D18:Y6 and fabricated solar cells with >1cm2 active area. The devices were measured in our lab and encapsulated before being sent over to the calibration lab at Fraunhofer ISE. The certified efficiency we reached is higher than the record value listed in the last version of the Solar Efficiency Tables [1].

To quantify the remaining optimization potential further measurements were carried out. Light beam induced current (LBIC) was used to reveal the homogeneity of current generation over the active area. Further, electro- and photoluminescence (EL & PL) spectroscopy were applied. Due to the HOMO levels of donor and acceptor being very close together [2], hybridization of the charge transfer state (CT state) with the local exciton state of the acceptor occurs [3]. This leads to a strong CT state emission which is advantageous for characterization via PL. Indeed, in contrast to many other absorber materials, here we observed PL and EL emission essentially at the same wavelength. For the PL, our aim was to disentangle the part of the signal that scales with the density of free charge carriers and therefore delivers important information about the operational state of the device.

09:25 - 09:55
Discussion
08:35 - 08:45
PerEmer Session Introduction 1.1 - Constantinos Stoumpos
08:35 - 08:45
PerFun Session Introduction 2.1
PerEmer 1.1
Chair: Constantinos Stoumpos
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Mercier, Nicolas
University of Angers, France
Lead and halide deficient three-dimensional hybrid perovskites
Mercier, Nicolas
University of Angers, France, FR

Nicolas Mercier (Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry, 1994 -Le Mans-) is Professor at the University of Angers (France). His major interests is the synthesis, crystallography, and structure−property relationships of organic-inorganic materials including coordination complexes/polymers and hybrid perovskites (HP). He started working in the field of HP in 2002, showing the key role of organic cations to tune the band gap of 2D HPs and the potential of such hybrids in the field of SHG switchable materials and in the field of ferroelectrics. Recently, he has discovered a new family of lead and iodide deficient hybrid perovskites (3D d-HP) for PSC and PeLED applications.

Authors
Nicolas Mercier a
Affiliations
a, University of Angers, France, Angers, FR
Abstract

In the context of perovskite solar cells (PSC), we have discovered an unprecedented family of lead and iodide deficient 3D hybrid perovskites (d-HP family), owning a general formulation (A’)3.48x(A)1-2.48x[Pb1-xI3-x], where A= MA+ , FA+, and A’= X-(CH2)2NH3+ (X= OH (HEA+), SH (TEA+) or CN (CNEA+).[1] Such (A’,A)1+x[Pb1-xI3-x] perovskites result from the substitution of x (PbI)+ units by x organic cations, while keeping a 3D network of corner-sharing octahedra. In the structure, Pb2+ and I- vacancies are ordered leading to an unusual tetragonal unit cell (14/14/6). DFT investigations show that a direct band gap is kept in these materials while Eg values increases as x is increasing. Low-temperature magneto-optical spectroscopy of crystals of d-HP with varying concentration of (PbI) vacancies in high magnetic fields up to 68 T has revealed the coexistence of 3D-like optical transitions at low energy (1.54 eV) and lower dimensional (LD) transitions at high energy (1.9 eV- 2.4 eV), the intensity variation between the LD and 3D-like transitions being related to the concentration of (PbI) vacancies. The reduced dimensionality associated with the high energy transitions is also supported by the observed smaller diamagnetic shift and charge carrier lifetimes.[2]

These d-HP can be prepared as pure crystallized powder phases as well as thin films in the 0<x£0.20 range. The more interesting phases are those based on FA+, called d-α-FAPI-H and d-α-FAPI-T (H: HEA, T: TEA). In contrast with α-FAPI, the synthesis of these d-α-FAPI phases are carried out at room temperature. Moreover, we show that the stability of the α phase at room temperature and under ambient condition (thin films, case of d-α-FAPI-Tx materials) is exceptionally improved compared to both α-FAPI and α-Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 reference materials.[3]

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Szafrański, Marek
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Physics
New Properties of Halide Perovskites under Pressure
Szafrański, Marek
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Physics, PL
Authors
Marek Szafrański a
Affiliations
a, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Physics, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego, 2, Poznań, PL
Abstract

The discovery of spectacular photovoltaic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites has actuated intensive studies on the whole family of halide perovskites. These materials are characterized by remarkable diversity of optoelectronic parameters and have a great potential for numerous technological application. The crystal structures of halide perovskites of a general formulae ABX3 (A is a monovalent organic/inorganic cation, B is a divalent metal, and X = Cl, Br or I) are formed from the three-dimensional network of corner-sharing BX6 octahedrons with the cations A situated within the cages. The bond lengths and the angles between the bonds in the perovskite framework can be modified by high pressure without any chemical interference. Therefore, the lattice compression is a clean way of tuning electronic structure and properties responsible for photovoltaic performance. The high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments is an excellent tool to obtain precise information on the symmetry of phases and their stability regions, and on the changes in the bond lengths and angles. These structural parameters, determined as a function of pressure, provide experimental basis for correlation with optoelectronic properties of materials, as well as for theoretical modelling. In response to external pressure the perovskite framework is modified through the contraction of B-X bonds or/and bending of B-X-B bridges between the BX6 octahedrons. Numerous high-pressure studies have evidenced that the shortening of bonds B-X narrows the bandgap, whereas it is widened by the B-X-B angle bending. The resultant bandgap modification depends on the contributions of these competitive pressure effects [1,2]. Our diffraction studies supported by optical observations provided also a new insight into the transformations of the perovskite structures. The occurrence of slow-kinetics transformations and the coexistence of phases are discussed in the context of the possible origins of numerous considerable discrepancies between the high-pressure studies reported in the literature.

09:25 - 09:45
Discussion
PerFun 2.1
Chair: Sam Stranks
08:45 - 09:05
2.1-I1
Unger, Eva
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
Insight into perovskite thin film growth enables rational process design
Unger, Eva
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Eva Unger a, b, Janardan Dagar a, Katrin Hirselandt a, Aboma Merdasa a, Rahim Munir a, Jinzhao Li a, Florian Mathies a
Affiliations
a, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, Berlin, DE
b, Lund University, Department of Chemical Physics and NanoLund, Sweden, Lund, SE
Abstract

The surge of perovskite solar cell device performance has been facilitated through breakthroughs in process engineering. Most process optimization has been carried out for spin-coating, which is the most common deposition technique used in metal-halide perovskite solar cell fabrication in labs around the world. Through a series of experiments using a small-footprint optical monitoring setup [1], we were able to gain insight into common perovskite precursor solutions and deposition strategies. For the most commonly used deposition method in perovskite solar cell manufacturing, spin-coating, we were able to distinguish different regimes of spin-coating from optical signatures. Process parameters like the spin-coating speed and precursor solution concentration critically determine wet film thinning and perovskite crystallization. We studied the effect of anti-solvent drip timing on the formation mechanism of metal-halide perovskite semiconductors for two different standard precursor solutions: MAPbI3 and (Cs,MA,FA)Pb(Br,I)3.[2] Our results enabled us to rationalize the much better reproducibility of (Cs,MA,FA)Pb(Br,I)3 perovskite precursor solutions demonstrating that the halide ratio critically affects the fraction of solvate intermediate phase formed during crystallization. Other process parameters rarely considered, such as the timing of moving samples to a hotplate after spin-coating, were found to have a substantial influence on device performance as the compositional homogeneity is strongly affected.[3] Our in-depth insights into spin-coating of metal-halide perovskites prove to be of high value when translating processing strategies to scalable manufacturing methods such as slot-die coating and inkjet printing.

09:05 - 09:25
2.1-I2
Galagan, Yulia
Perovskite Solar Cells from Lab to Fab: the Main Challenges and Solutions
Galagan, Yulia
Authors
Yulia Galagan a
Affiliations
a, National Taiwan University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taipei, TW
Abstract

 

The interest in perovskite photovoltaics has significantly increased over the last few years. High power conversion efficiencies (PCE) and low-cost manufacturing make perovskite PVs a very promising candidate for future applications. Despite the very advantageous features of perovskite materials, several issues still need to be solved before the commercialization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The main challenges of bringing perovskite technologies to the market are (i) scaling-up of the cells and modules dimension, (i) usage of lead in the perovskite solar panels, and (iii) stability of the PSC modules. These three challenging topics will be discussed in the presentation, and possible solutions to overcome these issues will be proposed. The implementation of the proposed measures will help to demonstrate the feasibility of high-volume production. It is an important milestone towards the industrial manufacturing of perovskite photovoltaics and their future commercialization.

09:25 - 09:45
2.1-I3
Katz, Eugene A.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Dept. of solar energy and envronmental physics, Inst. for desert research
How to Assess Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells: Understanding Their Degradation Pathways
Katz, Eugene A.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Dept. of solar energy and envronmental physics, Inst. for desert research, IL

Eugene A. Katz received his MSc degree (1982) in Semiconductor Materials Science and Ph. D. (1990) in solid state physics from the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys. In 1995, he joined the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and has been working in the Department for Solar Energy and Environmental Physics ever since (now as a full professor). His research interests include a wide range of photovoltaic materials and devices, such as organic and perovskite-based photovoltaics, concentrator solar cells operated at ultra-high solar concentration (up to 10,000 suns), etc. He has published more than 120 peer-reviewed papers on these topics. In 2018 Prof. Katz was awarded the IAAM Medal (by the International Association of Advanced Materials) for the outstanding research in the field of New Energy Materials & Technology.

Authors
Eugene A. Katz a, b
Affiliations
a, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Swiss Inst. for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 8499000, IL
b, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Be'er-Sheva 8410501, IL
Abstract

The talk will review consensus procedures for planning, conducting, and reporting stability testing of perovskite solar cells (PSC) recently formulated by a broad research community [1]. In particular, the suggested protocols highlight the importance of testing for: (1) Redistribution of charged species upon application of electric fields [2]; (2) distinguishing between degradation induced by various stress factors, (3) reversible degradation with qualitatively different recovery dynamics [3,4]. The recommended protocols are not meant to replace existing qualification standards, but rather to contribute to developing an understanding of PSC degradation mechanisms. Acceptance of these protocols and sharing the suggested datasets will facilitate inter-laboratory coordination and assist in the accumulation of PSC stability data acquired under well-defined and comparable conditions. This would allow the application of advanced approaches to analyzing large data sets, such as machine learning methods, and accelerate the development of stable PSC devices.

 

References

M. V. Khenkin, E. A. Katz, A. Abate, G. Bardizza, J. J. Berry, C. J. Brabec, F. Brunetti, V. Bulović, Q. Burlingame, A. Di Carlo, R. Cheacharoen, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Colsmann, S. Cros, K. Domanski, M. Dusza, C. J. Fell, S. R. Forrest, Y. Galagan, D. Di Girolamo, M. Grätzel, A. Hagfeldt, E. von Hauff, H. Hoppe, J. Kettle, H. Köbler, M. S. Leite, S. (Frank) Liu, Y.-Lin Loo, J. M. Luther, C.-Q. Ma, M. Madsen,  M. Manceau, M. Matheron, M. McGehee, R. Meitzner, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. F. Nogueira, Ç. Odabaşı, A. Osherov, N.-G. Park, M. O. Reese, F. De Rossi, M. Saliba, U. S. Schubert, H. J. Snaith, S. D. Stranks, W. Tress, P. A. Troshin, V. Turkovic, S. Veenstra, I. Visoly-Fisher, A. Walsh, T. Watson, H. Xie, R. Yıldırım, S. M. Zakeeruddin, K. Zhu and M.  Lira-Cantu. Consensus on ISOS Protocols for Stability Assessment and Reporting for Perovskite Photovoltaics. Submitted.

M. V. Khenkin, K.M. Anoop, E. A. Katz and I. Visoly-Fisher. Bias Dependent Degradation of Various Solar Cells: Lessons for Stability of Perovskite Photovoltaics. Energy & Environmental Science, v. 12, No. 2, p. 550-558 (2019).

M. V. Khenkin, K.M. Anoop, I. Visoly-Fisher, S. Kolusheva, Y. Galagan, F. Di Giacomo, O. Vukovic, B. R. Patild, G. Sherafatipourd, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahnd, M. Madsen, A. Mazanik and E. A. Katz. Dynamics of photoinduced degradation of perovskite photovoltaics: from reversible to irreversible processes. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 1, 799-806 (2018).

M. V. Khenkin, K. M. Anoop, I. Visoly-Fisher, Y. Galagan, F. Di Giacomo, B. R. Patil, G. Sherafatipour, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahn, M. Madsen, T. Merckx, G. Uytterhoeven, J. P. A. Bastos, T. Aernouts, F. Brunetti, M. Lira-Cantu and E. A. Katz. Reconsidering Figures of Merit for the Performance and Stability of Perovskite Photovoltaics. Energy & Environmental Science, 11, 739-743 (2018).

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
09:30 - 09:35
SolFuel Opening nanoGe
SolFuel 2.1
Chair: Leif Hammarström
09:35 - 09:45
2.1-T1
Yang, Wooseok
University of Zurich
Operando Characterization of Multilayer Thin Film Photocathodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Impedance Spectroscopy
Yang, Wooseok
University of Zurich, CH
Authors
Wooseok Yang a, David Tilley a
Affiliations
a, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse, 190, Zürich, CH
Abstract

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one technology to produce clean hydrogen fuel from abundant sunlight and water. To fabricate an efficient and stable photoelectrode for PEC water splitting, a multilayer structure, consisting of a protection layer (e.g., TiO2) and a catalyst layer (e.g., Pt), is generally required. However, despite the importance of understanding the photo-physics underlying these multilayer photoelectrodes, the detailed analysis of them under operando condition is challenging due to the complexity of the device structures. In this talk, we demonstrate the versatility of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method for investigating multi-layered photocathodes for PEC water splitting. By carefully analyzing the EIS data of various photocathodes with different classes of light absorbers, such as metal chalcogenide (Sb2Se3), metal oxide (Cu2O), and crystalline Si, we were able to obtain information about the constituent semiconductors such as carrier lifetimes, doping densities, flat band potentials, and charge transfer rate constant under operando conditions. The EIS analysis presented in this study has made significant progress in establishing proper EIS models describing the realistic photo-physical behavior in complex multi-layered photocathodes.

09:45 - 09:55
2.1-T2
Cendula, Peter
Analytical Model For Photocurrent-Voltage And Impedance Response Of Illuminated Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface Under Small Voltage Bias
Cendula, Peter
Authors
Peter Cendula a, Prangya P Sahoo a, b, Gabriel Cibira a
Affiliations
a, University of Zilina, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Slovakia, Univerzitná, 1, Zilina, SK
b, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Application, Dúbravská cesta, 5807, Bratislava, SK
Abstract

Semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces attract intense interest to convert solar energy tochemicalfuels. Althoughmanyanalyticalmodelsdescribingthephotocurrent-voltage response of these devices exist, they have difficulty to reproduce full numerical simulations under small anodic bias. 

We recently derived an analytic model of a weakly absorbing n-type semiconductor/electrolyte interface with a slow rate of water oxidation reaction, fast direct recombination rate and under small anodic bias [1]. Excellent overlap of our model was demonstrated with full numerical simulations. Our model enabled us to simplify calculation of the impedance of the semiconductor/electrolyte interface derived in the work of Bertoluzzi et al[2]. The comparison of analytic and measured impedance allows to extract the reaction rate for redox reaction from the dark impedance and the direct bulk recombination constant of the semiconductor from the impedance under illumination.

This work provides easy-to-use recipe for the quantitative comparison of the recombination and reaction properties of the different semiconductor photoelectrodes by impedance spectroscopy and a starting point for development of even more general analytical models covering other recombination pathways and larger bias range in the future.

 

09:55 - 10:05
2.1-T3
Francàs Forcada, Laia
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)
Water splitting: role of the catalyst and mechanistic studies
Francàs Forcada, Laia
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), ES
Authors
Laia Francàs Forcada a, b
Affiliations
a, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Campus UAB Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193, ES
b, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, South Kensington, Londres, Reino Unido, GB
Abstract

Hydrogen and other solar fuels have been highlighted as one of the future energy vectors. Having natural photosynthesis as inspiration, we can develop a device capable to split water using sunlight, obtaining oxygen and hydrogen. [1], [2] Different strategies can be used to achieve this: from separated light harvesting and catalytic systems to all integrated devices able to transform directly sunlight into fuels. These systems can be built with a variety of (photo)electrodes such as organic based material, chalcogenides or metal oxides. 

Although rapid progress is being made in the field, the efficiency of artificial systems still remains modest. Understanding of the limiting factors of these materials has allowed remarkable improvements in their performance. However, compared to of molecular systems, whose reaction mechanisms are better understood, there is still a lack of knowledge in the metal oxides mechanism of action.

In this talk I will focus on the use of the combined electrochemical and optical technique to probe the catalytic function of metal oxides for solar-to-fuel synthesis.[3-4] This technique opens a new possibility of studying multielectron reaction mechanisms on non-ideal metal oxides. I will show how using this combined technique we can elucidate the rate law of current flow in these systems and how our analysis can shed light into the reaction mechanism of photoelectrochemical solar fuels production. [5] From these studies I will discuss the key role of the catalyst through different examples. [6-8]

All this acquired knowledge will help to depict the mechanism of action of non-ideal metaloxides and so to systematically improve the next generation of photoelectrodes for water splitting.

 

10:05 - 10:15
2.1-T4
Obata, Keisuke
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
Multiphase Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Product Crossover in Solar-driven Membrane-less Water Splitting Devices
Obata, Keisuke
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Keisuke Obata a, Amel Mokeddem a, b, Fatwa Abdi a
Affiliations
a, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, Berlin, DE
b, Polytech de Nantes, Department of Thermal and Energy Engineering, Rue Christian Pauc, Nantes, FR
Abstract

Photoelectrochemical water splitting offers a great potential to store the intermittent solar energy as chemical fuels, i.e., hydrogen.To this end, tremendous efforts have been devoted to develop efficient light-absorbing semiconductors and electrocatalysts, which have resulted in various demonstrator devices with appreciable solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies.[1] Although it is not always discussed in these devices, efficient and safe separation of products from anode and cathode is also an essential requirement. Commercial electrolyzers employ separators, such as ion exchange membranes and diaphragms, between electrodes to avoid forming explosive product mixtures. However, implementing these separators in large scale photoelectrochemical devices may add extra complexity and potential loss. Alternatively, a hydrodynamic control can be introduced without having separators, in which products are collected from the outlet through the continuous electrolyte flow before they get mixed. The feasibility of such approach has been confirmed in previous numerical simulation reports.[2][3] However, these studies only considered dissolved gases, and gas bubbles were ignored. Also, the orientation of the device, i.e., whether the device has to be tilted from horizontal orientation for efficient solar absorption, was not considered. In tilted devices, product gas bubbles may largely influence the crossover due to the buoyancy force on the bubbles.

In this study, two-dimensional Euler-Euler multiphase fluid dynamic simulations, which calculate the volume fractions of liquid and gas phases, were introduced to investigate the crossover in a solar-driven membrane-less water splitting device. Our simulations revealed that, although overlooked in previous reports, gas bubbles contribute more to the crossover rather than dissolved gases. We also performed an extensive evaluation of various important parameters that affect the overall product crossover, e.g., the device tilt angle, bubble diameter, bubble formation efficiency, etc. For example, we found that smaller gas bubbles suppress the crossover due to the stronger momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases. This suggests the potential benefit of using surfactants, which are known to decrease the bubble diameter, for efficient product separation in membrane-less devices. Based on our two-dimensional model, we also performed a dimensionless analysis in order to obtain a more universal picture of the membrane-less device, and we were able to present an operational design space for efficient product separation (< 1% crossover). Overall, our study highlights the critical importance in understanding and controlling the bubble formation under operating conditions to design efficient membrane-less water splitting devices.

10:05 - 10:15
2.1-T5
García-Tecedor, Miguel
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Small perturbation techniques as powerful tools for the investigation of PEC systems
García-Tecedor, Miguel
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES
Authors
Miguel García-Tecedor a, Sixto Giménez a
Affiliations
a, University Jaume I, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

Small perturbation techniques have been widely employed as powerful tools in the understanding of the mechanisms behind the relevant chemical reactions in (photo)electrochemical (PEC) systems, as the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER), the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) and the CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2 RR). This contribution is focused on the relevant mechanistic insights that can be extracted from the analysis of relevant materials for the OER, as BiVO4, TiO2 and Ni-based electrocatalysts, with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS). By analyzing a specific system, an equivalent circuit model can be designed and then, different parameters, as resistance and capacitances, can be extracted, giving relevant information from the different physical processes which take place during the studied reaction, as charge extraction, injection, or recombination. The combination of small perturbation techniques with conventional electrochemical methods is crucial for decoupling the different physical processes involved during the studied reactions.  

10:15 - 10:45
Discussion
PerEmer 1.2
Chair: Omer Yaffe
09:45 - 09:55
1.2-T1
Ghosh, Biplab
Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), Research Technoplaza, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Direct Band Gap Mixed-Valence Organic–inorganic Gold Perovskite as Visible Light Absorbers
Ghosh, Biplab
Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), Research Technoplaza, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, SG
Authors
Biplab Ghosh a, Benny Febriansyah a, Padinhare Harikesh a, Teck Koh a, Shreyash Hadke a, b, Lydia Wong a, c, Jason England d, Subodh Mhaisalkar a, c, Nripan Mathews a, c
Affiliations
a, Energy Research Institute / Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, SG
b, NTU Singapore - Nanyang Technological University, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Avenue, 50, Singapore, SG
c, NTU Singapore - Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Avenue, 50, Singapore, SG
d, NTU Singapore - Nanyang Technological University, Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Link, 21, Singapore, SG
Abstract

Lead-free perovskites are receiving ever increasing attention after inspiring success of lead-based halide perovskites, mostly due to atmospheric instability and lead toxicity associated with the latter. Despite significant progress in homovalent and heterovalent substitution of Pb with non-toxic elements, stable lead-free perovskites with an ideal bandgap (1.2-1.4 eV) for photovoltaics are still missing. In this work, we report organic-inorganic gold halide double perovskites ((CH3NH3)2Au2X6, X = Br, I) which shows ideal bandgap for photovolltaics. In contrast to other double perovskites, two different oxidation states (+1 and +3 for perovskite structure) of Au is stacked alternatively to form a halogen-bridged perovskite structure. These compounds are solution processable and show bandgap tunability by halide exchange. Density functional theory calculations confirm the direct nature of bandgaps of the compounds with small effective mass for excellent charge transport. In addition, the Au-halide perovskites show high chemical stability, low trap density, and reasonable photoresponse. These combined properties demonstrate that Au-based halide perovskites can be a promising group of compounds for optoelectronic applications.

09:55 - 10:05
1.2-T2
McCall, Kyle
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Lone-Pair-Induced Structural Ordering in the Mixed-Valent 0D Metal-Halides Rb23BiIIIxSbIII7-xSbV2Cl54 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7)
McCall, Kyle
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH
Authors
Kyle McCall a, b, Bogdan Benin a, b, Michael Woerle a, Dominique Borgeaud dit Advocat a, Thomas Vonderach a, Kostiantyn Sakhatskyi a, b, Sergii Yakunin a, b, Detlef Guenther a, Maksym Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Switzerland, CH
b, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
Abstract

Mixed-valent metal-halide semiconductors containing ns2 lone pairs exhibit intense absorption bands with unusual colors, while zero-dimensional (0D) ns2-based metal-chlorides are colorless but have recently demonstrated unique properties that are promising for optoelectronic applications such as broadband lighting, thermometry, and radiation detection. Here, we solvothermally synthesize a new family of mixed-valent alkali pnictogen halides with composition Rb23BiIIIxSbIII7-xSbV2Cl54 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7). The deep red Rb23SbIII7SbV2Cl54 crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group (Cmcm) with a unique, layered 0D structure driven by the repulsion of the 5s2 lone pairs of the SbIIICl6 octahedra. In contrast to the prototypical Cs4SbIIISbVCl12 tetragonal structure with its highly symmetric octahedral environments, here the SbIIICl6 octahedra exhibit trigonal or disphenoidal distortion, yielding layers with distinct orientations of the octahedra as these asymmetric units pack around the SbVCl6 octahedra. This complex phase is likely the true structure of a previously reported monoclinic red “Rb2.67SbCl6” phase, the structure of which was not determined. Partially or fully substituting SbIII with isoelectronic BiIII yields the series Rb23BiIIIxSbIII7-xSbV2Cl54 (0 < x ≤ 7), which exhibit a similar layered 0D structure but with rotational disorder that yields a trigonal crystal system with a polar space group (R32). Second harmonic generation of 532 nm light from a 1064 nm laser using Rb23BiIII7SbV2Cl54 powder confirms the non-centrosymmetry of this space group. As with the prototypical mixed-valent pnictogen halides, the visible absorption bands of the Rb23BiIIIxSbIII7-xSbV2Cl54 family are the result of intervalent SbIII-SbV and mixed-valent BiIII-SbV charge transfer bands (CTB), with a blueshift of the absorption edge as BiIII substitution increases. No PL is observed from this family of semiconductors, but a crystal of Rb23BiIII7SbV2Cl54 exhibits a high resistivity of 1.0 x 1010 Ωcm and X-ray photoconductivity with a promising μτ product of 8.0 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 V-1. The unique 0D layered structures of the Rb23BiIIIxSbIII7-xSbV2Cl54 family highlight the versatility of the ns2 lone pair in semiconducting metal-halides, pointing the way towards new functional 0D metal-halide compounds.

 

10:05 - 10:15
1.2-T3
Van Gompel, Wouter
Hasselt University, IMO, Diepenbeek, BE
2D layered perovskite containing functionalised benzothieno-benzothiophene molecules: formation, degradation, optical properties and photoconductivity
Van Gompel, Wouter
Hasselt University, IMO, Diepenbeek, BE, BE
Authors
Wouter Van Gompel a, Roald Herckens a, Paul-Henry Denis a, Martijn Mertens a, Kristof Van Hecke b, María Gélvez-Rueda d, Bart Ruttens a, c, Jan D'Haen a, c, Ferdinand Grozema d, Laurence Lutsen c, Dirk Vanderzande a, c
Affiliations
a, U Hasselt – Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO-IMOMEC), BE, Agoralaan – Building D, Diepenbeek, BE
b, Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Belgium, Krijgslaan 281-S3, Ghent, BE
c, Imec division IMOMEC (partner in Solliance & EnergyVille), Wetenschapspark, 1, Diepenbeek, BE
d, Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), The Netherlands, NL
Abstract

2D layered hybrid perovskites (2D HOIPs) are currently in the spotlight for applications such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, transistors and photodetectors. The structural freedom of 2D HOIPs allows for the incorporation of organic cations that can potentially possess properties contributing to the performance of the hybrid as a whole. In this talk, the incorporation of a benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) alkylammonium cation into the organic layer of a 2D HOIP will be discussed. Obtaining highly crystalline films of a 2D HOIP containing such a BTBT cation proved to be challenging. We hypothesized that the limited mobility of this bulky and rigid organic cation hinders the formation of an ordered structure during film formation. In order to provide enhanced mobility to the components during film formation, we employed a combination of a solvent vapour atmosphere with thermal annealing. Films obtained using this solvent vapour annealing approach possess significantly enhanced absorption, emission and crystallinity compared to films obtained using regular thermal annealing. The photoconductivity of the films was determined using time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) as well as in a device. In both cases, the solvent vapour annealed films show a markedly higher photoconductivity than the films obtained using the regular thermal annealing approach. The formation and degradation of the 2D layered perovskite films was studied in detail using in-situ absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

10:15 - 10:25
1.2-T4
Spanopoulos, Ioannis
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States
Water Stable 1D Hybrid Tin(II) Iodide Emits Broad Light with 36% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield
Spanopoulos, Ioannis
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States, US
Authors
Ioannis Spanopoulos a, Ido Hadar a, Weijun Ke a, Peijun Guo b, Siraj Sidhik c, Mikaël Kepenekian d, Jacky Even e, Aditya Mohite c, Richard Schaller b, Mercouri Kanatzidis a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, United States, Sheridan Road, 2145, Evanston, US
b, Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Nanoscale Materials, 9700 South Cass Avenue Bldg 440, Lemont, Illinois 60439, US
c, Rice University, Houston, US, Main street, 6100, Houston, US
d, Univ Rennes, ENSCR, INSA Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes), Rennes F-35000, France, FR
e, Univ Rennes, INSA Rennes, CNRS, Institut FOTON - UMR6082, France, FR
Abstract

The optical and light emission properties of tin and lead halide perovskites are exceptional because of the robust room temperature performance, broad wavelength tunability, high efficiency and good quenching-resistance to defects. These highly desirable attributes promise to transform current light emitting devices, phosphors and lasers. One disadvantage in most of these materials is the sensitivity to moisture. Here we report a new air-stable one-dimensional (1D) hybrid lead-free halide material (DAO)Sn2I6 (DAO: 1,8-octyldiammonium) that is resistant to water for more than 15h. The material exhibits a sharp optical absorption edge at 2.70 eV and a strong broad orange light emission centered at 634 nm, with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 142 nm (0.44 eV).  The emission has a long photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of 582 ns, while the intensity is constant over a very broad temperature range (145-415 K) with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of at least 20.3% at RT. Above 415 K the material undergoes a structural phase transition from monoclinic (C2/c) to orthorhombic (Ibam) accompanied by a red shift in the bandgap and a quench in the photoluminescence emission. Thin films of the compound readily fabricated from solutions exhibit the same optical properties, but with improved PLQY of 36%, for a 60 nm thick film, among the highest reported for lead-free low-dimensional 2D and 1D perovskites and metal halides. These results demonstrate the versatile nature of hybrid halide materials, laying the path for the design of next generation of water stable lead-free semiconductors.  

10:25 - 10:55
Discussion
09:55 - 10:00
RSC Contributed Talk Video
10:00 - 10:10
NewOPV Session Introduction 2.2 - Vida Engmann
PerFun 2.2 A
Chair: Eva Unger
10:05 - 10:15
A-T1
Kahmann, Simon
University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Broad Emission Bands in Two-Dimensional Perovskites and the Role of Exciton Self-Trapping
Kahmann, Simon
University of Groningen, The Netherlands, NL
Authors
Simon Kahmann a, Maria Antonietta Loi a
Affiliations
a, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, Nijenborgh, 7, Groningen, NL
Abstract

We address a controversy surrounding the luminescence properties of low-dimensional halide perovskites and clarify that an often-observed broad luminescence arises from defect states instead of commonly invoked self-trapped excitons.

Whereas initial research into two-dimensional perovskites was predominantly driven by efforts to employ their narrow emission linewidth for LEDs or to boost the stability of their three-dimensional counterparts in photovoltaics, the latest hotly examined observation is the presence of broad emission bands. This broad emission has the potential for direct white light generation and significant research is currently conducted to find and optimise compounds for this purpose. Crucially, these efforts commonly base on the assumption that the origin of this luminescence is a so-called self-trapped exciton. Whilst this concept is elegant and theoretical calculations have offered some support, experimental evidence for this interpretation is so far scarce.

We therefore studied single-crystals of two-dimensional lead iodide perovskites through a variety of spectroscopic techniques and prove that the broad emission is in fact due to defect states in the bulk of the material. We study two compounds with different A-site cation and further vary the halide to underline the universality of our findings and meticulously exclude all other origins of broad emission bands that have hitherto been proposed.

Our work sheds light on the role of electron-phonon interactions and defect states in lead-based perovskites as well as an improved understanding of the luminescence properties of these compounds.

10:15 - 10:25
A-T2
Wright, Adam
University of Oxford
Novel Absorption Feature due to Intrinsic Quantum Confinement in FAPbI3
Wright, Adam
University of Oxford, GB
Authors
Adam Wright a, George Volonakis b, c, Juliane Borchert a, Christopher Davies a, Feliciano Giustino b, d, e, Michael Johnston a, Laura Herz a
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, GB
b, University of Oxford - Department of Materials, Parks Road, Rex Richards Building, Oxford, 0, GB
c, Univ Rennes, ENSCR, INSA Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes), Rennes F-35000, France, FR
d, The University of Texas at Austin, US
e, The University of Texas at Austin, US
Abstract

Perovskite nanostructures have been engineered for LEDs, lasers and photodetectors[1], their reduced dimensionality resulting in quantum confinement of charge carriers which yields dramatically different optoelectronic properties, including enhanced photoluminescence quantum yield[2] and lower thresholds for amplified spontaneous emission[3]. Although the creation of such perovskite nanostructures has clear advantages, it often relies on challenging top-down fabrication methods. It would therefore be highly advantageous if instead nanoscale domains were found to form intrinsically through self assembly in the perovskite.

In this study[4], I report the discovery of intrinsically-occurring nanostructures in FAPbI3, which exhibit quantum confinement effects manifested as an oscillatory absorption feature above the band gap. These features are present at room temperature but sharpen and become more apparent as the temperature is lowered towards 4 K. I demonstrate that the energetic spacings and temperature-dependence of the peaks vary in a manner consistent with quantum confinement intrinsically associated with the lattice of the material. I suggest the origin of this confinement to be nanodomains with an extent of approximately 10-20 nm. This interpretation is supported by correlating absorption spectra against ab initio calculations based on the bandstructure of FAPbI3 in the presence of infinite barriers, and simulations for superlattices with moderate barrier heights. I further explore ferroelectricity/ferroelasticity and delta-phase twin boundaries as two possible causes of these domains. Altogether, such absorption peaks present a novel and intriguing quantum electronic phenomenon in a nominally bulk semiconductor, offering intrinsic nanoscale optoelectronic properties without necessitating cumbersome additional processing steps.

10:25 - 10:35
A-T3
Bisquert, Juan
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Spectral Correlation of Electooptical Frequency Techniques in Perovskite Solar Cells Beyond Impedance Spectroscopy
Bisquert, Juan
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES

Juan Bisquert (pHD Universitat de València, 1991) is a Professor of applied physics at Universitat Jaume I de Castelló, Spain. He is the director of the Institute of Advanced Materials at UJI. He authored 360 peer reviewed papers, and a series of books including . Physics of Solar Cells: Perovskites, Organics, and Photovoltaics Fundamentals (CRC Press).  His h-index 95, and is currently a Senior Editor of the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. He conducts experimental and theoretical research on materials and devices for production and storage of clean energies. His main topics of interest are materials and processes in perovskite solar cells and solar fuel production. He has developed the application of measurement techniques and physical modeling of nanostructured energy devices, that relate the device operation with the elementary steps that take place at the nanoscale dimension: charge transfer, carrier transport, chemical reaction, etc., especially in the field of impedance spectroscopy, as well as general device models. He has been distinguished in the 2014-2019 list of ISI Highly Cited Researchers.

 

Authors
Juan Bisquert a
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

The dynamic response of metal halide perovskite devices shows a variety of physical responses that need to be understood and classified for enhancing the performance and stability and for identifying new physical behaviours that may lead to developing new applications. These responses are the outcome of complex interactions of electronic and ionic carriers in the bulk and at interfaces. Based on a systematic application of frequency modulated techniques and time transient techniques to the analysis of kinetic phenomena, we present a picture of the dominant effects governing the kinetic behaviour of halide perovskite devices. First with impedance spectroscopy we provide an interpretation of capacitances as a function of frequency both in dark and under light, and we discuss the meaning of resistances and how they are primarily related to the operation of contacts in many cases. Working in samples with lateral contacts, we can identify the effect of ionic drift on changes of photoluminescence, by the creation of recombination centers in defects of the structure. We also address new methods of characterization of the optical response by means of light modulated spectroscopy. The IMPS is able to provide important influence on the measured photocurrent. We apply the dynamic picture to the characterization of perovskite memristors. A memristor is a device that has different metastable states at a voltage V. It has a resistance that depends on the history of the system, and the states can be switched by applied voltage. It is simpler than a transistor in that the control occurs by 2 contacts. As a summary we suggest an interpretation of the effects of charge accumulation, transport, and recombination, how these effects influence the current-voltage characteristics and time transient properties, and we suggest a classification of the time scales for ionic/electronic phenomena in the perovskite solar cells.

10:35 - 10:45
A-T4
Alvarez, Agustin O.
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Transport and interfacial effects in Perovskite Solar Cells
Alvarez, Agustin O.
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES

Agustin O. Alvarez got his Licentiate degree in Physics at University of Córdoba, Argentina, in 2017. His final degree project was into the Medical Physics field. After that, he worked for 17 months at the Sustainable Energy Laboratory, University of Córdoba, into the Lithium-Ion Batteries field. Since September 2018, he is doing a PhD under the supervision of Prof. Francisco Fabregat-Santiago and co-direction of Elena Mas Marzá at the Universitat Jaume I of Castelló, Spain. Most of his current research activities are focused on the characterization and modelling of perovskite solar cells.

Authors
Agustin O. Alvarez a, Clara A. Aranda b, c, Ramón Arcas a, Vivek Babu d, Loengrid Bethencourt e, Elena Mas-Marzá a, Konrad Wojciechowski d, Michael Saliba b, c, Francisco Fabregat-Santiago a
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
b, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-5 Photovoltaics, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich, DE
c, Universität Stuttgart, Institute für Photovoltaik (IPV), 70569 Stuttgart, Alemania, Stuttgart, DE
d, Saule Technologies, Mokotowska 1, Warsaw, 00-640, Warszawa, PL
e, Universidad de la República, Grupo de Desarrollo de Materiales y Estudios Ambientales, Departamento de Desarrollo Tecnológico, CURE, Uruguay, Ruta 9 Km 207, Rocha, UY
Abstract

Current-voltage measurement and impedance spectroscopy (IS) are two closely related techniques. In this talk, we first show how different external contacts in Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) change the extracted-current transport resistance and the corresponding effects in the IS and the jV curve.[1] Hysteresis is the difference between the jV scan measured form short circuit to open circuit conditions (forward scan) and the opposite direction scan (reverse scan). Normal hysteresis, improved FF and Voc in the reverse scan compared to the forward scan, is commonly observed in PSCs. This hysteresis has been related to the low-frequency capacitance in the IS response.[2, 3] Inverted hysteresis, which improves FF and Voc in the forward scan, as well as negative capacitance at the IS low-frequency domain, are also familiar features in PSC, but their origin is still under discussion. In this talk, we show the emergence of these responses in two separate experiments employing different PSCs formulations. By mean of the Surface Polarization Model[4, 5] we expose that these features have a time constant associated with ions/vacancies kinetics interaction with the surface. These interactions increase the interfacial recombination, reducing the recombination resistance obtained by the IS measurements and provoking a flattening of the j-V curve.[6]

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
PerFun 2.2 B
Chair: Morten Madsen
10:05 - 10:15
B-T1
Taheri, Babak
Large-scale, low-temperature, conformable spray deposition of tin oxide films for perovskite solar cells
Taheri, Babak
Authors
Babak Taheri a, Emanuele Calabrò a, Francesca De Rossi a, Giulia Lucarelli a, Fabio Matteocci a, Diego Di Girolamo b, Giorgio Cardone c, Andrea Liscio d, Aldo Di Carlo a, e, f, Thomas M. Brown a, Francesca Brunetti a
Affiliations
a, CHOSE- Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Via Giacomo Peroni, Roma, IT
b, Department of Chemistry, “La Sapienza” University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, Roma, IT
c, PPG Italy Business Support SRL
d, Istituto dei sistemi complessi CNR
e, LASE–Laboratory for Advanced Solar Energy, National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Avenue, 6, Moskva, RU
f, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Struttura della Materia(CNR-ISM), Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, Institute for Structure of Matter, National Research Council (CNR-ISM),Rome,Italy, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, Roma, IT
Abstract

Outstanding efficiency (up to 25.2% on glass[1], 19.5% on flexible substrates[2]), low cost, and processability from solution are key advantages of perovskite solar cells (PSC). This technology is rising as a promising candidate for building-integrated photovoltaics, space and automotive applications, and even foldable and lightweight devices for consumer electronics when deployed on flexible substrates[3].

Efforts have been made to up-scale the fabrication of PSC to produce large solar modules[4]: well-known techniques such as screen printing, blade- and slot-die coating, inkjet printing have been adapted and tested as possible manufacturing processes. We have focused on an automated spray coating technique[5], starting from the first fundamental layer for the standard n-i-p structure, the electron transport layer (ETL).

Herein, we thus present the development of uniform large-area (> 120 cm2) compact films of tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2-NP) on rigid glass/ITO substrates via spray deposition, and we show their subsequent application as ETL in PSCs.

Our work investigated the effect of the spray deposition parameters (such as gas pressure, nozzle aperture, spray deposition velocity, flow rate, spray distance and spray cycle times) on the morphology and electro-optical properties of the SnO2 films, as well as the influence of the substrate temperature: given a set of deposition parameters, we found out that SnO2 layers sprayed at a lower temperature (25-30 °C) performed better as ETL in PSCs than those produced at higher temperatures (60-120°C), opening up to the application to flexible substrates.

Furthermore, PSCs endowed with SnO2 films, sprayed at low-temperature, performed as good as those with standard spin-coated films, delivering up to 16.8% efficiency under 1 sun illumination and demonstrating that automated spray coating at low temperature can be an effective strategy for PSC technology transfer from lab to industry to manufacture large-area devices, even on flexible substrates.

10:15 - 10:25
B-T2
Mathies, Florian
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany
INKJET-PRINTED METAL HALIDE PEROVSKITE LIGHT EMIITING DIODES
Mathies, Florian
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, DE
Authors
Florian Mathies a, Felix Hermerschmidt b, Vincent R.F. Schröder b, d, Carolin Rehermann a, Nicolas Zorn Molares b, Eva L. Unger a, c, Emil J. W. List-Kratochvil b, d
Affiliations
a, Young Investigator Group, Hybrid Materials Formation and Scaling, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Straße, 16, Berlin, DE
b, Institut für Physik, Institut für Chemie, IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt‐Universität zu Berlin, Germany, 12489 Berlín, Alemania, Berlín, DE
c, Lund University, Department of Chemical Physics and NanoLund, Sweden, Lund, SE
d, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, Berlin, DE
Abstract

While solution-processable metal halide perovskites have sparked a major interest in (opto)electronic applications, light emitting diodes (PeLEDs) from metal perovskites have not been utilized by inkjet-printing [1]. Our work represents the first demonstration of inkjet-printed PeLEDs by utilizing a modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) templating layer. By adding potassium chloride (KCl) to the commonly used hole injection material PEDOT:PSS underneath the inkjet-printed perovskite layer, we significantly influence the crystallization behavior and later device performance of the PeLEDs.

The so-called “salty” PEDOT:PSS acts as a seeding template to induce crystal nucleation of the metal halide perovskites inkjet-printed on top, while having only a minor effect on the electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS. Together with the perovskite polymer composite ink, optimized for inkjet printing, this templating approach eliminates the conventional antisolvent treatment required to induce favorable perovskite nucleation.

PeLEDs utilizing the KCl-induced templating effect in a planar PEDOT:PSS/MAPbBr3:PEG architecture show greatly improved performance, mainly due to improved crystallization dynamic in contrast to PeLEDs containing pure PEDOT:PSS. Specifically, KCl-modified PEDOT:PSS contact layers enabled the realization of inkjet-printed PeLEDs with a 30-fold increased luminance at the same operating voltage. Impressively, the ink-jet printed PeLEDs shown in this paper have comparable performance parameters to spin-coated reference devices and pave the way to cost-effective, scalable, and printable PeLEDs [2].

10:25 - 10:35
Abstract not programmed
10:35 - 10:45
B-T3
Küffner, Johannes
Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart
Nanoparticle Wetting Agent for Gas Stream-Assisted Blade Coated Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules
Küffner, Johannes
Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart, DE
Authors
Johannes Küffner a, Tina Wahl a, Moritz Schultes a, Jonas Hanisch a, Julia Zillner a, Erik Ahlswede a, Michael Powalla a
Affiliations
a, Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70563 Stuttgart, Germany
Abstract

Hybrid organic-inorganic metal-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.8 %[1] to an impressive level of 25.2 %[2]. However, a reliable transfer of solution processing from spin coating to scalable printing techniques and a homogeneous deposition on large substrate sizes is challenging.

Typically, Poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) is replacing the widely used Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)[3,4] as hole transport layer (HTL) in planar inverted (p-i-n) PSCs because of its efficient carrier transport properties.[5-7] PSCs with PTAA mostly benefit from boosted open circuit voltage[5,8,9] due to a proper energy level alignment.[10]

However, PTAA is a non-polar polymer with a low surface energy and thus is highly hydrophobic, which leads to severe dewetting of the subsequently deposited polar perovskite precursor solutions.[11-13]

Based on our recent publication on a universal nanoparticle (NP) wetting agent for perovskite precursor solutions on non-wetting materials deposited via spin coating[14], we here show the utilization of blade coated non-conductive silicon oxide (SiO2) NP dispersions to enable the deposition of a homogeneous perovskite layer on the highly hydrophobic HTL. The NPs enhance the HTL surface energy, thus, wetting and homogeneous spreading of the precursor solution is strongly improved so that pinholes in the perovskite layer and thereby short-circuited devices are avoided. In this work, we demonstrate the transfer of this wetting concept to scalable gas stream-assisted blade coating and solution-processed PSCs and modules in the inverted device architecture with PTAA as HTL on large-area substrates for the first time. In order to prevent void formation at the HTL interface of gas stream-assisted blade coated perovskite layers, the effect of blending small amounts of lead chloride (PbCl2) in the perovskite precursor solution is investigated, which also improves reproducibility and device performance. Following these optimizations, blade coated PSCs with 0.24 cm2 active area achieve up to 17.9 % PCE. Furthermore, to prove scalability, we show enlarged substrates of up to 9×9 cm2 and analyze the homogeneity of the perovskite layer in blade coating direction. Moreover, by implementing the blade coated NP wetting agent, we fabricate large-area modules with a maximum PCE of 9.3 % on a 49.60 cm2 aperture area. This represents a further important step bringing solution-processed inverted PSCs closer to application.

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
NewOPV Session 2.2
Chair: Vida Engmann
10:10 - 10:30
2.2-I1
Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona
Accelerating discovery in organic solar cells through combinatorial screening
Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, ES

Mariano Campoy Quiles´s research is devoted to the understanding and development of solution processed semiconductors for energy and optoelectronic applications. He and his team have built substantial research efforts in two application areas, solar photovoltaic (light to electric) and thermoelectric (heat to electric) energy conversion based on organic and hybrid materials. He studied physics at the Univesity of Santiago de Compostela, obtained his PhD in experimental physics from Imperial College London, and since 2008 he leads his team at the Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona.

Authors
Mariano Campoy-Quiles a
Affiliations
a, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, ES
Abstract

Molecular based photovoltaics can play a key role in the transition to a sustainable energy paradigm, as is the most sustainable solar cell technology (in terms of energy investment on return), and simultaneously is amenable to be solution processed into any shape, can be as light as a feather, and can be produced with the largest colour pallet and transparency degree imaginable. Indeed, there is an infinite number of molecules that can be synthesised to match our needs. The bottleneck then becomes how to identify and screen potential candidates, or, in other words, how to find the needle in the haystack.

In this talk we will first describe a novel methodology for the fast evaluation of donor/acceptor systems for photovoltaics. The new approach is based on the fabrication of samples with gradients in the relevant parameters of interest that represent a large fraction of the corresponding parameter space. In particular, we fabricate gradients in thickness [1, 2], microstructure [1, 2], composition [2, 3] and apply hyperspectral imaging to correlate material and device properties. The method can be used both, for evaporated [4] and solution processed systems [1-3], is up to 100 faster than conventional optimization protocols, uses less than 50 mg of each active layer material and generates hundreds to millions of data points per system [3]. Then we show how this machinery can be used to find design rules for the optimum composition in non-fullerene acceptors based devices.

10:30 - 10:50
2.2-I2
Wang, Tao
Wuhan University of Technology
Aggregation of Non-fullerene Acceptors in Organic Solar Cells
Wang, Tao
Wuhan University of Technology, CN

Tao Wang is Professor of Materials Science in the School of Materials Science & Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, China. He received his B.S. in Polymer Materials and Engineering (2002) and M.Sc. in Materials Science (2005). He obtained his Ph.D. in Soft Condensed Matter Physics from the University of Surrey (UK) in Feb. 2009. Subsequently, he moved to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Sheffield (UK), where he worked with Prof. Richard Jones (FRS) and Prof. David Lidzey on organic solar cells. He became a professor in Wuhan University of Technology (China) in 2014. He is admitted as Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry in 2019, and is an Editoral Board Member of Reports on Progress in Physics. His current research interests are organic and hybrid optoelectronic devices. He has published over 100 journal papers in Joule, Advanced Materials, Advanced Energy Materials and so on. 

Authors
Tao Wang a
Affiliations
a, Wuhan University of Technology, CN
Abstract

Organic solar cells (OSCs) evidence a rapid progress in recent years with the emergence of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), reaching a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) around 18% and surpasses a PCE below 12% of fullerene based counterparts. The fullerene acceptor PCBM is near-ball shaped and either loosely- or closely- packed in the photoactive layer of OSCs, leaving limited space for structural tuning. The complex chemical structure of A-D-A type NFAs, on the other hand, cast versatile stacking forms among the A, D and side-chain units of NFAs, which further affect their aggregations. Based on molecular dynamics simulations and experimental investigation of optoelectronic properties of NFAs, H aggregation, A-to-A type and A-to-D type J aggregation, A-to-A type and A-to-D type cluster of NFAs has been realized. The H aggregation blue-shifts the absorption spectrum, whilst the J aggregation red-shifts the absorption spectrum and construct three-dimensional p-p stacked network at the molecular level for efficient charge transport. We demonstrate how these different aggregations can be controlled experimentally, in particular the heating and solvent induced aggregation strategies, in different OSC systems. The modulation of molecular stacking and aggregation of NFAs can effectively tune its absorption and optoelectronic properties, and provides a crucial guidance for further developments of high performance OSCs.

10:50 - 11:10
Discussion
10:45 - 12:00
SolFuel Break
10:55 - 12:00
PerEmer Break
11:10 - 12:00
NewOPV Break
11:15 - 12:00
PerFun Break
12:00 - 12:05
NewOPV Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
PerEmer Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
PerFun Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
SolFuel Announcement nanoGe
12:05 - 12:15
NewOPV Session Introduction 2.3 - Denis Andrienko
12:05 - 12:15
PerEmer Session Introduction 1.3 - Jacky Even
PerFun 2.3
Chair: Monica Lira-Cantu
12:05 - 12:15
2.3-T1
DuBose, Jeffrey
University of Notre Dame, US
Modulation of Photo Induced Iodine Expulsion in Mixed Halide Perovskites with Electrochemical Bias
DuBose, Jeffrey
University of Notre Dame, US, US

Jeff DuBose is a 3rd year chemistry graduate student at the University of Notre Dame, advised by Dr. Prashant Kamat. His reasearch area includes the use of perovksite nanocrystals for photocatalyic applicatioins, in addition to studying the mechanism of light-indcued phase segregation in perovksite films. 

Authors
Jeffrey DuBose a, b, Preethi Mathew a, b, Prashant Kamat a, b
Affiliations
a, Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, US, US
b, Department of Chemistry, University of Notre Dame, US
Abstract

Mixed halide perovskites (MHPs) under photoirradiation phase segregate into I- and Br-rich domains and, if in contact with a solvent, the film will then expel iodine into solution. Hole trapping at the I-site in MHPs dictates the iodine migration. We have now succeeded in modulating the iodide expulsion process in MHPs through externally applied electrochemical bias. At anodic potentials, electron extraction at the electrode interface becomes more efficient, leading to build-up of holes within the MHP film. This in turn favors phase segregation and increases the rate iodine expulsion. Conversely, at cathodic bias we facilitate electron-hole recombination within the MHP film and slow down iodine expulsion. The tuning of EFermi through external bias modulates charge extraction at the perovskite electrode interface and indirectly controls the build-up of holes, which in turn induces iodine expulsion. Suppressing iodine migration in perovskite solar cell is important for attaining greater stability of perovskite solar cells since they operate under internal bias.

12:15 - 12:25
2.3-T2
Solanki, Ankur
Heavy Water: A Solvent Additive to Enhance Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells
Solanki, Ankur
Authors
Ankur Solanki a, b, Tze Chien Sum b, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli c
Affiliations
a, School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382007, India
b, NTU Singapore - Nanyang Technological University, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Link, 21, Singapore, SG
c, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, US, Massachusetts Avenue, 77, Cambridge, US
Abstract

Heavy water or deuterium oxide (D2O) comprises of deuterium, a hydrogen isotope twice the mass of hydrogen. In contrast to the report of shorter charge carrier lifetimes and lower/invariant efficiencies on deuteration of perovskite, we herein uncover the unexpected effect of D2O as solvent additive to enhance the power conversion efficiency and stability in solar cell devices. Here, we demonstrate the PCE increment of triple-A cation (cesium (Cs)/methylammonium (MA)/formaminidium (FA)) perovskite solar cells from approximately 19.2% (reference) to ~21 % (using 1 vol% D2O) with higher stability in comparison with 1% H2O (by vol) additive. The in-depth investigation using ultrafast optical spectroscopy divulge the suppression of trap states from 2.5 x 1017 cm-3 to 0.7 x 1017 cm-3 and increase of PL lifetime from 35 nm to 70 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy validates N-H2 group as the preferential isotope exchange site and induced alteration of the FA to MA ratio as a result of perovskite deuteration. Theoretical simulations using first-principles density functional shows a decrease in PbI6 phonon frequencies in the deuterated perovskite lattice which stabilizes the PbI6 structures and weakens the electron-LO phonon (Fröhlich) coupling. Herein, our findings of selective isotope exchange in perovskite opens the opportunities for tuning perovskite optoelectronic properties.

12:25 - 12:35
2.3-T3
Tumen-Ulzii, Ganbaatar
OPERA, Kyushu University
Thermally Stable Perovskite Solar Cells with Chemically Doped Spiro-OMeTAD Hole Transport Layer
Tumen-Ulzii, Ganbaatar
OPERA, Kyushu University, JP

Ph.D student. Working on Perovskite solar cells.

Authors
Ganbaatar Tumen-Ulzii a, Toshinori Matsushima a, b, Chihaya Adachi a, b
Affiliations
a, Kyushu University, Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), c/o Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Japan, Fukuoka, JP
b, Kyushu University, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Japan, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka, JP
Abstract

 

Abstract

 

Organic-inorganic halide perovskites are promising as the light absorber of solar cells because of their efficient solar power conversion. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have already reached a very high level of up to 25.2 %, which is comparable to silicon solar cell technology. Most of high-performing PSCs reported to date contain a small molecular hole transport layer (HTL) material of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). An issue frequently occurring in spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs is quick performance degradation at high temperature. In this study, we discover that post-doping of the spiro-OMeTAD layer by iodine released from the perovskite layer is one possible mechanism of the high-temperature PSC degradation. The iodine doping leads to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the spiro-OMeTAD layer becoming deeper and, therefore, induces the formation of an energy barrier for hole extraction from the perovskite layer. We demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the high-temperature degradation by employing an iodine-blocking layer or an iodine-free perovskite in PSCs. These findings will guide the way for the realization of thermally stable perovskite optoelectronic devices in the future.

  

12:35 - 12:45
2.3-T4
Ray, Aniruddha
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT
Understanding the local structural effects on halogen ion migration in layered methylammonium copper halide memory devices
Ray, Aniruddha
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT
Authors
Aniruddha Ray a, b, Beatriz Martín-García a, c, Alberto Martinelli d, Liberato Manna a, Ahmed Abdelhady a
Affiliations
a, CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Genova, IT
b, University of Genova, Via Dodecaneso, 35, Genova, IT
c, CIC nanoGUNE, ES, Tolosa Hiribidea, 76, Donostia, ES
d, SPIN-CNR, Genova, IT
Abstract

Room temperature ion migration under an external electric field is being increasingly accepted as one of the major origins of the commonly observed current-voltage hysteresis in solar cells and light-emitting diodes, fabricated using three-dimensional (3D) hybrid lead halide perovskites. [1] This mixed ionic-electronic nature of perovskite and other perovskite-related materials can now be taken advantage of in resistance-switching memory devices whose performance, in terms of the ON/OFF ratio, depends on the efficiency of the vacancy/ion migration process. However, in the halide perovskites field, a direct link between the average/local structure and the preferred ion migration hopping pathway has yet to be established. In our study, we combined the study of average/local structural characterization and detailed electrical measurements to shine a light on the interrelationships between the structure and efficiency of ion migration in layered methylammonium copper halide materials (MA2CuX4). [2] We adopted the solvent acidolysis crystallization technique to grow various halide-deficient single crystals and with the help of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, we identified the halogen vacancy site in the copper halide octahedra, the octahedra tilting, and the thermal vibrations of the atoms around their average positions. We correlated the variations in these parameters to the hysteresis observed in the current-voltage curves and subsequently to the ON/OFF ratios of proof-of-concept memory devices fabricated using inert Pt electrodes. Furthermore, our best ON/OFF ratio of 10 from our Pb-free devices compares well to the results obtained from two-dimensional Pb-based devices utilizing inert electrodes. Our experimental results made on single crystalline samples highlights the need to study detailed structural factors that could affect ionic migration in perovskite and perovskite-related compounds, which is important for the performance of memristor and optoelectronic devices.

12:35 - 12:45
2.3-T5
Péan, Emmanuel
SPECIFIC – Swansea University, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, UK
Interpreting Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Perovskite Materials
Péan, Emmanuel
SPECIFIC – Swansea University, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, UK, GB
Authors
Emmanuel Péan a, Stoichko Dimitrov a, b, Catherine De Castro a, c, Matthew Davies a
Affiliations
a, SPECIFIC – Swansea University, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, UK, Bay Campus, Swansea, SA1 8EN,, SWANSEA, GB
b, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, GB
c, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) - Saudi Arabia, 4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, SA
Abstract

Thanks to their high absorption coefficient and ideal band-gap [1], halide perovskite materials are good candidates for the next generation of solar cells with an impressive certified power conversion efficiency of 25.2 %. Defect-induced trap states are believed to be partially responsible for the instability of perovskite materials through their formation, passivation and subsequent degradation of the material [2]. Extracting information related to these trap states such as their concentration and the trapping rate is thus essential in order to compare samples and devices to help drive the improvement of perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) is a powerful tool to investigate excited charge carrier (electrons and holes) recombinations in semiconductors and molecular systems. However, due to the non-excitonic nature of excited charge carriers in lead halide perovskite materials coupled with the presence of localised trap states in their band-gap, the TRPL of these materials is complicated to interpret. Here we discuss two models used in the literature to simulate charge carrier recombinations and TRPL in perovskite materials. These models consider the bimolecular nature of direct electron-hole recombination but differ in their treatment of trap-mediated recombinations; one describing trapping as a monomolecular process [3] whereas the other considers it to be a bimolecular process between free carriers and the available trap states [4]. The dependency on the excitation fluence of each model is discussed as well as the importance to allow complete recombination of all excited charge carriers between two consecutive excitation pulses. Finally, we compare these models to the commonly used bi-exponential model.

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
12:05 - 12:15
SolFuel Session Introduction 2.2
NewOPV Session 2.3
Chair: Denis Andrienko
12:15 - 12:35
2.3-I1
Choulis, STELIOS
Cyprus University of Technology
Device Engineering for High Performance Organic Photovoltaics
Choulis, STELIOS
Cyprus University of Technology, CY
Authors
STELIOS Choulis a
Affiliations
a, Cyprus University of Technology, Molecular Electronics and Photonics Research Unit, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, CY
Abstract

 

 

The advantages of Solution processed Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs), such as their light weight, mechanical flexibility in addition to the small energy demand, and low cost equipment requirements for roll-to-roll mass production, characterize them as a dominant candidate source for future electrical power [1]. Over the last few years, the discovery of novel solution processed non-fullerene acceptor electronic materials greatly improve OPVs power conversion efficiency. Despite that, power conversion efficiency is not a “stand-alone” OPV product development target. Lifetime, material cost and printing processing must be equally considered, regarding solution processed OPVs technological progress. Adjusting the properties of electronic materials and device design, is crucial to achieving high performance OPV product development targets. Therefore, a number of high-level objectives concerning printing processing [2], electrodes [3] and interfaces [4] relevant to high performance solution processed OPVs will be presented.

 

 

  

12:35 - 12:55
2.3-I2
Riedl, Thomas
University of Wuppertal, Germany
Non-fullerene organic solar cells as low-gap sub-cells in highly efficient tandem architectures
Riedl, Thomas
University of Wuppertal, Germany, DE
Authors
Tim Becker a, Kai Brinkmann a, Florian Zimmermann a, Tobias Gahlmann a, Manuel Theisen a, Cedric Kreusel a, Selina Olthof b, Thomas Riedl a
Affiliations
a, University of Wuppertal, Germany, Rainer-Gruenter-Straße, 21, Wuppertal, DE
b, Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Luxemburger Straße 116, Cologne, 50939, Germany
Abstract

Tandem solar cells are designed as a serial connection of wide-bandgap and low-bandgap sub-cells with complementary absorption spectra, to improve the overlap with the solar spectrum and to minimize thermalization losses.

With the introduction of non-fullerene acceptors in organic photovoltaics, the loss in open-circuit voltage (Voc) compared to the energy gap of the absorber (Eg/q) can be below 0.5 V and the internal quantum efficiency concomitantly reaches levels of unity.

We will present our recent work on organic cells based on the PM6:Y6 system, which provide an efficiency of > 16% and a high Voc. While high efficiencies are known for this donor/acceptor combination, stability concerns exist, especially under illumination. We will show the concomitant improvements in efficiency and stability by the addition of small amounts of fullerene to the active layer and, more critically, we will demonstrate that the optimum choice of hole and electron extraction/transport layers is a key that unlocks substantially improved operational stability in NFA solar cells. Furthermore, we found that the stability of the cells is critically affected by the spectrum of the light source. Cells based on MoO3 instead of PEDOT:PSS on the anode side, and C60/BCP/Ag on the cathode side, sustain continuous operation in the maximum power point for hundreds of hours without notable degradation, if only the acceptor is excited (i.e. for wavelengths > 680 nm;  hn < 1.82 eV), in contrast to the excitation of both donor and acceptor, which results in some substantial decay of efficiency. This finding opens a favorable opportunity to use PM6:Y6 cells in a tandem architecture where short wavelength components of the AM1.5 solar spectrum are absorbed by a suitable wide gap sub-cell. Here, we exemplarily show such a combination with a wide-gap perovskite cell (Eg = 1.8 eV), that as a single junction shows a Voc of 1.3 V and an efficiency > 15%. The resulting tandem cells show a high Voc of 2.16 V, which is the perfect addition of the Voc’s of the two sub-cells, and a high FF of 75%, which combines to a high efficiency > 21%. This is the highest efficiency for a perovskite/organic tandem cell and the highest efficiency of a solar cells, where an organic sub-cell is involved. Further improvements seed the prospect of efficiencies in the range of 26% for these tandem devices.  

12:55 - 13:15
2.3-I3
Nelson, Jenny
Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Hybrid CuSCN:organic heterojunctions for semi-transparent photovoltaic applications
Nelson, Jenny
Imperial College London, United Kingdom, GB

Jenny Nelson is a Professor of Physics at Imperial College London, where she has researched novel varieties of material for use in solar cells since 1989. Her current research is focussed on understanding the properties of molecular semiconductor materials and their application to organic solar cells. This work combines fundamental electrical, spectroscopic and structural studies of molecular electronic materials with numerical modelling and device studies, with the aim of optimising the performance of plastic solar cells. She has published around 200 articles in peer reviewed journals, several book chapters and a book on the physics of solar cells.

Authors
Jenny Nelson a, Flurin Eisner a, Wesley Ow a, Jun Yan a, Mohammed Azzouzi a, Brian Tam a, Valentina Belova c, Mariano Campoy-Quiles c, Anna Hankin d, Andreas Kafizas b
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, GB
b, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus London, London, GB
c, Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites G, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Bellaterra, ES
d, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, GB
Abstract

Hybrid devices based on a heterojunction between an inorganic and an organic semiconductor have attracted interest as a way to combine the advantages of both classes of materials, but in practice the performance of such devices has often been disappointing. Here, focus on hybrid heterojunctions based on copper thiocyanate (CuSCN), a low-cost p-type inorganic semiconductor as a donor, and a variety of (fullerene and non-fullerene) molecular acceptors  Because CuSCN is transparent in the visible, the absorption properties of such devices are controlled by the choice of acceptor, which enables colour-tuneable and semi-transparent optoelectronic devices. We show that planar hybrid heterojunctions led to visible-transmitting heterojunctions with high voltages and low non-radiative voltage losses (0.21 ± 0.02 V) monitored from the emission of the CT state that is formed at the hybrid heterojunction. This class of devices can serve as power generating windows in greenhouses and in water-splitting photoelectrochemical devices, in both of which the solar spectrum is shared. We propose designs for structures with promising performance for both types of application.

 

13:15 - 13:35
Discussion
PerEmer 1.3
Chair: Jacky Even
12:15 - 12:35
1.3-I1
Volonakis, George
Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, INSA Rennes
Computational design of semiconducting perovskites from first-principles.
Volonakis, George
Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, INSA Rennes, FR
Authors
George Volonakis a
Affiliations
a, Univ Rennes, ENSCR, INSA Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes), Rennes F-35000, France, FR
Abstract

Over the last seven years we have witnessed the rise of lead-halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics, sensors and light-emitting diodes. Similarly, oxide perovskites have a much longer history and are pivotal in many technological applications. Yet, a rational connection between these two important classes of materials is missing.  In this talk, we will employ a computational design strategy to explore this missing link and demonstrate that for each halide perovskite there are several lookalike oxide perovskites with similar optoelectronic properties. We will begin by showcasing recent efforts towards new materials that are alternatives to tradional lead-halide perovskites, for which computational design approaches from first-principles have been extensively successful and revealed a series of new compounds within the so-called halide double perovskites family. Among these, Cs2BiAgBr6 has the narrower indirect band gap of 1.9 eV, and Cs2InAgCl6 is the only direct band gap semiconductor, yet with a large gap of 3.3 eV [1-3]. All of them exhibit low carrier effective masses and consequently, are prominent candidates for a range of opto-electronic applications such as photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, sensors, and photo-catalysts. Here, we will outline the computational design strategy that lead to the synthesis of these compounds, and particularly focus on the insights we can get from first-principles calculations in order to facilitate the synthesis, improve their opto-electronic properties and the in-silico identification of compounds with properties that are similar to the lead-halide perovskites. This rational design approach allows us to further develop a universal analogy concept that can be used to identify analogs between oxide and halide perovskites. Our new concept of analogs led us to identify a new oxide double perovskite semiconductor, Ba2AgIO6, which exhibits an electronic band structure remarkably similar to that of our recently discovered halide double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6, but with a band gap in the visible range at 1.9 eV. We report of the successful synthesis of Ba2AgIO6 by solution process and we perform crystallographic and optical characterization. We show that Ba2AgIO6 and Cs2AgInCl6 are both analogs of the well-known transparent conductor BaSnO3, but the significantly lower band-gap of Ba2AgIO6 makes this new compound much more promising for oxide-based optoelectronics and for novel monolithic halide/oxide devices [4].

12:35 - 12:55
1.3-I2
Voznyy, Oleksandr
University of Toronto
Machine Learning Assisted Search for More Stable and Less Toxic PV Perovskites
Voznyy, Oleksandr
University of Toronto, CA

Alex earned his Ph.D. in physics of semiconductors from Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine for his work on electronic properties of nitride semiconductor alloys.

In 2004 he joined the Quantum Semiconductors and Bionanophotonics lab at University of Sherbrooke as a postdoc, working on theoretical modeling of laser-assisted quantum well intermixing and self-assembly processes of organic monolayers on metal and semiconductor surfaces for applications in bio-sensing.

In 2008 he moved to Quantum Theory Group at National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa, where he worked on many-body problems in epitaxial and colloidal semiconductor and graphene quantum dots; in particular, simulations of multi-exciton generation, Auger processes and optical properties of nanocrystals used in hybrid polymer-semiconductor solar cells.

Alex joined Ted Sargent’s Nanomaterials for Energy Group in 2011 and worked on characterization and modeling of the semiconductor nanocrystal surfaces and developing the synthesis methods for nanomaterials with improved optical and transport properties for photovoltaics.

In 2018, Alex joined the Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences at the University of Toronto, Scarborough as an Assistant Professor in Clean Energy. His topics of interest are materials for energy storage and novel materials discovery using high-throughput experiments and machine learning.

Authors
Oleksandr Voznyy a
Affiliations
a, University of Toronto, King's College Road, 10, Toronto, CA
Abstract

Lead halide perovskites face a significant challenge of instability: organic cations are too volatile, while inorganic Cs is too small to meet the cage size tolerance, and as a result, perovskite converts into a more stable yellow phase. Finding a way to either stabilize the Pb perovskite or completely eliminate the Pb is a high-reward but very challenging problem.

I will discuss our efforts in applying machine learning both in experimental and theoretical search for new photovoltaic perovskites.

In particular, exploring computationally dopant combinations that could stabilize current state-of-the-art Pb perovskite and then employing high-throughput synthesis procedures to improve the precursors' solubility and dopability of the perovskite.

An alternative approach is to devise Pb-free perovskites. Existing databases contain several hundred materials with appropriate bandgap, but selecting ones that are easily synthesizable and containing little electronic defects require improvements to existing machine learning models.

 

12:55 - 13:15
1.3-I3
Yan, Yanfa
The University of Toledo, OH, USA
Influence of Charge Transport Layers on Capacitance Measured in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
Yan, Yanfa
The University of Toledo, OH, USA, US

Dr. Yanfa Yan has held the Ohio Research Scholar Chair in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at The University of Toledo, USA since 2011 and is a faculty member in the Ohio's Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization (PVIC). Previously, he was a Principal Scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA. Dr. Yan's expertise includes theoretical study of electronic properties and defect physics of semiconductors and nano scale characterization of microstructures, interfaces, and defects in thin-film photovoltaic materials. Dr. Yan is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.

Authors
Yanfa Yan a
Affiliations
a, The University of Toledo, OH, USA, Bancroft Street, 2801, Toledo, US
Abstract

To further improve the powder conversion efficiency of halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), it is highly preferred to understand the electrical properties of the perovskite absorbers, since the PCE is determined by the electrical properties of PSCs, such as defect activation energy and density, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant. Capacitance–based techniques, such as thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) and capacitance–voltage (C–V), have been the choice of method for measuring electrical properties of semiconductor devices and have played important roles in the development of thin-film solar cell technologies. These techniques have been used to measure the electrical properties of PSCs such as defect activation energy and density, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant, which provide key information for evaluating the device performance. We show that these techniques may not be used to reliably analyze the properties of defects in the perovskite layer or at its interface, since the hole-transport layers (HTLs) can introduce high-frequency capacitance signature due to the response of charge carriers in HTLs. For HTL-free PSCs, the high-frequency capacitance can be considered as the geometric capacitance for analyzing the dielectric constant of the perovskite layer, since there is no trapping and de-trapping of charge carriers in the perovskite layer. We further find that the low-frequency capacitance signature can be used to calculate the activation energy of the ionic conductivity of the perovskite layer, but the overlapping effects with charge transport materials must be avoided.

13:15 - 13:35
Discussion
SolFuel 2.2
Chair: Thomas Hamann
12:15 - 12:35
2.2-I1
Haussener, Sophia
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Multi-scale design of robust photo-electrochemical water splitting devices and systems
Haussener, Sophia
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH

Sophia Haussener is a Professor heading the Laboratory of Renewable Energy Science and Engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). Her current research is focused on providing design guidelines for thermal, thermochemical, and photoelectrochemical energy conversion reactors through multi-physics modelling and experimentation. Her research interests include: thermal sciences, fluid dynamics, charge transfer, electro-magnetism, and thermo/electro/photochemistry in complex multi-phase media on multiple scales. She received her MSc (2007) and PhD (2010) in Mechanical Engineering from ETH Zurich. She was a postdoctoral researcher at the Joint Center of Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) between 2011 and 2012. She has published over 70 articles in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings, and 2 books. She has been awarded the ETH medal (2011), the Dimitris N. Chorafas Foundation award (2011), the ABB Forschungspreis (2012), the Prix Zonta (2015), the Global Change Award (2017), and the Raymond Viskanta Award (2019), and is a recipient of a Starting Grant of the Swiss National Science Foundation (2014).

Authors
Sophia Haussener a
Affiliations
a, Laboratory of Renewable Energy Science and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland
Abstract

The development of a sustainable energy economy based on renewable, carbon-neutral energy is a necessary and urgent task. Photo-electrochemical (PEC) approaches to solar fuels and materials are interesting, provided they can be efficiently, stably, scalably, and sustainably implemented.

While significant progress on the development of earth abundant materials and on high-efficiency demonstrations has been achieved, there is relatively little known about the behavior of materials and devices under more realistic, varying conditions and on the implication of degradation on the performance and lifetime.

Here, I will first discuss multi-scale numerical modeling approaches to investigate and quantify the effect of photocorrosion on the performance evolution. I will show how important the local reaction environment is for the stability of a component, and how heterogeneity in the operating variables (current density, species concentration, temperature, etc.) affect degradation. Furthermore, I will comment on the importance of device design on device stability.

Second, I will then transition towards discussing material, device and system performance as a function of varying, non-design-point operation. I will show how these dynamics can affect the performance, show how multi-physical transport can help in controlling and smoothing some of the observed variations, and generally highlight synergistic effects. I will end with providing general guidelines on operating materials, devices and systems under more realistic conditions.

12:35 - 12:55
2.2-I2
durrant, james
Imperial College London and Swansea University
Charge carrier dynamics in metal oxide photoelectrodes and photocatalysts for solar driven water splitting
durrant, james
Imperial College London and Swansea University, GB

James Durrant is Professor of Photochemistry in the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London and Ser Cymru Solar Professor, University of Swansea. His research addresses the photochemistry of new materials for solar energy conversion targeting both solar cells (photovoltaics) and solar to fuel (i.e.: artificial photosynthesis. It is based around employing transient optical and optoelectronic techniques to address materials function, and thereby elucidate design principles which enable technological development. His group is currently addressing the development and functional characterisation of organic solar cells and photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. More widely, he leads the UK�s Solar Fuels Network and the Welsh government funded S�r Cymru Solar initiative. He has published over 300 research papers and 5 patents, and was recently awarded the 2012 Tilden Prize by the RSC.

Authors
james durrant b
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus London, London, GB
b, SPECIFIC – Swansea University, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, UK, Bay Campus, Swansea, SA1 8EN,, SWANSEA, GB
Abstract

In my talk I will focus on the underlying charge carrier dynamics which determine the efficiency of solar driven water splitting in metal oxide based photoelectrodes and photocatalyst  suspensions and sheets. Experimentally my talk will be based upon a range of optical absorption spectroscopies, including transient absorption and operando spectroelectrochemical analyses. I will start by considering metal oxide photoelectrodes, addressing the impact of defect / dopant sites such as oxygen vacancies in determining photoelectrode performance. I will go on to consider the kinetics of water oxidation catalysis on metal oxide photoanodes, and the potential to apply rate law analysis of these kinetics using a charge carrier density based model as an alternative to Butler-Volmer based analyses. Finally I will discuss the role of charge carrier dynamics in determining the performance of metal oxide photocatalysts, and in particular the remarkable ability of La,Rh co-doped SrTiO3 to drive proton reduction even under positive applied potentials.

12:55 - 13:15
2.2-I3
Wang, Dunwei
Boston College
Immobilizing Molecular Catalysts on Photoelectrode Surfaces
Wang, Dunwei
Boston College, US
Dunwei Wang graduated from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2000 with a B.S. degree in chemistry. He was then trained at Stanford University (with Hongjie Dai) between 2000 and 2005, where his Ph.D. thesis was awarded the Prize for Young Chemists by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. After two years’ of postdoctoral study with James R. Heath at Caltech, he joined the faculty of Boston College and is currently an Assistant Professor of Chemistry there. His research concerns the development of new nanoscale materials that can be used for efficient solar energy conversion and storage. He is a recipient of an NSF CAREER award, a Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) Catalyst award, and a Sloan Fellowship.
Authors
Dunwei Wang a
Affiliations
a, Boston College, Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 2467, US
Abstract

Semiconductor-based solar fuel synthesis represents an important method for direct conversion and storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy.  The performance of such a system is highly sensitive to the nature of the semiconductor surfaces.  For instance, the photovoltage of the system is determined by the difference between the electrochemical potential of surface chemistry and the Fermi level of the semiconductor.  Due to the complexities at the solid/liquid interface, however, it is often difficult to understand the detailed surface behaviors.  Consider water oxidation as an example.  While it is known that the nominal overall 4-e, 4-H+ reaction features an electrochemical potential of 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, the process typically proceeds through multiple steps. Despite extensive studies, it remains unknown which step is the rate determining step for many heterogeneous systems.  The knowledge is particularly weak for semiconductor-based systems.  As a result, the actual electrochemical potential of the process is often difficult to define.  At the root of this challenge is the lack of knowledge on the detailed water oxidation mechanisms at the molecular level on solid-state surfaces.  In this presentation, we discuss how to address this issue using molecular catalysts.  We show that the homogeneous catalysts can work well when immobilized on the surface.  Importantly, the reaction mechanisms of these catalysts are well defined.  Facile treatments of these catalysts can readily convert them into heterogeneous catalytic centers with well-defined atomic structures.  These new catalysts provide a new platform to study photoelectrochemical water oxidation with unprecedented details.  The knowledge is expected to accelerate development of solar fuel synthesis materials.

13:15 - 13:35
Discussion
13:00 - 13:05
NCFun Opening nanoGe
13:05 - 13:15
NCFun Session Introduction 2.1 - Matthew Beard
NCFun 2.1
Chair: Matthew Beard
13:15 - 13:35
2.1-I1
Krauss, Todd
University of Rochester
Explaining the Unusual Photophysics of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Doped Via Cation Exchange
Krauss, Todd
University of Rochester, US
Todd D. Krauss received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Applied and Engineering Physics all from Cornell University, the latter under the advisement of Professor Frank Wise. Upon receiving his Ph.D. in 1998, he moved to Columbia University, serving as a postdoctoral research fellow under one of the founders of the field of nanomaterials science, Professor Louis Brus, until 2000, when he joined the Chemistry faculty at the University of Rochester as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry. In 2006 he was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor of Chemistry and in 2008 he received a joint appointment as an Associate Professor in the Institute of Optics. In 2010 Krauss was promoted to the rank of Professor of Chemistry and Optics, and assumed directorship of the Rochester Advanced Materials Program (formerly the Materials Science graduate program). In 2013 Krauss assumed the Chair of the Department of Chemistry at Rochester. Krauss's research interests involve fundamental studies of materials at the nanometer scale, down to the single molecule level, with a specific emphasis on single walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor quantum dots. Additionally, he is pursuing applications for these nanometer scale materials in the general areas of sustainable fuel production and nanophotonics. Krauss is a recipient of several honors and fellowships including a University of Rochester Goergen Award for Distinguished Achievement and Artistry in Undergraduate Teaching (2009), a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award (2005), an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship (2004), and most recently was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society.
Authors
Todd Krauss a, b, Abigail Freyer a, Peter Sercel e, Zhentao Hou a, Benjamin Savitzky c, Lena Kourkoutis c, Alexander Efros d
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester
b, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester
c, Cornell University, Department of Physics, School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, US
d, Naval Research Laboratory
e, T. J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, US
Abstract

Cation exchange, a chemical transformation used to modify a crystal whereby a cation from solution replaces a host cation, has recently become a highly effective tool for enabling the synthesis of nanoparticles with novel chemical compositions. In particular, aliovalent doping of CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) via cation exchange of cadmium ions for silver ions has become quite popular for manipulating the optical and electronic properties of the doped NCs, such as for producing n- or p-type NCs. However, despite over a decade of study, the relationship between optical properties of the NC and the aliovalent dopants has largely gone unexplained, partially due to an inability to precisely characterize the physical properties of the doped NC.

We will discuss how electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) with single electron sensitivity can be used to determine the charges of individual, cation-doped CdSe NCs in order to investigate their net charge as a function of added cations. While there was no direct trend relating the NC charge to the relative amount of cation per NC, there was a remarkable and unexpected correlation between the average NC charge and ensemble exciton photoluminescence (PL) intensity, for all dopant cations introduced [1]. We use an effective mass theoretical model to conclude that the changes in PL intensity, as tracked also by changes in NC charge, are likely a consequence of changes in the NC radiative rate caused by symmetry breaking of the electronic states of the nominally spherical NC due to the Columbic potential introduced by ionized cations. Further, we show through energy loss spectroscopy and PL spectroscopy on individual NCs that the cation exchange process is highly heterogeneous, which has profound implications for possible future applications of doped NCs.

13:35 - 13:55
2.1-I2
Weiss, Emily
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, United States
N-heterocyclic Carbenes: The Next Generation of Exciton Delocalizing Ligands
Weiss, Emily
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, United States, US
Emily Weiss is an Associate Professor and the Irving M. Klotz Research Professor in the Department of Chemistry at Northwesern University. Emily earned her PhD from Northwestern in 2005, advised by Mark Ratner and Michael Wasielewski. Her graduate work focused on magnetic superexchange interactions of radical ion pairs created by electron transfer within organic donor-acceptor systems. Emily did postdoctoral research at Harvard under George M. Whitesides from 2005-2008 as a Petroleum Research Fund Postdoctoral Energy Fellow, and started her independent career at Northwestern in Fall 2008. Emily’s group studies electronic processes at organic-inorganic interfaces within colloidal and semiconductor and metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this research are to understand the mechanisms of conversion of energy from one class to another (light, heat, chemical potential, electrical potential) at interfaces, to understand the behavior of quantum confined systems far from equilibrium, and to design and synthesize nanostructures that are new combinations of organic and inorganic components.
Authors
Emily Weiss a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, United States, Sheridan Road, 2145, Evanston, US
Abstract

Delocalization of excitons within semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) into states at the interface of the inorganic core and organic ligand shell by so-called “exciton-delocalizing ligands (EDLs)” is a promising strategy to enhance coupling of QD excitons with proximate molecules, ions or other QDs. EDLs thereby enable enhanced rates of charge carrier extraction from, and transport among, QDs and dynamic colorimetric sensing. The application of reported EDLs – which bind to the QD through thiolates or dithiocarbamates – is however limited by the irreversibility of their binding and their low oxidation potentials, which lead to a high yield of photoluminescence-quenching hole trapping on the EDL. Here we discuss a new class of EDLs for QDs, 1,3-dimethyl-4,5-disubstituted imidazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), where the 4,5 substituents are either Me, H, or Cl, and 1,3-dimesitylnapthoquinimidazolylidene NHC (nqNHC). Post-synthetic ligand exchange of native oleate capping ligands for NHCs results in a bathochromic shift of the optical band gap of CdSe QDs (R = 1.17 nm) of up to 111 meV while maintaining colloidal stability of the QDs. This shift is reversible for the MeNHC-capped, HNHC-capped, and nqNHC-capped QDs upon protonation of the NHC. The magnitude of exciton delocalization induced by the NHC (after scaling for surface coverage) increases with increasing acidity of its pi-system, which depends on the substituent in the 4,5 positions of the imidazolylidene. The NHC-capped QDs maintain photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 4.2 ± 1.8 % for shifts of the optical band gap as large as 106 meV. Spectroelectrochemistry shows that the reduction of the napthoquinone moiety of QD-bound nqNHC ligandsto their radical anions results in an additional magnitude of bathochromic shift, ΔΔR, relative to the QDs capped with nqNHC ligands in their neutral state, a redox-sensitive exciton delocalizing system.

13:55 - 14:15
2.1-I3
Luther, Joseph
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado
Beyond Strain: Controlling the Surface Chemistry of CsPbI3 Nanocrystal Films for Improved Stability against Ambient Reactive Oxygen Species
Luther, Joseph
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, US

Joseph M. Luther obtained B.S. degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from North Carolina State University in 2001. At NCSU he began his research career under the direction of Salah Bedair, who was the first to fabricate a tandem junction solar cell. Luther worked on growth and characterization high-efficiency III-V materials including GaN and GaAsN. His interest in photovoltaics sent him to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to pursue graduate work. He obtained a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Colorado while researching effects of defects in bulk semiconductors in NREL�s Measurements and Characterization Division. In 2005, He joined Art Nozik�s group at NREL and studied semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation for which he was awarded a Ph.D. in Physics from Colorado School of Mines. As a postdoctoral fellow, he studied fundamental synthesis and novel properties of nanomaterials under the direction Paul Alivisatos at the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 2009, he rejoined NREL as a senior research scientist. His research interests lie in the growth, electronic coupling and optical properties of colloidal nanocrystals and quantum dots.

Authors
Joseph Luther a, Taylor Moot a, Bryon Larson a, Desislava Dikova a
Affiliations
a, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US, Denver West Parkway, 15013, Golden, US
Abstract

Colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have the possibility of easy scale-up due to their batch synthesis and have demonstrated excellent optoelectronic properties. In particular, perovskite NCs have remarkably high photoluminescence quantum yields in solution and as thin films and impressive open circuit voltages in photovoltaic devices. Despite these promising results, little work has been done to understand the stability of CsPbI3 NCs for optoelectronic device applications. It has been previously shown that the ligands impart tensile surface strain, which stabilizes the black three-dimensional (3D) perovskite phase against phase degradation, making CsPbI3 NCs some of the most structurally robust inorganic halide perovskites to date. However, understanding exactly how CsPbI3 NCs degrade under ambient conditions is critical. We demonstrate that the degradation mechanism of NCs is unique from, and 2 orders of magnitude slower than, their polycrystalline thin-film counterparts. Under specific conditions, CsPbI3 NC films show a compositional instability instead of the phase instability seen in large grain CsPbI3. This is mediated through reactions with superoxide and other reactive oxygen species, which are initiated from surface defect states, O2 and light. We then use this mechanistic insight to identify multiple strategies to prolong the lifetimes of CsPbI3 NC films, by going beyond surface strain to mitigate key surface chemistries. We demonstrate that (1) minimizing the number of surface defects (2) using an alkylammonium bromide ligand surface treatment and (3) encapsulation with an oxygen scavenging layer all increase NC film lifetimes by inhibiting various steps in the photo-oxidation degradation reaction.

14:15 - 14:35
2.1-I4
Hollingsworth, Jennifer
Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US
The Life and Death of a Quantum Dot
Hollingsworth, Jennifer
Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US, US

Jennifer A. Hollingsworth is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Fellow and Fellow of the American Physical Society, Division of Materials Physics, and The American Association for the Advancement of Science. She currently serves as Councilor for the Amercan Chemical Society Colloid & Surface Chemistry Division. She holds a BA in Chemistry from Grinnell College (Phi Beta Kappa) and a PhD degree in Inorganic Chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis. She joined LANL as a Director’s Postdoctoral Fellow in 1999, becoming a staff scientist in 2001. In 2013, she was awarded a LANL Fellows’ Prize for Research for her discovery and elaboration of non-blinking “giant” quantum dots (gQDs). In her role as staff scientist in the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT; http://www.lanl.gov/expertise/profiles/view/jennifer-hollingsworth), a US DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center and User Facility, she endeavors to advance fundamental knowledge of optically active nanomaterials, targeting the elucidation of synthesis-nanostructure-properties correlations toward the rational design of novel functional materials. Her gQD design has been extended to multiple QD and other nanostructure systems, and several are being explored for applications from ultra-stable molecular probes for advanced single-particle tracking to solid-state lighting and single-photon generation. A recent focus of her group is to advance scanning probe nanolithography for precision placement of single nanocrystals into metasurfaces and plasmonic antennas.

 

 

Authors
Jennifer Hollingsworth a
Affiliations
a, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US
Abstract

Solution-processed quantum dots (QDs) are finding applications in a wide-range of technologies from displays and lighting to photovoltaics and photodetectors. Advances in real-world technologies have been enabled by an increasing ability to fine-tune opto-electronic properties with strategies including quantum confinement effects, advanced heterostructuring (band-structure engineering at the nanoscale), and chemical manipulation of interfaces and surfaces. Taken together, these strategies have yielded numerous breakthroughs and insights into key fundamental excited-state processes in semiconductor nanocrystals. In our lab, we have focused on developing heterostructures that lead to suppression of non-radiative processes, including blinking, photobleaching, and Auger recombination.[1-8] Despite realizing novel properties that support a wide range of applications,[9-13] we cannot claim to have found the perfect QD. Even the most robust nanocrystal will fail in its most fundamental of property – the ability to emit light – in the face of specific stressors, such as high photon flux, temperature, and exposure to atmospheric oxygen/water.

Previously, we developed a “single-QD stress test” that was used to evaluate degradation-photophysics in two types of ultrastable, “giant” core/thick-shell QDs (gQDs).[14] Here, I will describe the latest in our efforts to elucidate QD failure mechanisms, with the aim to pinpoint structural and chemical features leading to the “killing” of a QD.[15] Specifically, we developed a method based on solid-state spectroscopy to obtain kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of photo-thermal degradation in single QDs, systematically varying ambient temperature and photon-pump fluence. We described the resulting degradation in emission with a modified form of the Arrhenius equation and showed that this reaction proceeds via pseudo zero-order reaction kinetics by a surface-assisted process with an activation energy of 60 kJ/mol. We note that the rate of degradation is ~12 orders of magnitude slower than the rate of excitonic processes, indicating that the reaction rate is not determined by ultrafast electron/hole trapping. We further determined that full-power LED-like excitation can add 90-140 K of heat to the nanocrystals due to high excitation rates and associated nonradiative relaxation. The specific reactions that are responsible for photo-oxidative degradation in gQDs are as yet unknown. However, at least one of the primary degradation reactions is now known to be a zero-order process with a reaction activation energy that is independent of photon flux or wavelength. In the search for new robust light-emitting nanocrystals, the new analysis method will enable direct comparisons between differently engineered nanomaterials or different organic/inorganic surface treatments.

14:35 - 14:55
Discussion
13:15 - 13:20
PerFun Short Break
13:20 - 13:30
PerFun Session Introduction 2.4
PerFun 2.4
Chair: Mohammad Nazeeruddin
13:30 - 13:50
2.4-I1
Noel, Nakita
Princeton University
Mitigating Interfacial Defects in Halide Perovskites
Noel, Nakita
Princeton University, US
Authors
Nakita Noel a
Affiliations
a, Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Priceton University
Abstract

Within the past few years, metal halide perovskites have been attracting significant interest due to their and their versatile use in a wide range of applications. These materials have been used in lasers, photodetectors, and most commonly, in photovoltaic devices and light emitting diodes. Despite the cheap and simple fabrication methods by which these materials are deposited, the resulting perovskite films are effectively high-quality semiconductors, and the power conversion efficiencies of lead halide perovskite solar cells are now exceeding certified values of 23%. However, perovskite-based devices are yet to achieve their full potential. One of the major hindrances to achieving this is an incomplete understanding of perovskite surfaces and interfaces. Deficiencies at these interfaces may be responsible for the largest losses in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices; limiting charge extraction, increasing non-radiative recombination rates and leading to hysteresis, and significantly increasing the voltage loss in perovskite photovoltaics. Herein, I will present interface modification strategies to mitigate these deficiencies. Charge-transfer dopants are used to dope the perovskite at the interface, resulting in the formation of narrow homojunctions. These homojunctions result in reduced interfacial recombination, suppressed hysteresis and improved device performance, yielding steady-state device efficiencies of over 21%. I will also explore the use fluoride-containing ionic liquids at the metal-oxide perovskite interface and show that not only do they affect the work function of the metal oxide, but also interact strongly with the perovskite, significantly improving the quality of the perovskite film. The utility of these defect mitigation strategies can readily be applied beyond perovskite PV and is likely to also improve the performance of a range of other perovskite-based optoelectronic devices

13:50 - 14:10
2.4-I2
Padture, Nitin
Brown University
The Materials Science of Halide Perovskites for Solar Cells
Padture, Nitin
Brown University, US
Authors
Nitin Padture a
Affiliations
a, Brown University, Hope Street, 184, Providence, US
Abstract

Thin-film perovskite solar cells (PSCs), whose record efficiency has rocketed from under 4% to over 25% (comparable to silicon solar cells) in just ten years, offer unprecedented promise of low-cost, high-efficiency renewable electricity generation. Organic-inorganic halide perovskite (OIHP) materials at the heart of PSCs have unique crystal structures, which entail rotating organic cations inside inorganic cages, imparting them with desirable optical and electronic properties. To exploit these properties for PSCs application, the reliable deposition of high-quality OIHP thin films over large areas is critically important. The microstructures and grain-boundary networks in the resulting polycrystalline OIHP thin films are equally important as they control the PSC performance and stability. Fundamental phenomena pertaining to synthesis, crystallization, coarsening, microstructural evolution, and grain-boundary functionalization involved in the processing of OIHP thin films for PSCs will be discussed with specific examples. In addition, the unique mechanical behavior of OIHPs, and its implication on the reliability of PSCs, will be discussed. The overall goal of our research is to have deterministic control over the scalable processing of tailored OIHP thin films with desired compositions, phases, microstructures, and grain-boundary networks for efficient, stable, and reliable PSCs of the future.

14:10 - 14:30
Discussion
13:35 - 13:40
NewOPV Closing
SolFuel 2.3
Chair: Dunwei Wang
13:35 - 13:45
2.3-T1
Gulati, Saumya
University of Louisville
Magnetically Aligned Tandem Semiconductor Microwire Particles for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Hydrogen Generation
Gulati, Saumya
University of Louisville, US
Authors
Saumya Gulati a, b, Josh Spurgeon a, b
Affiliations
a, University of Louisville, South Brook Street, 2320, Louisville, US
b, Conn center for renewable energy research
Abstract

There has been a vast improvement in photovoltaic (PV) technology in the last couple of decades; however, solar PV technology has a lot of drawbacks, including that it is intermittent, broadly dispersed, and non-transportable. Hence, cost-effective solar energy storage is critical for the widespread implementation of solar energy as the primary energy source. A novel slurry reactor design, for performing unassisted water-splitting to generate low-cost hydrogen with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency, will be presented. The design includes employing two semiconductors in tandem, to achieve sufficient photovoltage to overcome the thermodynamic minimum of 1.23 V for water splitting at room temperature and the overpotential associated with hydrogen evolution reaction (~0.05V) and oxygen evolution reaction(~0.3V). As a proof-of-concept, tandem TiO2/FTO/p+n-Si microwire photoelectrodes were fabricated demonstrating its ability to perform unassisted water splitting. These microwires were then detached from the substrate into a slurry. Ni was photoelectrodeposited at the Si base to prevent silicon oxidation, function as a hydrogen evolution catalyst, and be used as a ferromagnetic handle for magnetic alignment. Ongoing efforts to orient these microwires for minimizing spectral-mismatch and characterizing its impact on transmittance and hydrogen quantification will also be discussed.

13:45 - 13:55
2.3-T2
Zhang, Yuxuan
University of Montreal, Canada
Metal-organic framework with molecularly defined active sites as a model system for electrochemical biomass valorization
Zhang, Yuxuan
University of Montreal, Canada, CA
Authors
Yuxuan Zhang a, Nikolay Kornienko a
Affiliations
a, University of Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Montreal, CA
Abstract

Biomass valorization is an emerging method convert waste biomass into value-added feedstocks as an alternative to fossil-derived carbon chemicals. However, this technology has been limited by energy-intensity thermochemical reaction conditions. Alternatively, electrocatalytic biomass valorization is a sustainable and economical route that may utilize renewable electricity.

From a material design perspective, nickel and cobalt oxide derivatives have shown great potential in upgrading biomass, but the reaction still requires large overpotentials. Further, mechanistic knowledge is still lacking as the exact nature of the catalytically active sites is not fully understood. To this end, metal-organic frameworks are intriguing candidate catalyst systems as they exhibit high porosities and chemically well-defined active sites, enabling them to serve as ideal model systems for designing high efficiency catalysts. In this work, we present a MOF electrocatalyst model system featuring atomically precise Ni and Co active sites as a model system for electrochemical biomass valorization.

Synthesized via a simple solvothermal method, a MOF featuring square-planar nickel and cobalt metal ions coordinated the oxygen atoms of triphenylene li has been characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. Electrochemical analysis of this system reveals that the Ni and Co triphenylene MOFs surpass state-of-the-art metal oxide biomass valorization electrocatalysts in terms of onset potential and efficiency. This work opens avenues for understanding critical parameters en route to the design of next-generation biomass valorization electrocatalysts.

13:55 - 14:05
2.3-T3
Bedoya-Lora, Franky
Universidad de Antioquia - UdeA, Colombia
Interfacial charge transfer efficiency of photo-electrodes – how to measure it accurately and reproducibly
Bedoya-Lora, Franky
Universidad de Antioquia - UdeA, Colombia, CO
Authors
Franky Bedoya-Lora a, Michael Valencia-García a, Anna Hankin b, Dino Klotz c, Jorge Calderón a
Affiliations
a, Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales – CIDEMAT, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70, 52-21, Medellín, CO
b, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, GB
c, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Japan., 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukouka, JP
Abstract

The interfacial charge transfer efficiency is the ratio between the charge transfer rate at the photo-electrode surface and charge carrier generation rate within the photo-electrode. It is an essential parameter not only for material performance assessment and benchmarking but also for the design and modelling of photo-electrochemical devices as it can be used to predict current densities at a given photon flux and electrode potential [1]. Many techniques for measuring interfacial charge transfer efficiencies have been proposed and further developed along the years [2-3], and the theoretical foundations have been discussed in detail for the techniques themselves and the phenomena involved.

Alas, the experimental considerations, reproducibility, accuracy, and the comparison of all these techniques have been left for consideration to each researcher, giving rise to widespread values and reported procedures that sometimes cannot be compared and reconciled with each other. The most widely reported techniques are photo-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS), current density ratios in the presence and absence of sacrificial reagents (SR), transient photocurrents by chrono-amperometry (CA) after photon excitation, and more recently, intensity modulated photon current/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS, IMVS). From these, the charge transfer efficiency can be measured by using raw data (graphical approach), fitting to equivalent electrical circuits (EC) or by distribution of relaxation times (DRT) coupled with peak deconvolution. These techniques and data analysis approaches have their own drawbacks and impracticalities due to available hardware, quality of the data and the properties, such as nanostructure, of the photo-electrodes.

We will report the pitfalls, the accuracy and precision, and provide experimental recommendations for these techniques with a detailed comparison when employed for charge transfer efficiency determination in a stable Sn-doped hematite photo-electrode [4] for the oxygen evolution reaction. This will offer researchers in the field a pathway to select the best approach to measure this critical parameter. Findings indicate that CA offers the most reproducible values, while the use of sacrificial reagents is the least reproducible; however, these methods can only be used under specific conditions and the latter requires multiple measurements and absence of current doubling effects. IMPS coupled with EC offers reproducible and accurate values if photo-electrodes can be assessed under a wide range of light intensities and electrode potentials (rigorous approach); while PEIS coupled with DRT also offers reproducible, although underestimated, values with fewer experimental procedures and less specialised hardware.

14:05 - 14:15
2.3-T4
Kornienko, Nikolay
University of Montreal, Canada
Integrating Materials Design and Operando Spectroscopy for the Development of Next Generation CO2 Reduction and Biomass Valorization Catalytic Systems
Kornienko, Nikolay
University of Montreal, Canada, CA

I am currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Montreal, Department of Chemistry. My overarching motivation is to discover and implement the chemistry necessary to transition to a sustainable energy-based society. Specifically, I am developing materials to convert solar energy to chemical fuels as an energy storage media.

Authors
Nikolay Kornienko a
Affiliations
a, University of Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Montreal, CA
Abstract

Electrochemical conversion of abundant feedstocks to fuels and value-added chemicals is rapidly gaining significance as a promising method to harness renewable electricity. Specific reactions within this context that my research group is focused on are the reduction of CO2 and oxidation of waste biomass. Because the design of new catalytic systems is inherently linked to a precise understanding of how these reactions proceed on heterogeneous surfaces, we put considerable efforts in developing methodology for opernado probing with Raman spectroscopy CO2 reduction and biomass valorization. This talk will detail our efforts in the design, electrochemical characterization, and spectroscopic investigation of

1) Composite systems of metallic nanoparticles decorated with functional organic ligands with steer CO2 reduction reactions down a select pathway on their surface

2)  CO2 catalysis at the material-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) interface

3) Electrochemical oxidationof 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) on gold and transition metal oxide surface

In all, I show how using opernado Raman spectroscopy provides the mechanistic information on surface reaction mechanisms that enhance our understanding of functional hybrid interfaces and provides avenues for future materials design within the context of electrosynthesis of fuels and chemicals.

14:15 - 14:45
Discussion
14:30 - 14:35
PerFun Closing
14:45 - 14:50
SolFuel Closing
14:55 - 15:00
NCFun Closing
 
Thu Oct 22 2020
08:30 - 08:35
INfraNC Openning nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
PerEmer Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
PerNC Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
Sol2D Openning nanoGe
08:35 - 08:45
INfraNC Session Introduction 1.1 - Emmanuel Lhuillier
PerEmer 2.1
Chair: George Volonakis
08:35 - 08:45
2.1-T1
Kavanagh, Seán R.
Imperial College London and University College London
Bandgap Lowering in Lead-Free Cs2Ag(SbxBi1-x)Br6 Double Perovskite Alloys
Kavanagh, Seán R.
Imperial College London and University College London, GB
Authors
Seán R. Kavanagh a, b, c, Zewei Li d, Robert Palgrave a, Robert Hoye c, Aron Walsh b, c, e, David O. Scanlon a, b, f
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ, GB
b, Thomas Young Centre, University College London, UK, GB
c, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Prince’s Consort Road, South Kensington Campus, London, GB
d, Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, UK, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, GB
e, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, KR, KR
f, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom
Abstract

Double perovskites have emerged as promising candidate materials for high-performance next-generation optoelectronic technologies, owing to the ability to replace the toxic Pb2+ cation with a pair of more benign cations (e.g. Ag+ and Bi3+), while preserving the perovskite crystal structure.[1] Although double perovskites are air-stable and have demonstrated long charge-carrier lifetimes,[2] most double perovskites, including the prototypical Cs2AgBiBr6, have prohibitively wide bandgaps, limiting photoconversion and photocatalytic efficiencies.[2]

In this work, we demonstrate a novel route to lowering the bandgap of these materials through non-linear mixing of metal-cation orbitals. We develop a solution-based route to synthesize phase-pure Cs2Ag(SbxBi1-x)Br6 thin films, with the mixing parameter x tunable over the entire composition range. In doing so, we observe this system to disobey Vegard’s law, exhibiting significant bandgap bowing, such that mixed alloys demonstrate significantly reduced bandgaps, relative to the pure materials. We investigate the possible mechanisms for this nonlinear bandgap variation through relativistic hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, combined with in-depth measurements of the composition, phase and grain structure to yield detailed understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms of bandgap lowering. A type II staggered alignment of electronic states in these materials is found to facilitate non-linear orbital mixing at the band extrema, thus narrowing the alloy bandgaps.

Our work reveals pathways to bandgap engineering in double perovskite alloys, such that they may be better suited to photovoltaic (indoor PV – Eg, ideal = ~2 eV or tandem top-cells - Eg, ideal = 1.7-1.9 eV) or photocatalytic applications.

 

-----------------

Preprint available here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.00388

(Link to my contributed talk for the NanoGe ComPer (Conference on Theory and Computation of Halide Perovskites) focused solely on the theory aspect of this research work: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txaTYU9Pq1I)

08:45 - 08:55
2.1-T2
Ghosh, Dibyajyoti
Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US
Charge Carrier Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites: Impact of Spacer Cations
Ghosh, Dibyajyoti
Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US, US
Authors
Dibyajyoti Ghosh a
Affiliations
a, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics and Chemistry of Materials, US
b, Los Alamos National Laboratory, US, MS-J567, Los Alamos, NM 87545, US
Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are promising materials for environmentally stable next-generation optoelectronic device applications. Strong and complex dynamic coupling between the inorganic layer and the spacer cations play an important role on determining the photo-physical properties of these mechanically ‘soft’ 2D-perovskites at room-temperature. However, there is little atomistic understanding of the charge carrier dynamics at ambient conditions for these materials, limiting the possibilities to tune their optoelectronic performances through compositional engineering routes. In this talk, I will present our recent work where we combine nonadiabatic molecular dynamics with time-domain density functional theory methods at room temperature and study the dominant non-radiative carrier recombination and dephasing processes in monolayered lead halide perovskites. Our systematic study demonstrates that performance-limiting nonradiative carrier recombination processes greatly depend on the electron-phonon interactions induced by structural fluctuations and instantaneous charge localization in these materials. The stiffer interlayer packing in presence of selectively chosen spacer cations (benzene ring or cyclic dication based), which separates the lead iodide slabs, reduces the thermal fluctuations in these 2D-perovskites to a greater extent.[1-2] These dynamic modifications reduce the inelastic electron-phonon scattering and enhance the photogenerated charge carrier lifetime in layered perovskites making them suitable for various optoelectronic devices. The computational insights gained from these studies allow us to outline a set of robust design principles for 2D halide perovskites to strategically tune their optoelectronic properties.

08:55 - 09:05
2.1-T3
Argyrou, Aikaterini
University of Crete
Ligand-free metal halide microcrystals with superior stability and gas sensing capability
Argyrou, Aikaterini
University of Crete, GR
Authors
Aikaterini Argyrou a, b, Konstantinos Brintakis a, Athanasia Kostopoulou a, Emmanouel Stratakis a, c
Affiliations
a, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, GR
b, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes, Heraklio, 71003, GR
c, Department of Physics, University of Crete,, Heraclión, Grecia, Crete, GR
Abstract

Over the past few years, gas sensors have been an integral part for various aspects of our lives due to their ability to detect and monitor toxic and hazardous air pollutants.[1] Recently, all-inorganic lead halide nanostructures have emerged in gas sensing research since they can reversibly transduce any environmental stimuli into optical or electrical signal. Herein, we present the sensing performance of ligand-free all-inorganic CsPbBr3 microcrystals as self-powered ozone and hydrogen sensing elements with remarkable stability over time. In particular, cubic-like shaped crystals were fabricated by a cost-effective solution-based process, directly grown on electrodes and were characterized by electrical measurements under different gas concentrations, at room temperature working conditions. Different synthesis parameters have been evaluated to optimize the sensing capability of the formed materials.[2] The sensors incorporating such novel materials as sensing components displayed quick detection and short restoration times and exhibited significantly high sensitivity under ultra-low ozone and hydrogen concentrations down to 4 ppb and 1 ppm respectively.  Additionally, the great repeatability of the sensing process could provide new opportunities in gas sensing applications.

09:05 - 09:15
2.1-T4
Turkevych, Ivan
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba
Rudorffite solar cells based on silver iodibismutates fabricated by iodination of Ag-Bi bimetallic films
Turkevych, Ivan
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, JP
Authors
Ivan Turkevych a, Said Kazaoui a, Alexey Tarasov b, Eugene Goodilin b, Andrei Shevelkov b, Naoki Shirakawa a, Nobuko Fukuda a
Affiliations
a, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, 305-8565 Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, JP
b, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hills, Moscow, RU
Abstract

Although issues with efficiency[1], hysteresis[2], stability[3], and scalability[4] of Pb-based perovskite solar cells are mainly resolved and progressively shifted from fundamental research to industrial R&D, the issue of Pb toxicity, despite cost advantages of perovskite PV for mega-solar stations, can become prohibitive for their application in residential PV systems and wearable devices. The frequently expressed opinion that Pb toxicity can be simply neglected, because even a complete dissolution of the perovskite layer from a compromised module can increase Pb concentration in already contaminated urban soil by only a factor of 2, is a dangerous simplification that neglects high bioavailability of PbI2 and neurotoxicity Pb. The blood Pb level for children should not exceed 5 µg/L according to the WHO, which is the content of Pb in only 5x5 mm2 of the perovskite absorber layer. Therefore, the development of non-toxic Pb-free halide semiconductors is becoming an increasingly active area of fundamental research in the looking-forward perovskite PV research community. Unfortunately, Sn/Ge-based hybrid perovskites are either as much toxic or extremely unstable, while C2ABX6 double-perovskites (C=Cs,MA;A=Ag;B=Bi,Sb;X=Br,I) have indirect bandgaps. Exploration of hybrid C3B2X9 halides, such as MA3Bi3I9, consisting of isolated face-shared B2X9 bioctahedra, revealed their zero-dimensional electronic structure with poor transport properties. Among non-toxic Bi/Sb-based halides only A-B-X rudorffites featuring motif of edge-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra with the general formula AaBbXx (A=Ag,Cu;B=Bi,Sb;X=Br,I;x=a+3b) have demonstrated promising photovoltaic properties. These materials were named rudorffites after Walter von Rudorff, who discovered their prototype oxide NaVO2. Rudorffites feature direct bandgaps of 1.76-1.83eV that enable potential PCE of 18-20% by assuming Voc=1.2V and optimized optoelectronic losses, though, extensive studies of solar cells based on Ag3BiI6, Ag2BiI5, AgBiI4, AgBi2I7 rudorffites during the last three years[5-8] only led to improvements in PCE to 5.6%[9]. However, high Voc and Jsc demonstrated in separate works suggest feasibility of PCE improvement to 10% in the near future. The slow progress of PCE can be attributed to difficulties with fabrication of uniform layers from solvent-rich rudorffite adducts, tendency of native defects to create mid-gap recombination states, and difficulties with implementation of known doping strategies for spiro-OMeTAD due to incompatibility with tert-butylpyridine and acetonitrile additives. Here, I am going to highlight our recent achievements in rudorffite solar cells with morphologically perfect absorber layers fabricated through iodination of Ag-Bi bimetallic films and present a research roadmap on revealing the full potential of rudorffite photovoltaics.

09:15 - 09:45
Discussion
PerNC 1.1
Chair: Gabriele Raino
08:35 - 08:45
1.1-T1
KR, Pradeep
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
Vibrationally Assisted Delayed Fluorescence (VADF) in Perovskite Quantum Dots for Harvesting Delayed Fluorescence
KR, Pradeep
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, IN
Authors
Pradeep KR a, Ranjani Viswanatha a
Affiliations
a, JNCASR Jawaharlal Nerhu Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, BENGALURU, IN
Abstract

Opto-electronic devices based on all-inorganic perovskite systems are an energy-efficient source of lighting due to their high photoluminescence quantum yield (QY). However, dominant surface trapping continues to plague the field, despite their high defect tolerance, as evidenced by the several fold improvements in the external quantum efficiency of perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) upon appropriate surface passivation or physical confinement between high bandgap materials. Here, we introduce the concept of drip-feeding of photo-excited electrons from an impurity-induced spin-forbidden state to address this major shortcoming.  An increased and delayed (about several milliseconds) excitonic QY, and density functional theory establish the electron back-transfer signifying efficient recombination.  We term this electron back-transfer from Mn2+ to the host conduction band in this prototypical example of Mn-doped CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br) NCs through vibrational coupling as Vibrationally Assisted Delayed Fluorescence (VADF).

References:

1. Pradeep K. R., Debdipto Acharya, Priyanka Jain, Kushagra Gahlot, Anur Yadav, Andrea Camellini, Margherita Zavelani-     Rossi, Giulio Cerullo, Chandrabhas Narayana, Shobhana Narasimhan, and Ranjani Viswanatha, Harvesting Delayed Fluorescence in Perovskite Nanocrystals Using Spin-Forbidden Mn d States, ACS Energy Letters 2020 5 (2), 353-359

08:45 - 08:55
1.1-T2
Gualdrón, Andrés Fabián
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain
Photocatalytic activity of all-inorganic CsPbBr3-xIx mixed halide perovskites nanocrystals influenced by surface chemical states
Gualdrón, Andrés Fabián
Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, ES
Authors
Andrés Fabián Gualdrón a, b, Jhonatan Rodríguez-Pereira c, Eliseo Amado González b, Jorge Enrique Rueda d, Rogelio Ospina Ospina c, Sofia Masi a, Seog Joon Yoon e, Juan Tirado f, Franklin Jaramillo f, Said Agouram g, h, Vicente Muñoz-Sanjosé g, h, Sixto Giménez a, h, Iván Mora-Seró a, h
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM) - Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
b, Biofuels Lab-IBEAR, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia. C. P. 543050
c, Centro de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica en Materiales y Nanociencias (CMN), Universidad Industrial de Santander, Piedecuesta, Santander, Colombia. C.P. 681011
d, Modern Optic Group, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia. C. P. 543050
e, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea
f, Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales – CIDEMAT, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70, 52-21, Medellín, CO
g, Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, University of Valencia (UV), Spain, Valencia, ES
h, Unitat Mixta d’Investigació UV-UJI, Materials for Renewable Energy (MAER), Spain
Abstract

Mixed halide perovskites (MHP) have been highlighted as promissory materials in optoelectronics, due to improved light harvesting, photocarrier generation, and the ease for tuning their optical properties, specially their band gap.[1] This feature has open the door to analogous solar driven process as photocatalysis for carrying out the photodegradation of recalcitrant organic compounds more efficiently.[2] Nonetheless, the photocatalytic (PC) activity of MHP mainly depends on the surface chemical environment formed during their synthesis. This correlation has not been studied yet. In this work, we deduced the nature and the role of surface chemical states of MHP nanocrystals (NC) synthesized by hot-injection (H-I) and anion-exchange (A-E) methods, on their PC performance for the oxidation of β‑naphthol as a model system. We identified iodide vacancies as the main surface chemical states that promote the formation of highly reactive superoxide ions. These species define the PC activity of A‑E-MHP. Conversely, the PC performance of H-I-MHP is dictated by an adequate balance between band gap and highly oxidizing valence band. In this context, MHP can be considered as good photocatalysts for efficient environmental remediation.

08:55 - 09:05
1.1-T3
Vivani, Anna
University of Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology
Investigation of Highly Stable CsPbBr3 Nanoplatelets by Wide Angle X-ray Total Scattering Methods
Vivani, Anna
University of Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology, IT
Authors
Anna Vivani a, Federica Bertolotti a, Georgian Nedelcu b, c, Antonio Cervellino d, Maksym Kovalenko b, c, Norberto Masciocchi a, Antonella Guagliardi e
Affiliations
a, University of Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology, IT
b, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETHZ
c, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
d, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Forschungsstrasse 111, Villigen, CH
e, CNR-Istituto di Cristallografia (CNR-IC, Bari, Italy, Via Amendola, 122/O, Bari, IT
Abstract

The application of Lead Halide Perovskites (LHP) nanomaterials in many technological fields can take advantage of the physico-chemical properties typical of highly anisotropic morphologies, which can be introduced in nanocrystals by extreme reduction of their thickness [1, 2]. Overcoming critical issues of stability for extremely downsized nanocrystals [3], quasi-2D highly stable CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets (NPLs) have been synthetized, which exhibit large exciton binding energies and intense blue emission, with PL maximum tunable through fast post-synthetic anionic-exchange reactions. In addition, due to the large surface area, NPLs show a clear tendency to self-assemble, making them particularly promising for LED applications [4]. A precise and accurate atomistic description of LHP structures is of high relevance for formulating reliable considerations over their exceptional properties. An in-depth structural and morphological characterization of CsPbBr3 NPLs has been carried out by means of a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging and Wide Angle X-ray Total Scattering (WAXTS) techniques. The analysis of high resolution WAXTS data, collected with synchrotron source on colloidal suspensions, was based on the construction of atomistic models of NPLs and the application of the Debye Scattering Equation (DSE) [5]. This advanced approach of structural analysis addresses limitations of traditional X-ray diffraction techniques when applied to complex nanomaterials [6]. In the CsPbBr3 NPLs case, it enabled to elucidate multiple structural and morphological aspects. Through the analysis, robust information on the NPLs thickness of six PbBr6 octahedra monolayers was obtained. Moreover, the orthorhombic crystal structure and its specific relative orientation with respect to the NPLs facets were determined. In particular, the results indicate that the NPLs most extended surfaces expose octahedral equatorial bromides, whereas the axial bromides run parallel to the crystallographic b axis that is the most expanded. The overall surface composition remains defective in Br and Cs [7].

09:05 - 09:15
1.1-T4
Baranov, Dmitry
CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova
Miniature Light Emitters Based on Self-Assembled CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 Nanocrystals: Barriers and Opportunities
Baranov, Dmitry
CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, IT
Authors
Dmitry Baranov a, Liberato Manna a
Affiliations
a, Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy, Via Morego, 30, Genova, IT
Abstract

Perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals are attractive building blocks for light-emitting assemblies for a few reasons. First, modern syntheses enable preparation of size and shape-pure CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystal samples with tunable composition and optical properties. Second, microscopic assemblies of these nanocrystals can be readily grown by low-cost fabrication methods, and their structure examined by standard x-ray diffraction. Third, the strong light absorption and peculiar emission characteristics of these nanocrystals create the possibility of collective emission phenomena. A practical application of such assemblies, for example, as coherent light sources embedded in a circuit, requires a stable emission under optical or electric stimuli and environmental conditions. Dynamic surface passivation of nanocrystals and halide photochemistry are two factors that alter their light emission in counterintuitive ways. In our contribution, we will discuss these barriers to the stable optical performance of CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystal assemblies and ways to overcome them.

09:15 - 09:45
Discussion
08:35 - 08:45
Sol2D Session Introduction 1.1 - Christian Klinke
INfraNC 1.1
Chair: Sandrine Ithurria
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Jeong, Kwang Seob
Korea University
Mid-wavelength Infrared Emission of Colloidal Metal Chalcogenide and Chalcogen Nanocrystals
Jeong, Kwang Seob
Korea University, KR

Kwang Seob Jeong is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry at Korea University. He obtained his B.S. in chemistry at Korea University and Ph.D. in chemistry at the Pennsylvania State University in 2013. He worked at the University of Chicago as a JFI post-doctoral scholar from 2013 to 2015 before joining the chemistry department at Korea University. In 2018, he was nominated as 2018 emerging investigators by the Chemical Communications of Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) and won the POSCO TJ Park Science Fellow in 2019. His research focuses on the infrared colloidal nanocrystals.

Authors
Kwang Seob Jeong a
Affiliations
a, Korea University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, 145 Anam-ro, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Corea del Sur, Seoul, KR
Abstract

Soluble mid-IR emitters can be used to address many issues in various research fields such as telecommunications, biosensing, gas sensing, unmanned vehicles, etc. Due to such demands for soluble mid-IR emitters, both organic and inorganic chemistry approaches have been rigorously performed. Inorganic material-based colloidal mid-IR emitters are known to be superior to organic molecules-based infrared emitter in the mid-IR range because of a lack of the intrinsic vibrational modes arising from their own structure. Colloidal quantum dots are promising materials to realize the efficient mid-IR emitter since the nanocrystal mainly comprises of inorganic constituents, and its phonon energy is a few hundred wavenumbers, which is one order of magnitude smaller than the vibrational energy of organic molecules. Furthermore, the vibrational mode of organic ligands of the nanocrystal can be suppressed by surface ligand engineering. Especially, self-doped quantum dots, in which excess carriers occupy the lowest quantized electronic state of the conduction band in steady-state, are excellent candidates for the soluble mid-IR emitter with respect to spectral line-shape and wavelength-tunability. This talk will focus on carrier recombination processes occurring in the self-doped quantum dots studied by mid-IR spectroscopy. Additionally, biologically compatible mid-IR emitting nanocrystals and several applications based on the intraband transition will be discussed as well.

 

 

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Kershaw, Stephen
City University of Hong Kong
Near Infrared to Short Wavelength Infrared Emitting HgTe Quantum Dot Synthesis and Optical Devices based upon them
Kershaw, Stephen
City University of Hong Kong, HK
Authors
Stephen Kershaw a, Andrey Rogach a
Affiliations
a, MSE Dept & Centre for Functional Photonics City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon Hong Kong SAR
Abstract

There are many different synthetic methods to make infrared (IR) emitting quantum dots (QDs) such as the mercury chalcogenides. These materials have low bulk bandgaps and indeed in the case of HgTe even a zero-bandgap due to the inversion of the conduction and valence bands near the Γ point in the Brillouin zone. Shifting to the nanoparticle size scale, quantum confinement, aided by relatively large Bohr radii, can lead to very wide emission and band edge absorption tuning ranges and this has made these materials of great interest for near infrared (NIR) through to mid-infrared (MIR) photodetection applications. In this paper we describe a synthetic method based on aprotic solvent chemistry, which sits between aqueous QD synthesis and hot injection methods in other organic solvents and which is very suitable for larger scale syntheses.

In their own right, most IR fluorophores suffer from the same basic physics constraints of the interband emission process. The radiative transition rate rapidly decreases as the emission wavelength shifts further into the IR, to such an extent that non-radiative processes dominate hugely. In this range photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) are invariably very much smaller those typically encountered in the visible these days, even where the underlying transition oscillator strengths might be comparable. In the short wavelength IR (SWIR) it is not uncommon to find PLQYs below 1% in the 2-3 µm range and <0.1% above 3 µm, etc. This severe decline in radiative rate can be offset to some degree by using hybrid QD materials and device structures incorporating nanophotonic or nanoplasmonic entities that can counter the slowing in the radiative rate across some spectral ranges, and we will describe some of our collaborations in these areas. In addition, we will describe other collaborative work on compact integrated optical devices that have been aided by advances in photonic and plasmonic waveguide engineering.

09:25 - 09:45
1.1-I3
Wood, Vanessa
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Transport in Semiconductors of PbS Quantum Dots
Wood, Vanessa
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH

Vanessa Wood is a professor in the Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering at ETH Zurich, where she heads the Laboratory for Nanoelectronics. Before joining ETH in 2011, she was a postdoctoral associate in the laboratory of Professor Yet-Ming Chiang and Professor Craig Carter in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT, performing research on novel lithium-ion battery systems. She received her MSc and PhD from the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. Her graduate work was done in the group of Professor Vladimir Bulović and focused on the development of optoelectronic devices containing colloidally synthesized quantum dots.

Authors
Vanessa Wood a
Affiliations
a, ETH Zurich, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, CH
Abstract

In this talk, I will describe recent work in our group developing an understanding of charge transport in thin films made of nanocrystal quantum dots, which will hopefully facilitate their development for use in applications requiring predictive control over both optical and electronic properties. We have studied electronic structure and the origin of electronic traps states experimentally and computationally [1,2]. We have also performed large-scale, ab initio simulations to gain insight into free carrier generation and charge hopping in strongly confined nanocrystal quantum dot-based semiconductors. We have used these findings to build a predictive model for charge transport in these systems, which we validate experimentally using time-of-flight measurements [2]. We have then applied this model to probe the impact of energetic and positional disorder in nanocrystal solids on mobility [3]. These findings, which focus on PbS quantum dots, help identify what to prioritize in terms of synthesis and fabrication in the development of nanocrystal-based devices. 

 

[1] “Dopants and Traps in Nanocrystal-Based Semiconductor Thin Films: Origins and Measurement of Electronic Midgap States.” S. Volk, N. Yazdani, O. Yarema, M. Yarema, and V. Wood, ACS Applied Electronic Materials 2 (2020).

 

[2] “Charge Transport in Semiconductors Assembled from Nanocrystal Quantum Dots” N. Yazdani, S. Andermatt, M. Yarema, V. Farto, M. H. Bani-Hashemian, S. Volk, W.M.M. Lin, O. Yarema, M. Luisier, and V. Wood. Nature Communications, 12 (2020).

 

[3] “Understanding the effect of positional disorder in nanocrystal quantum dot thin films on charge transport” Y. Xing et al. in preparation.

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
Sol2D 1.1
Chair: Christian Klinke
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Norris, David
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Monodisperse Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Is It Possible?
Norris, David
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH

David J. Norris is currently the Director of the Optical Materials Engineering Laboratory and Professor of Materials Engineering at ETH Zurich. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemistry from the University of Chicago (1990) and MIT (1995), respectively. After an NSF postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, San Diego, he joined the NEC Research Institute in Princeton in 1997 where he led a photonics research group. He then became an Associate Professor (2001-2006) and Professor (2006-2010) of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota. In 2010, he moved to his current position at ETH Zurich. Prof. Norris is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received the Golden Owl award at ETH in 2012 for excellence in teaching. He was awarded an Advanced Grant from the European Research Council (2014-2019). In 2015, he was the recipient of the Max R�ssler Prize.

Authors
David Norris a
Affiliations
a, Optical Materials Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, Switzerland, Leonhardstrasse, 21, Zürich, CH
Abstract

The most studied class of semiconductor nanocrystal—quasi-spherical particles known as colloidal quantum dots—is now commercially used as a fluorescent material. However, despite decades of research, state-of-the-art samples still exhibit a distribution in size and shape, reducing their performance for applications. This leads to a fundamental question: can we achieve true monodispersity in semiconductor nanocrystals via chemical synthesis?  In this talk we will discuss this issue by examining two classes of nanomaterials. First, we will consider thin rectangular particles known as semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs). Amazingly, NPL samples can be synthesized in which all crystallites have the same atomic-scale thickness (e.g. 4 monolayers). This uniformity in one dimension suggests that routes to monodisperse samples might exist. After describing the underlying growth mechanism for NPLs, we will then move to a much older nanomaterial—magic-sized clusters (MSCs). Such species are believed to be molecular-scale arrangements (i.e. clusters) of semiconductor atoms with a specific (“magic”) structure with enhanced stability compared to particles slightly smaller or larger. Their existence implies that MSC samples can in principle be monodisperse in size and shape. Unfortunately, despite three decades of research, the formation mechanism of MSCs remains unclear, especially considering recent experiments that track the evolution of MSCs to sizes well beyond the cluster regime. Again, we will discuss the underlying growth mechanism and its implications for nanocrystal synthesis.

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Siebbeles, Laurens
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Observing Quantum-Confinement Effects on the In-Plane Translational Motion of Excitons in CdSe Nanoplatelets
Siebbeles, Laurens
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, NL

Laurens Siebbeles (1963) is leader of the Opto-Electronic Materials Section and deputy head of the Dept. of Chemical Engineering at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands. His research involves studies of the motion of electrons in novel nanostructured materials that have potential applications in e.g. solar cells, light-emitting diodes and nanoelectronics. Materials of interest include organic nanostructured materials, semiconductor quantum dots, nanorods and two-dimensional materials. Studies on charge and exciton dynamics are carried out using ultrafast time-resolved laser techniques and high-energy electron pulses in combination with quantum theoretical modeling.

Authors
Laurens Siebbeles a, Michele Failla a, Fransesco Garcia Florez b, Bas Salzmann b, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh b, Henk Stoof b
Affiliations
a, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, Julianalaan, 136, Delft, NL
b, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, Princetonplein, 1, Utrecht, NL
Abstract

Colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) can be made with a thickness of atomic precision in the range of about one to a few nanometers only. The lateral sizes are of the order of several to tens of nanometers. The thickness is less than the bulk exciton bohr radius and consequently leads to strong effects of spatial confinement on the internal energy of an exciton. Variation of the thickness of a NPL thus allows one to tune the photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectra.

Interestingly, however, the experimental shape of PL and absorption spectra also depends on the lateral sizes of a NPL. To date, the latter has not received much attention, with the exception of a few (mainly theoretical) studies and the origin of this effect has been inconclusive.

We measured the PL and absorption spectra for a series of NPLs with different lateral sizes and find that the dependence of the optical spectra on the lateral size is fully explained by taking into account the quantum-confinement effects on the translational motion of excitons in the plane of the NPLs. The spectra of all samples considered can be reproduced very accurately by a theoretical description of exciton energies and oscillator strengths based on the quantum mechanical particle-in-a-box model and the known size-distribution of the NPLs.

09:25 - 09:45
1.1-I3
Lhuillier, Emmanuel
HgTe nanoplatelets, the most confined nanocrystals
Lhuillier, Emmanuel
Authors
Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
Abstract

Quantum confinement is certainly the most striking properties of nanocrystal at the nanoscale. In CdSe this is used to tune the energy of the first exciton from green to red enabling their use as downconverter for display. In HgTe the lack of bulk band gap and the weak conduction effective mass makes that the absorption edge can be widely tuned from UV to THz [1]. HgTe 2D nanoplatelets (NPL) are certainly the most confined form of Hgte with up to 1.5 eV of confinement energy. The sysnthesis of these NPLs has recently been reported via a two steps fabrication method including a cation exchange step from CdTe NPL [2]. Such large confinement corresponds to a wavevector range of the HgTe relation dispersion far away from the Γ point, where the latter starts being highly non-parabollic, allowing to explore a strong confinement regime. As a result, the optical properties of the NPL also gets affected. In particular, we report that the temperature dependence of the HgTe NPL optical band gap (dEG/dT<0) is opposite to the one observed in bulk and large HgTe NCs (dEG/dT>0).

To understand this trend, we systematically explore the pressure (0.-4GPa full range of existence of the zinc blende phase) temperature (10-300K) and confinement (0.25-1.5 eV) phase diagram of HgTe and correlate spectroscopic data with a 14 band kp model. The model unveils the critical role plays by the upper conduction band in the curvature of the first conduction band in the strong confinement regime.

These HgTe NPL are latter integrated into field effect transistors and photodetectors [3-4] to reveal the nature of the majority carrier and their photoconductive properties in the near and short wave infrared. 

Ref

[1] Terahertz HgTe nanocrystals: beyond confinement, N Goubet et al, .JACS 140, 5033-5036 (2018)

[5] Strongly confined HgTe 2D nanoplatelets as narrow near-infrared emitters, E Izquierdo et al, JACS 138,  10496-10501 (2016)

[3] Charge dynamics and optolectronic properties in HgTe colloidal quantum wells, C Livache et al, Nano Letters 17 (7), 4067-4074 (2017)

[4] Impact of dimensionality and confinement on the electronic properties of mercury chalcogenide nanocrystals, C Gréboval et al, Nanoscale 11 (9), 3905-3915 (2019)

 

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
09:45 - 09:50
PerEmer Short Break
09:45 - 09:50
PerNC Short Break
09:50 - 10:00
PerEmer Session Introduction 2.2 -Dmitry Dirin
09:50 - 10:00
PerNC Session Introduction - Maryna Bodnarchuk
PerEmer 2.2
Chair: Dmitry Dirin
10:00 - 10:20
2.2-I1
Yaffe, Omer
Weizmann Institute of Science
Anharmonic semiconductors - Lessons Learned from Halide perovskites
Yaffe, Omer
Weizmann Institute of Science, IL

Omer Yaffe is a senior scientist (assistant professor) at the Weizmann Institute of Science.

He investigates the structure-function relationship in functional materials such as semiconductors, ionic-conductors, and ferroelectrics. Specifically, he is interested in phenomena that stems from strongly anharmonic atomic displacements in solids. 

He earned his Bachelor's degrees in chemistry and chemical engineering (dual-program) at Ben Gurion University in 2005, followed by a master’s degree in chemical engineering. In 2013, he earned a Ph.D. from the Weizmann Institute followed by a postdoctoral term at Columbia University, New York. 

Authors
Omer Yaffe a
Affiliations
a, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl St. 234, Rehovot, IL
Abstract

In semiconductor physics, the dielectric response, charge carrier mobility and other electronic material properties at finite temperatures, are always treated within the framework of the harmonic approximation. This approach is very successful in capturing the properties of tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors such as silicon and GaAs. In my talk, I will show that halide perovskites are fundamentally different due to their strongly anharmonic lattice dynamics. Large amplitude, local polar fluctuations induced by lattice anharmonicity localize the electronic states and enhance the screening of electric charge within the material. In other words, in some aspects, halide perovskites behave more like a liquid than a crystalline solid. I will also discuss the implications of these findings on other families of semiconductors such as organic and rock-salt semiconductors.

10:20 - 10:40
2.2-I2
KATAN, Claudine
Insight into the Versatility of Layered Metal Halide Perovskites Based on Atomic Scale Modeling
KATAN, Claudine
Authors
Claudine KATAN a
Affiliations
a, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, INSA Rennes, Rennes, FR
Abstract

Currently, many different perovskite -with corner-sharing octahedra- as well as non-perovskite metal-halide solids are synthetized worldwide entailing the need for in-depth understanding of their structure/property relationships. In this regard, combining the huge accumulated knowledge over the last decades, on halide but also oxide perovskites, with modern atomic scale modeling as well as symmetry analysis has proved useful. Among others, new compositions such as A'2An-1MnX3n+1 (where A and A' are cations, X is halide and M is metal) afford layered structures with a controlled number (n, currently ≤ 7) of octahedra in the perovskite layer. Those correspond to innate heterostructures that offer an ideal platform for fundamental understanding such as effect of quantum or dielectric confinement.

In this talk, I will discuss some of our recent theoretical results paying attention on newly discovered halide perovskite. Impact of composition and structural pattern on properties will be inspected, with particular emphasis on the effect of quantum and dielectric confinements on charge carriers and excitons. Opportunities to engineer layered halide perovskite properties by considering dications or conjugated molecules in the interlayer will also be discussed.

10:40 - 11:00
Abstract not programmed
11:00 - 11:20
Discussion
PerNC 1.2
Chair: Maryna Bodnarchuk
10:00 - 10:20
1.2-I1
Pradhan, Narayan
Indian association for the cultivation of science
Connecting Perovskite Nanocrystals
Pradhan, Narayan
Indian association for the cultivation of science, IN
Authors
Narayan Pradhan a
Affiliations
a, Indian association for the cultivation of science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, IN
Abstract

Connecting nanocrystals with removing interface ligand barriers is one of the key steps for efficient carrier transportation in opto-electronic device fabrication. Typically, ion migration for crystal deformation or connection with another nanocrystals needs a solvent as medium. However, in contrary, this has been observed for CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals in film where nanocrystals were swelled to get wider and fused with adjacent nanocrystals in self-assembly in film with solvent evaporation. Depending on precursor composition and exposed facets, again these connections could be programmed for tuning their connecting directions leading to different shapes. Aging further on solid substrate, these were also turned to continuous film of nanostructures eliminating all inter-particles gaps on the film. This transformation could be ceased at any point of time, simply by heating or adding sufficient ligands. Analysis suggested that these unique and controlled connections were only observed with polyhedron shaped nanostructures with certain compositions and not with traditionally cubes. Details of these transformations, the change in optical properties, modulations of shapes, importance of solvent evaporation and the impact of different shaped nanostructures in this process would be discussed and presented in the presentation.

10:20 - 10:40
1.2-I2
Manna, Liberato
CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova
Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Synthesis, the Role of the Surface, Heterostructures
Manna, Liberato
CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, IT

Bio Professional Preparation M.S. in Chemistry, with Honours, University of Bari, Italy, 1996 Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Bari, Italy, 2001 Research interests Prof. L. Manna is an expert of synthesis and assembly of colloidal nanocrystals. His research interests span the advanced synthesis, structural characterization and assembly of inorganic nanostructures for applications in energy-related areas, in photonics, electronics and biology.

Authors
Liberato Manna a
Affiliations
a, Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy, Via Morego, 30, Genova, IT
Abstract

 

Halide perovskite semiconductors can merge the highly efficient operational principles of conventional inorganic semiconductors with the low‑temperature solution processability of emerging organic and hybrid materials, offering a promising route towards cheaply generating electricity as well as light. Following a surge of interest in this class of materials, research on halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as well has gathered momentum in the last years. While most of the emphasis has been put on CsPbX3 perovskite NCs, more recently the so-called double perovskite NCs, having chemical formula A+2B+B3+X6, have been identified as possible alternative materials, together with various other metal halides structures and compositions, often doped with various other elements. This talk will also discuss the research efforts of our group on these materials. We will highlight how for example halide double perovskite NCs are much less surface tolerant than the corresponding Pb-based perovskite NCs and that alternative surface passivation strategies need be devised in order to further optimize their optical performance. Other topics that will be covered are the role of surface ligands on stabilizing the NCs, including those with alloy compositions, and the synthesis of heterostructures in which one domain is a halide perovskite and the other domain is another material.

  

  

10:40 - 11:00
Discussion
INfraNC 1.2
Chair: Emmanuel Lhuillier
10:05 - 10:15
1.2-T1
Grotevent, Matthias J.
EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Colloidal HgTe Quantum Dot/Graphene Phototransistor with a Spectral Sensitivity Beyond 3 µm
Grotevent, Matthias J.
EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH
Authors
Matthias J. Grotevent a, b, Claudio U. Hail c, Sergii Yakunin b, d, Dominik Bachmann a, Michel Calame a, e, Dimos Poulikakos c, Maksym V. Kovalenko b, d, Ivan Shorubalko a
Affiliations
a, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Transport at Nanoscale Interfaces, Dübendorf, Switzerland, CH
b, ETH – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Switzerland, CH
c, Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zürich, Switzerland, Sonneggstrasse, 3, Zürich, CH
d, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
e, Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse, 82, Basel, CH
Abstract

Infrared light detection enables diverse applications ranging from night vision to gas analysis. Emerging technologies such as low-cost cameras for self-driving cars require highly-sensitive, low-cost photodetectors with spectral sensitivities up to wavelengths of 10 µm. Colloidal PbS quantum dot (QD) sensitized graphene field-effect transistors may potentially lead to low cost photodetectors; however, the spectral sensitivity of these phototransistors has been limited to about 1.6 µm. Here, we present HgTe QD/graphene phototransistors with specific detectivities of 6×108 Jones at a wavelength of 2.5 µm. At room temperature, the HgTe QD/graphene phototransistor does not show any photoresponse, and had to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to exhibit detector functionality.

 The photoresponse of QD/graphene phototransistors likely depends on a Schottky-like potential barrier resulting from the band alignment of the two materials. It promotes the transfer of photo induced charge carriers from QDs to graphene. Interestingly, a charge carrier transfer at low temperatures is not frozen-out. We propose that the strength of the surface dipoles at the QD/ligand interface is temperature-dependent. This would effect the conduction- and valence band positions of the QD thin-film in respect to the vacuum level, which ultimately may alter the band alignment with graphene resulting in functional detectors. Besides extending of the spectral sensitivity, the HgTe QD/graphene photodetector exhibit high specific detectivities, in excess of 108 Jones, even at kHz light modulation frequencies, making them suitable for fast video imaging.

Altogether, the simple device architecture, QD film patterning capabilities, and the extended spectral sensitivity make QD/graphene phototransistors potentially suitable for multi-color photodetector cameras.

10:15 - 10:25
1.2-T2
Gréboval, Charlie
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, France.
Ionic glasses and ferroelectric materials as new strategies to tune the carrier density in narrow bandgap nanocrystal arrays
Gréboval, Charlie
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, France., FR
Authors
Charlie Gréboval a, Audrey Chu a, Ulrich Noumbé b, Jean-François Dayen b, Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
b, IPCMS, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, B. P. 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
Abstract

Beyond their use as light sources for displays, nanocrystals also appear as promising candidates to design low cost infrared sensors. In such devices the carrier density is a key parameter driving the signal-to-noise ratio. The carrier density can be controlled thanks to the gate in a field effect transistor configuration. Most common gates are SiO2 and electrolyte[1] which are respectively limited by their low capacitance and (only) room temperature operation. Here, we explore (i) a high capacitance solid state gating from ionic glass (LaF3) and (ii) a leakage free and low temperature operation gate based on quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 substrate.[2]

This high capacitance LaF3 gate can be coupled to graphene electrodes enabling (i) IR transparency, (ii) tunable work function of the contact and (iii) propagation of the gate induced doping to the film thanks to the large quantum capacitance of graphene. We demonstrate the formation of a p-n junction improving charge extraction.[3] The latter enable operating condition which simultaneously maximizes the response and reduces the dark current enhancing the detectivity by two orders of magnitude.

In a second part we demonstrate ferroelectric gating of a HgTe NC array with a SrTiO3 (STO) gate. The divergence of the dielectric constant of STO at low temperature enables a high capacitance gate with a thick (500 µm) insulating substrate making it leakage and breakdown free. This gate is compatible with low temperature (<100 K) operation usually required for narrow band gap NC devices. This gate is then coupled to a plasmonic resonator to obtain a broadband absorption (1.5-3 µm) of 30% of the incident light. The combination of the STO gate with the plasmonic resonator shows a detectivity that can be as high as 1012 Jones at 30 K.

10:25 - 10:35
1.2-T3
Lin, Weyde M.M.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Using Device-level Simulation as a Tool for Understanding the Operation of Nanocrystal-based Solar Cells
Lin, Weyde M.M.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH
Authors
Weyde M.M. Lin a, Nuri Yazdani a, Olesya Yarema a, Sebastian Volk a, Maksym Yarema a, Thomas Kirchartz b, Vanessa Wood a
Affiliations
a, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH
b, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung / Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE / University of Duisburg-Essen, DE
Abstract

The recent progress in nanocrystal-based solar cell development is very encouraging and makes this kind of solar cell a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaics. However, understanding the factors that hinder further improvement of the solar cell performance are not trivial due to the complex interlinked parameters of the devices. Despite newly gained understanding of the underlying chemical and physical parameters, the improvements to the nanocrystal-based solar cells have been mostly trial-and-error based. In this work, we use a simulation tool based on 1D drift-diffusion to run full device simulations of simple Schottky as well as more complex heterojunction devices. By only using input parameters, which were either derived from measurements or large-scale ab initio simulations, and no additional fitted parameters, we are able to closely match the characteristics of measured devices. We use these simulations as a tool to understand the influence of interfaces, charge carrier mobility and trap-assisted recombination.

Our study demonstrates the ability to simulate nanocrystal-based solar cells, independent of device architecture and without relying on fitting. We can use this to systematically simulate improvements to devices and guide further development of nanocrystal-based solar cells.

10:35 - 10:45
Abstract not programmed
10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
Sol2D 1.2
Chair: Christian Klinke
10:05 - 10:15
1.2-T1
Budniak, Adam K.
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Exfoliated CrPS4 with Promising Photoconductivity
Budniak, Adam K.
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, IL
Authors
Adam K. Budniak a, Niall A. Killilea b, Szymon J. Zelewski c, Mykhailo Sytnyk b, Yaron Kauffmann d, Yaron Amouyal d, Robert Kudrawiec c, Wolfgang Heiss b, Efrat Lifshitz a
Affiliations
a, Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute and the Helen Diller Quantum Information Center; Technion, Haifa, Israel, IL
b, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), DE, DE
c, Department of Experimental Physics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, PL
d, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel
Abstract

Layered semiconductors attract significant attention due to their diverse physical properties controlled by their composition and the number of stacked layers, but still obtaining material in large quantity may be a challenge. Liquid exfoliated van der Waals semiconducting crystals have been recently described as the main active material in all-printed devices such as transistors or photodetectors. This technique may lower device preparation cost by accelerating production and omitting expensive methods like lithography.

Herein, large crystals of the ternary layered semiconductor - chromium thiophosphate (CrPS4) are prepared in big amounts by a vapor transport synthesis. Optical properties are determined using photoconduction, absorption, photoreflectance, and photoacoustic spectroscopy exposing the semiconducting properties of the material. [1] A simple, versatile, one-step protocol for mechanical exfoliation onto transmission electron microscope grid is developed [1], [2] and multiple layers are characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods, including atomic resolution elemental mapping confirming the structure by directly showing the positions of the columns of different elements’ atoms. [1]

CrPS4 is also liquid exfoliated and then obtained suspension is converted into an ink.  Finally, the CrPS4 ink in combination with colloidal graphene is used for creating ink-jet printed photodetector. This all-printed graphene/CrPS4/graphene heterostructure detector demonstrates specific detectivity of 8.3×108 (D*). The study shows a potential application of both bulk crystal as well as individual flakes of CrPS4 as active components in light detection, when introduced as ink printable moieties with a large benefit for manufacturing. [1]

10:15 - 10:25
1.2-T2
Dunbar, Tyler
Cornell University, US
Dynamics of Nanocrystal Self-assembly at Fluid Interfaces: From Droplet to Superlattice
Dunbar, Tyler
Cornell University, US, US
Authors
Tyler Dunbar a, Daniel Balazs a, Detlef Smilgies b, Tobias Hanrath a
Affiliations
a, Cornell University, Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, US
b, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) Cornell University, Wilson Laboratory Ithaca, NY 14853, USA, Ithaca, US
Abstract

Directing the self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals into ordered superstructures is of fundamental and technological interest for creating designer materials that bridge multiple length scales. The assembly of polyhedral nanocrystals at the interface of two immiscible fluids presents a promising approach to create high-fidelity superlattices with exceptional translational order and enables control over the orientational order of constituent building blocks. However, the full potential of this assembly approach remains elusive since despite the ostensible simplicity of the interfacial assembly, many knowledge gaps persist concerning the nuanced physicochemical phenomena that occur during assembly.  

Using synchrotron-source grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), the fluid and particle dynamics which lead to the final highly ordered superlattices can be elucidated. In this work, we used high time resolution GISAXS to characterize the spreading and drying dynamics of PbSe nanocrystals assembling from droplet contact with the liquid substrate to the final superlattice structure. Additionally, we explain how tuning the solvent parameters, such as volatility, surface tension and polarity, determines the mesoscale morphology of 2D superlattices on ethylene glycol. Specifically, the solvent interaction with the liquid substrate and ligand shell dynamics during evaporation have significant effects on the final superlattice morphology. Improved understanding of the kinetic phenomena giving rise to superlattice topology will enable growth of high-quality superlattices with long-range order at both nano- and micro- scales.

10:25 - 10:35
Abstract not programmed
10:35 - 10:45
1.2-T3
Seitz, Michael
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, ES
Exciton diffusion in two-dimensional metal-halide perovskites
Seitz, Michael
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, ES, ES
Authors
Michael Seitz a, Alvaro Magdaleno a, Nerea Alcázar-Cano a, Marc Melendez a, Tim Lubbers a, Sanne Walraven a, Sahar Pakdel b, Elsa Prada a, Rafael Delgado-Buscalioni a, Ferry Prins a
Affiliations
a, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, ES
b, Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy and iNano, Denmark, Ny Munkegade, 120, Aarhus, DK
Abstract

There is an increasing interest in two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites for solar harvesting and light emitting applications due to their superior chemical stability as compared to bulk perovskites.[1,2] Both, purely 2D and blends of 2D/3D phases have been successfully employed in solar cells with an efficiencies of >18% and >21%, respectively.[3,4] As with earlier advances in the field of perovskites, these technological improvements are advancing at a pace that far exceeds our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying their performance. Particularly, the reduced dimensionality in 2D perovskites results in excitonic excited states which dramatically modify the dynamics of charge collection. While the carrier dynamics in bulk systems is increasingly well understood, a detailed understanding about the spatial dynamics of the excitons in 2D perovskites is lacking.[5]

Here, we present the direct measurement of the intrinsic diffusivities and diffusion lengths of excitons in single crystalline 2D perovskites using time-resolved microscopy. Our technique allows us to follow the temporal evolution of a diffraction limited exciton population with sub-nanosecond resolution revealing the spatial and temporal exciton dynamics. We reveal two distinct temporal regimes: For early times excitons undergo unobstructed normal diffusion, while at later times exciton transport becomes subdiffusive as excitons get trapped. Using the versatility of perovskite materials, we study the influence of the organic spacer, cation and dimensionality (n = 1 and 2) on the diffusion dynamics of excitons in 2D perovskites. We find that changes in these parameters can yield diffusivities which differ in up to one order of magnitude. We show that these changes arise due to strong exciton-phonon interactions and potentially with the formation of large exciton-polarons. Our results provide insight into how excitons diffuse through 2D perovskites and yield clear design parameters for more efficient 2D perovskite solar cells and light emitting devices.[6]

10:35 - 10:45
1.2-T4
Paritmongkol, Watcharaphol
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Synthesis of Blue-Emitting Silver Phenylselenolate in Thin Film and Crystal Forms.
Paritmongkol, Watcharaphol
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US

PhD student in the Tisdale lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Authors
Watcharaphol Paritmongkol a, b, Woo Seok Lee b, c, Tomoaki Sakurada b, Wenbi Shcherbakov-Wu a, b, William Tisdale b
Affiliations
a, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology (MIT), Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Avenue, 77, Cambridge, US
b, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Green Bldg, Cambridge, MA 02142, EE. UU., Cambridge, US
c, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), Massachusetts Avenue, 77, Cambridge, US
Abstract

Silver phenylselenolate (AgSePh) is an emerging excitonic two-dimensional semiconducting member of a hybrid metal-organic chalcogenolate family. In addition to its two-dimensional structure with high exciton binding energy, strong in-plane anisotropy, and a narrow emission spectrum at 467 nm, AgSePh does not contain any toxic element and is tolerant to both polar and non-polar solvents. AgSePh can be synthesized by a solution-phase reaction as well as a scalable vapor-phase method. Here, we show by testing 24 solvents – with different polarities, boiling points and functional groups – that complexation between silver cations and solvent molecules is the key to an increasing size of AgSePh crystals. With the introduction of amine solvents, we are able to increase the size of AgSePh crystals grown by the solution-phase biphasic reaction from ~3 µm to >200 µm and that of AgSePh thin films prepared by the vapor-phase tarnish reaction from ~200 nm to >1 µm. We also observed that the photoluminescence lifetime of AgSePh is stable after storing under ambient condition and the addition of amines boosts this lifetime from <40 ps to 200 ps. The improved syntheses reported in this work will allow easy integrations of AgSePh in both thin-film electronic and nanoelectronic applications as well as the exploration of strong excitonic anisotropy.

10:45 - 11:15
Discussion
11:00 - 13:00
PerNC Break
11:15 - 12:00
INfraNC Break
11:15 - 12:00
Sol2D Break
11:20 - 11:25
PerEmer Closing
12:00 - 12:05
INfraNC Announcement nanoGe
12:00 - 12:05
Sol2D Announcement nanoGe
INfraNC 1.3
Chair: Emmanuel Lhuillier
12:05 - 12:15
1.3-T1
Degiron, Aloyse
Université de Paris and CNRS
Endowing light emission from near-infrared nanocrystals with orbital angular momentum and vectorial polarization states
Degiron, Aloyse
Université de Paris and CNRS, FR
Authors
Aloyse Degiron a
Affiliations
a, Université de Paris and CNRS, Rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 10, Paris, FR
Abstract

Optical antennas have become ubiquitous tools to enhance and tailor the spontaneous emission of quantum emitters [1]. The designs rules which have been established over the years are based on the understanding that optical antennas operate through the Purcell effect—the dependence of the fluorescence rate of point-source emitters to their surrounding environment. Here, we experimentally show that this paradigm fails for ensembles of interacting emitters (such as quantum dot solids) and that a different rule governs their interactions with optical antennas—the local Kirchhoff law recently introduced by Greffet et al [2].

We discuss the specificities of this regime by considering assemblies of PbS nanocrystals in direct contact with arrays of metal nanoparticles [3-5]. We illustrate the new opportunities of these findings by showing:

1) how to overcome the limiting trade-off between high electroluminescence (which occurs for PbS nanocrystals separated by nanometre-long ligands) and high carrier mobilities (which requires PbS nanocrystal capped with much shorter molecules) [3].

2) how to turn the isotropic and unpolarised luminescence of PbS nanocrystals into vector beams and other non-trivial light streams associated with fruitful developments in fluorescence imaging, optical trapping, high-speed telecommunications and quantum technologies.

12:15 - 12:25
1.3-T2
Chu, Audrey
Shaping of the Spectral Response in Infrared Nanocrystal-Based Detectors using Light-Matter Coupling
Chu, Audrey
Authors
Audrey Chu a, b, Charlie Gréboval a, Grégory Vincent b, Emmanuel Lhuillier a
Affiliations
a, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
b, ONERA−The French Aerospace Lab, 6, Chemin de la Vauve aux Granges, BP 80100, F-91123 Palaiseau, France, FR
Abstract

Regarding low-cost infrared photodetection, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), thanks to their large tunability, appear to be a new interesting building-block.[1] However, due to hopping transport, the diffusion length of the carriers in CQD film is short (typically few 10-100 nm). The absorption depth of the light is much larger (few µm). As a result, there is a trade-off between transport and optical absorption: usually thin films are used then, and only few % of the incident light is absorbed.[2] Light-matter coupling based on sub-wavelength resonators are used to tackle this issue.

Our device relies on guided mode resonators (GMR) and is made of a slab of CQDs (waveguide) onto a gold grating. The latter has two roles: it focuses the light into the nanocrystal film increasing its absorption, and it plays the role of electrode. The device is designed to induce a resonance and to achieve 100% of absorption at the targeted wavelength, for one of the polarization.[3] This particular design also enables photoconductive gain to occur. Both those effects generate a boost of responsivity of few orders of magnitude. This method is versatile and can be applied at different wavelengths (1.55 µm SWIR and 2.5 µm extended SWIR) with different materials (HgTe, PbS and a mix of perovskite/PbS).[3,4]

The introduction of nano-resonators not only generates a responsivity enhancement but enable spectral shaping oh this responsivity. First, it is possible to tune the position peak (of few hundreds of nm) by changing geometrical parameters such as the period of the grating.[3] Secondly, polarized devices can be made by inducing unmatched resonances in TE and TM polarizations. Then it is possible to achieve broadband absorption by introducing multi-resonances.

12:25 - 12:35
1.3-T3
Melnychuk, Christopher
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, US
Mid-infrared Electron Dynamics in Mercury Chalcogenide Nanocrystals
Melnychuk, Christopher
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, US, US
Authors
Christopher Melnychuk a, Philippe Guyot-Sionnest a
Affiliations
a, James Frank Institute, University of Chicago, USA
Abstract

Devices based on small-gap mercury chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystal inks are demonstrating increasingly high performance short and mid-wave infrared photodetection. These systems have the potential to eliminate cryogenic cooling needs and vastly reduce device costs compared to the current single-crystal devices. To achieve this goal and develop these materials as mid-infrared lasers, more detailed understandings of the exciton and carrier dynamics are required. Here we describe mid-infrared picosecond absorption and photoluminescence studies on HgTe and HgSe nanocrystal quantum dots. Comparisons between interband and intraband transitions in intrinsic and n-type systems reveal interesting new phenomena such as slow or absent Auger relaxations in n-type systems, phonon bottlenecks, and brighter emission from intraband versus interband transitions at the same wavelength. Yet, the measured lifetimes are limited by other nonradiative processes unique to small-gap materials. Investigations of the temperature- and surface-dependence of the luminescence in novel HgX/CdX core/shell structures help unravel such mechanisms. In parallel to these fundamental spectroscopic studies, we discuss progress towards harnessing the Auger suppression in n-HgSe to achieve mid-infrared lasing in this system. The deeper understanding of nonradiative relaxation in small-gap nanocrystals afforded by these experiments provides a path towards realizing high performance infrared photodetection near room temperature and mid-infrared lasing with nanocrystal quantum dots.

12:35 - 12:45
1.3-T4
Kamath, Ananth
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, US
Bright Mid-Infrared Photoluminescence in Giant HgSe/CdS Quantum Dots
Kamath, Ananth
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, US, US
Authors
Ananth Kamath a, Christopher Melnychuk a, Philippe Guyot-Sionnest a
Affiliations
a, James Frank Institute, University of Chicago, USA
Abstract

Fast nonradiative relaxation in narrow gap semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is a major bottleneck for their application in mid-infrared detection, LEDs and lasing. Nonradiative decay in the mid-IR is widely attributed to relaxation to surface vibrations via a Forster-type near-field energy transfer [1][2][3]. Given the extremely low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) of mid-IR QDs ~10-4 [3] and the long range of Forster coupling, it is necessary to grow a giant shell (>~5nm in thickness) with type-I alignment to observe a significantly slowed relaxation. Though efforts have been made in growing shells of wide-gap material on HgTe and HgSe QDs [4][5][6], limited success has been observed in growing thick shells, largely due to the poor thermal stability of the cores.

We have recently developed the synthesis of giant HgSe/CdS QDs (>15 layers) to slow the nonradiative decay. The use of single-source precursors allows the growth of thick shells at a relatively low temperature, without independent nucleation or interface alloying. The synthetic strategy provides a uniform shell coverage, along with a Cd-rich surface that is necessary for observing mid-IR intraband PL. Preliminary results on PLQY and PL lifetime measurements show that the giant HgSe/CdS QDs exhibit a nonradiative decay rate 2 orders of magnitude slower than the cores. The PLQY at 5µm is ~1%, which is 10 times brighter than previous reports of mid-IR emitting QDs. These results shed light on the nonradiative relaxation processes in HgSe-based QDs, and pave the path for developing solution-processed mid-IR LEDs and lasers.

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
Sol2D 1.3
Chair: Celso de Mello Donega
12:05 - 12:15
1.3-T1
torche, Abderrezak
University of Hamburg, Institute of Physical Chemistry
Biexcitons in transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers from first principles
torche, Abderrezak
University of Hamburg, Institute of Physical Chemistry, DE
Authors
Abderrezak torche a, Gabriel Bester a
Affiliations
a, University of Hamburg, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Hamburg, DE
Abstract

Abstract: Biexcitons in 2D transition metal dichalcogenide from first principle: binding energies and fine structure.

The emerging field of 2-dimensional (2D) materials keeps gaining increasing attention due to the wide range of potential applications in many domains including: optoelectronics, photovoltaic, sensing, quantum computing ...etc. Reducing the dimensionality of a system results in an enhancement of the Coulomb interaction between elementary quasiparticles (i.e. electrons and holes) as it reduces the dielectric screening. This allows for the formation of strongly bounded excitations which can be observed even at room temperature. Among these excitations, biexcitons are of special interest from both the experimental and theoretical perspectives due to its rich physics and potential applications in quantum information and lasing [1]. Understanding biexcitons would be the first step toward a clear understanding of the equilibrium dynamics of photo excited hot carriers and is also relevant in the context of exciton condensation. Moreover, the biexciton, being a complex bound state of 2 electrons and 2 holes, has a rich fine structure and many more degrees of freedom than the simple excitonic case.

First principle treatment of biexcitons, on the same theoretical footing as excitons and trions, is possible thanks to the newly developed methodology of Ref. [2]which uses a hybrid approach combining configuration interaction and green function methods for the description of many-electron many-hole excitations.This methodology has been shown to give reliable results on excitons and trions [2] and it is applied here to study the binding, fine structure and non-equilibrium effects of biexcitons in 2D transition metal dichalcogenide.

 

12:15 - 12:25
1.3-T2
Polino, Giuseppina
CHOSE- Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome
Nanodiamond-based energy storage devices on flexible paper substrates for smart electronics applications
Polino, Giuseppina
CHOSE- Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, IT
Authors
Giuseppina Polino a, Alessandro Scaramella a, Valerio Manca a, Elena Palmieri b, Emanuela Tamburri b, Silvia Orlanducci b, Francesca Brunetti a
Affiliations
a, CHOSE- Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Via Giacomo Peroni, Roma, IT
b, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, Italy, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Roma, IT
Abstract

In recent year, in response to the request for flexible and sustainable energy storage devices with high electrochemical performance, there has been growing interest in using paper or paper-like substrates for batteries and other energy storage devices such as environmentally friendly supercapacitors [1]. In this context, cellulose-based substrates for energy storage devices could be well-engineered, are light-weight, safe, thin and flexible[2]. We demonstrated a scalable, low cost and easy-to-process approach for the preparation of energy storage devices using large area techniques like spray and blade coating, suitable for smart electronic applications for health monitoring. Following a green strategy, all components were formulated in water-based dispersions. Symmetric paper-based supercapacitors using common copy paper and electronic paper as substrate, and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as electrodes, are realized and investigated. The novelty of this work consists in the use of composite based on detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as solid state electrolyte and separator. We also prepared devices with solution electrolyte using the same HPC+DND composite but with the addition of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The performance obtained using solid electrolyte (HPC+DNDs) and liquid electrolyte (HPC+DNDs+Na2SO4) on both substrates are comparable in terms of specific capacitance: ~ 0,13 ÷ 0,52 F/g for (HPC+DNDs) and ~ 0,35 ÷ 0,82 F/g for (HPC+ND+Na2SO4), with power density in the range of ~19 ÷ 24 µW cm-2[3].

 

 

 

12:25 - 12:35
1.3-T3
Rostyslav, Lesyuk
University of Rostock
2D dimensionality and faceting in colloidal nanomaterials: lead, tin and copper chalcogenides for enhanced tunability
Rostyslav, Lesyuk
University of Rostock, DE
Authors
Lesyuk Rostyslav a, b, Klinke Christian a, c
Affiliations
a, University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Germany, DE
b, Pidstryhach Institute for applied problems of mechanics and mathematics of NASU / Photonics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, UA
c, Swansea University, Department of Chemistry, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK, Swansea, GB
Abstract

Nanostructures on the base of lead, tin and copper chalcogenides with defined shape, dimensionality, faceting and surface chemistry are promising building blocks for opto-electronic devices in the near-infrared spectral range. A high degree of control has been already reached within main approaches for the dimensionality control: anisotropic growth, mesophase confined growth due to templating effect and oriented attachment. Here, we demonstrate several examples of fine-tuning of the shape and faceting of CuS, SnS and PbS quasi-two-dimensional structures with impact on electrical and optical properties. We also show synthetic details of the shape transformations combined with simulations which shed light onto the mechanism of the reached control. In case of PbS nanostripes and nanowires we show how the faceting of a nanocrystal dramatically changes its properties from semiconducting to metallic ones and analyze the reasons of the observed behavior.

 

References

Ramin Moayed, M. M., Kull, S., Rieckmann, A., Beck, P., Wagstaffe, M., Noei, H., ... & Klinke, C. (2020). Function Follows Form: From Semiconducting to Metallic toward Superconducting PbS Nanowires by Faceting the Crystal. Advanced Functional Materials, 30(19), 1910503.

Li, F., Moayed, M. M. R., Gerdes, F., Kull, S., Klein, E., Lesyuk, R., & Klinke, C. (2018). Colloidal tin sulfide nanosheets: formation mechanism, ligand-mediated shape tuning and photo-detection. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6(35), 9410-9419.

Li, F., Ramin Moayed, M. M., Klein, E., Lesyuk, R., & Klinke, C. (2019). In-plane anisotropic faceting of ultralarge and thin single-crystalline colloidal SnS nanosheets. The journal of physical chemistry letters, 10(5), 993-999.

Lesyuk, R., Klein, E., Yaremchuk, I., & Klinke, C. (2018). Copper sulfide nanosheets with shape-tunable plasmonic properties in the NIR region. Nanoscale, 10(44), 20640-20651.

12:35 - 12:45
1.3-T4
Moghaddam, Nicolas
Laboratoire de Physique et d’Etude des matériaux (LPEM), ESPCI-Paris, PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université
Intraparticule rearrangement to reach thick CdE (E: S, Se and Te) nanoplatelets and homostructures with intraparticles type I band alignment
Moghaddam, Nicolas
Laboratoire de Physique et d’Etude des matériaux (LPEM), ESPCI-Paris, PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, FR
Authors
Nicolas Moghaddam a, Corentin Dabard a, Marion Dufour a, Hong Po a, Xiangzhen Xu a, Emmanuel Lhuillier b, Sandrine Ithurria a
Affiliations
a, Laboratoire de Physique et d’Etude des matériaux (LPEM), ESPCI-Paris, PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Rue Vauquelin, 10, Paris, FR
b, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, France, Place Jussieu, 4, Paris, FR
Abstract

The high affinity for the halides ligands with the <100> facets of the zinc blende nanoplatelets (NPLs) lead to a ligand exchange from carboxylate to halides which then partially dissolved the cadmium chalcogenides NPLs through the edges. The released monomers then recrystallized on the large top and bottom facets leading to a growth of NPLs in the thickness. CdSe NPLs with thicknesses from 3 to 9 MLs are synthesized. A direct growth is also achieved when a chalcogenide precursor is jointly introduced with a metal halide. Finally when an incomplete layer is grown, homostructures with a type I band alignement are obtained thus offering a new degree of liberty for the synthesis of structured NPLs.

12:45 - 13:15
Discussion
13:00 - 13:05
PerNC Announcement nanoGe
13:05 - 13:15
PerNC Session Introduction 1.3 - Oleksandr Voznyy
13:15 - 13:20
INfraNC Short Break
PerNC 1.3
Chair: Oleksandr Voznyy
13:15 - 13:35
1.3-I1
Efros, Al. L.
Dielectric Confinement and Excitonic Effects in Two-Dimensional Nanoplatelets
Efros, Al. L.
Authors
Al. L. Efros a, B. Ji b, E. Rabani c, R. Vaxenburg d, O. Ashkenazi b, D. Azulay b, U. Banin b, O. Millo b
Affiliations
a, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, Overlook Avenue Southwest, 4555, Washington, US
b, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem, IL
c, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, EE. UU., Berkeley, US
d, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, USA, Ashburn, Virginia, EE. UU., Ashburn, US
Abstract

Quasi-two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nano-platelets (NPs) manifest strong quantum confinement with exceptional optical characteristics of narrow photoluminescence peaks with energies tunable by thickness with monolayer precision.[1] We employed scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) in conjunction with optical measurements to probe the thickness-dependent band gap and 2D density of excited states in a series of CdSe nanoplatelets.[2] The STS fundamental band gaps are larger than the optical gaps as expected from the contributions of exciton binding in the absorption, as confirmed by theoretical calculations.  Strikingly, the energy difference between the heavy-hole and light-hole levels in the tunneling spectra are significantly larger than the corresponding values extracted from the absorption spectra. We have shown that this difference is mainly connected with enhancing of dielectric confinement of light holes relative to the heavy  hole observed in STS measurement and an increase of light  hole exciton binding energy relative to  heavy hole  exciton binding energy observed in absorption spectra.[2]    The dielectric confinement  increases also  the distance   between first and second 2D sub-bands of  electrons and holes  in perovskite NPs.    As a result the sum of the distance between first and second electron and hole subbands measured by   STS  should be  larger than distance between first and second absorption maxima. 

1. S. Ithurria, M. D. Tessier, B. Mahler, R. P. S. M. Lobo, B. Dubertret, and Al. L. Efros, A. L. Nat. Mater. 2011, 10, 936−941.

2. B. Ji, E. Rabani, Al. L. Efros, R. Vaxenburg, O. Ashkenazi, D. Azulay, U. Banin, and O. Milo ACS Nano, 2020, 14, 8257-8265.

13:35 - 13:55
1.3-I2
Congreve, Dan
Enhanced Perovskite LEDs via Doping
Congreve, Dan
Authors
Dan Congreve a, b, Mahesh Gangishetty a, Sanders Sam a, Shaocong Hou a, Qimin Quan a
Affiliations
a, Rowland Institute at Harvard, Massachusetts, US, Edwin H Land Boulevard, 100, Cambridge, US
b, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, US
Abstract

Interest in perovskite (ABX3) LEDs has exploded over the past several years due to their strong light-emitting properties, tunable emission, and facile fabrication. High performance red and green devices have been demonstrated by several groups, with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) over 20%, matching OLED performance. Blue LEDs, however, have lagging significantly behind. Here, we identify and rectify the two crucial issues holding these materials back: the low internal photoluminescence yield and the LED device structure itself.

First, we show that NiOx, a common hole transport layer in these materials, induces defects in the nanocrystals, reducing emission by an order of magnitude and introducing rapid decay channels. To fix this issue, we design a new hole transport layer based on a combination of a traditional hole transport layer and perfluorinated ionomer, allowing the nanocrystals to emit with their native efficiency and lifetime. We then show that this translates directly to devices, increasing the EQE from 0.03% to 0.50%. Further, we show that the benefits apply to devices across the visible spectrum, with efficient blue, sky-blue, and green devices.

Next, we demonstrate that a large portion of the lost efficiency is due to inherent emission losses in the blue perovskite nanocrystals, as they demonstrate a thin film photoluminescence quantum yield of less that 10%. This can be rectified, however, by taking advantage of a surprising effect. When doping the nanocrystals with Mn, which introduces an energetic loss pathway to an orange emissive state, we counterintuitively observe an increase in perovskite emission. By carefully tuning the amount of Mn in the nanocrystal, we can increase the quantum yield over 3x. This translates directly to device performance, as doped devices reach a maximum EQE of 2.1%. The combination of the device and dopant improvements increases performance by over 60x, showing that blue perovskite materials can be competitive with their red and green cousins. Finally, we use this efficient blue emitter to build an all-perovskite white LED, which has important applications in lighting.

We will conclude the talk by demonstrating that Mn is not alone as an effective dopant: several other atomic dopants across the periodic table provide similar benefit. We will present the similarities and differences amongst these dopant conditions and show how we can use them to push device performance even further.

13:55 - 14:15
1.3-I3
Luther, Joseph
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado
Strategies to Achieve High Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Colloidal Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystals
Luther, Joseph
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, US

Joseph M. Luther obtained B.S. degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from North Carolina State University in 2001. At NCSU he began his research career under the direction of Salah Bedair, who was the first to fabricate a tandem junction solar cell. Luther worked on growth and characterization high-efficiency III-V materials including GaN and GaAsN. His interest in photovoltaics sent him to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to pursue graduate work. He obtained a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Colorado while researching effects of defects in bulk semiconductors in NREL�s Measurements and Characterization Division. In 2005, He joined Art Nozik�s group at NREL and studied semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation for which he was awarded a Ph.D. in Physics from Colorado School of Mines. As a postdoctoral fellow, he studied fundamental synthesis and novel properties of nanomaterials under the direction Paul Alivisatos at the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 2009, he rejoined NREL as a senior research scientist. His research interests lie in the growth, electronic coupling and optical properties of colloidal nanocrystals and quantum dots.

Authors
Joseph Luther a, Young-Hoon Kim a, Matthew Beard a, Yaxin Zhai a, Joseph Berry a
Affiliations
a, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado, 80401, US
Abstract

Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with chiral ligands are outstanding candidates as a circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) light source due to many advantages such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, large spin–orbit coupling, and extensive tunability via composition and choice of organic ligands. However, achieving pronounced and controllable polarized light emission remains challenging. Here, we develop strategies to achieve high CPL responses from colloidal formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) NCs at room temperature using chiral surface ligands. First, we show that replacing a portion of typical ligands (oleylamine) with short chiral ligands ((R)-2-octylamine) during FAPbBr3 NC synthesis results in small and monodisperse NCs that yield high CPL with average luminescence dissymmetry g-factor, glum = 6.8 × 10–2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest among reported perovskite materials at room temperature to date and represents around 10-fold improvement over the previously reported colloidal CsPbClxBryI3-x-y NCs. In order to incorporate NCs into any optoelectronic or spintronic application, the NCs necessitate purification, which removes a substantial amount of the chiral ligands and extinguishes the CPL signals. To circumvent this issue, we also developed a postsynthetic ligand treatment using a different chiral ligand, (R-/S-)methylbenzylammonium bromide, which also induces a CPL with an average glum = ±1.18 × 10–2. This postsynthetic method is also amenable for long-range charge transport since methylbenzylammonium is quite compact in relation to other surface ligands. Our demonstrations of high CPL and glum from both as-synthesized and purified perovskite NCs at room temperature suggest a route to demonstrate colloidal NC-based spintronics.

14:15 - 14:35
Discussion
13:15 - 13:20
Sol2D Break
13:20 - 13:30
INfraNC Session Introduction 1.4 - Philippe Guyot-Sionnest
13:20 - 13:30
Sol2D Session Introduction 1.4 - Celso de Mello Donega
INfraNC 1.4
Chair: Philippe Guyot-Sionnest
13:30 - 13:50
1.4-I1
Klem, Ethan
SWIR Vision Systems
SWIR and Extended SWIR High Definition Imaging Using PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodiode Arrays
Klem, Ethan
SWIR Vision Systems, US
Authors
Ethan Klem a
Affiliations
a, SWIR Vision Systems, East Cornwallis Road, 3021, Durham, US
Abstract

Image sensors fabricated using colloidal quantum dot photodetectors have the potential for combining the infrared sensitivity of traditional III-V and II-IV detector materials with the resolution and scalability of CMOS image sensors. SWIR Vision Systems has developed a family of CQD-based image sensors and cameras that has begun to realize this potential.  We present our uncooled extended shortwave infrared (eSWIR) 1920 x 1080-format cameras sensitive from 300 nm to 2100 nm wavelengths and describe the performance of these cameras using the EMVA1288 testing standard. We also present our standard SWIR cameras and show a variety of use cases for this technology in industrial machine vision applications.

13:50 - 14:10
1.4-I2
Milliron, Delia
The University of Texas at Austin
Electronic and Optical Impact of Dopant Distribution in Plasmonic Metal Oxide Nanocrystals
Milliron, Delia
The University of Texas at Austin, US
Authors
Delia Milliron a
Affiliations
a, McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 200 E. Dean Keeton St, Austin, TX, 78712, US
Abstract

Metal oxide nanocrystals doped with a few percent of aliovalent dopants become electronically conducting and support strong light-matter interactions in the infrared due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In the prototypical material tin-doped indium oxide (Sn:In2O3), we explored the influence of the spatial distribution of Sn dopants on optical and electronic properties. Colloidal synthesis by slow addition of precursors allows precise control over the radial distribution of Sn, which dictates the electrostatic potential landscape and, in turn, the radial density of free electrons. Sequestering dopants in either the core or shell of the nanocrystals leads to multimodal optical spectra that respond strongly to changes in the dielectric environment. In thin films of nanocrystals, electronic conductivity is greatly enhanced in shell-doped nanocrystals wherein the barrier to nanocrystal-nanocrystal electron transfer is minimized.

14:10 - 14:30
1.4-I3
Beard, Matthew
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US
Using QD/Ligand interactions to n- and p- dope PbS QDs and ligand-ligand interactions to build Janus-ligand shells
Beard, Matthew
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US, US
Authors
Matthew Beard a
Affiliations
a, Chemical and Nanoscale Sciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Abstract

We studied the coupling and impact of ligands on the QD optical and electrical properties.  We demonstrated that the bandedge energies can be shifted by over 2 eV for a QD absorber with 1 eV bandgap.  We also demonstrated that the addition of ligands causes the optical absorption of the QD/ligand complex to increase due to electronic coupling between the QD and ligands.  The coupling increases for smaller ligand optical gaps.  We utilize the enhanced absorbance of the QD/ligand to construct ligand adsorption isotherms. We model these isotherms with a 2-d square lattice model, which allows us to extract differences in trends of binding free energies and nearest neighbor coupling. As expected oleate binds more strongly than any of the functionalized cinnamates, but the binding preference is mitigated by dipole-dipole interactions for both large positive and negative dipoles. We explain this trend in binding free energy as a function of dipole moment via a collective electrostatic interaction with the lattice. For cinnamic acids with electron withdrawing molecular dipoles (negative dipoles), the isotherms show behavior associated with strong nearest neighbor association that causes the ligand exchange reaction to display a phase transition from all oleate coverage to all cinnamate coverage as more cinnamate is added, with a sharpness dictated by the ligand dipole moment: more negative dipole moments leads to sharper order-disorder phase transitions than those observed with positive dipole moments, as a function of ligand addition.  Using these observations, we prepared PbS QD with Janus-shell ligands.

We developed a facile method to prepare n and p-doped PbSe QDs via a post-synthetic cation exchange technique. Quantitative XRD analysis suggests a substitutional doping mechanism, with the lattice parameters decreasing upon either Ag+ or In3+ incorporation. A significant bleach of the first excitonic transition is observed, which is coupled with the appearance of a size-dependent intraband absorption in the NIR, indicating a successful introduction of electron/hole impurities dopants. We also observe a decrease of PLQY and a faster exciton decay with higher cation incorporation. Spectroelectrochemical measurements show a characteristic n-type behavior, which agrees with the substitutional doping mechanism of In3+ in PbSe. We proposed a model whereby the majority of the added cations remains at the QD surface and do not interact with the PbSe QD core states.  Small amounts of excess cations diffuse into the lattice and establish equilibrium between surface-bound and lattice-incorporated cation dopants.

 

14:30 - 14:50
Discussion
Sol2D 1.4
Chair: Celso de Mello Donega
13:30 - 13:50
1.4-I1
Lian, Tianquan
Emory University
Auger Recombination in CdSe and CsPbBr3 2D Colloidal Nanoplatelets
Lian, Tianquan
Emory University, US

Tianquan (Tim) Lian received his PhD degree from University of Pennsylvania (under the supervision of Prof. Robin Hochstrasser) in 1993. After postdoctoral training with Prof. Charles B. Harris in the University of California at Berkeley, Tim Lian joined the faculty of chemistry department at Emory University in 1996. He was promoted to associate professor in 2002, full professor in 2005, Winship distinguished research Professor in 2007, and William Henry Emerson Professor of Chemistry in 2008. Tim Lian is a recipient of the NSF CAREER award and the Alfred P. Sloan fellowship. Tim Lian research interest is focused on ultrafast dynamics in photovoltaic and photocatalytic nanomaterials and at their interfaces.

Authors
Tianquan Lian a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) are an emerging class of quantum well materials that exhibit many unique properties, including uniform quantum confinement, narrow thickness distribution, large exciton binding energy, giant oscillator strength effect, long Auger lifetime, and high photoluminescence quantum yield. These properties have led to great potentials in optoelectrical applications, such as lasing materials with a low threshold and large gain coefficient. Many of these properties are determined by the structure and dynamics of band-edge excitons in these 2D materials. Motivated by both fundamental understanding and potential applications, the properties of 2D excitons have received intense recent interests. We have carried out a series of recent studies on fundamental exciton properties in 2D NPLs, including lateral size the 2D exciton (i.e. exciton center-of-mass coherent area); exciton in-plane transport mechanism; size and thickness dependence of bi-exciton Auger recombination rate, and optical gain mechanism and threshold. In this talk I will focus on the size, thickness and material dependence of bi-exciton Auger recombination rates. We show that In CdSe NPLs, the biexciton Auger recombination lifetime does not depend linearly on its volume, deviating from the “Universal Volume” scaling law that has been reported for 0D quantum dots. Instead, the Auger lifetime scales linearly with the lateral size, and the Auger lifetime depends sensitively (nonlinearly) on the NPL thickness. In CdPbBr3 1D nanorods and 2D NPLs, the biexciton Auger lifetimes increase linearly with the rod length and NPL lateral areas, respectively, and the lifetimes are much shorter than CdSe nanocrystals with similar volume. These observations can be explained by a model in which the Auger recombination rate for 1D nanorods (NRs ) and 2D NPLs is a product of binary collision frequency in the non-quantum confined dimension, and Auger probability per collision. The former gives rise to the linear dependence on the lateral areas in 2D NPLs and rod length in 1D NRs. The Auger recombination proability per collision depends on material property and the degree of quantum confinement, which gives rise to nonlinear dependence on the thickness of NPLs and diameter of NRs, as well as material dependence of Auger lifetimes. Thus, the Auger lifetimes of 2D NPLs and 1D nanorods deviate from the volume scaling law because of the different dependences on the quantum confined and non-confined dimensions. We believe that his model is generally applicable to all 1D and 2D materials.

13:50 - 14:10
1.4-I2
Lifshitz, Efrat
Magneto-optical properties of van der Waals and colloidal two-dimensional semiconductors
Lifshitz, Efrat
Authors
Efrat Lifshitz a, Adam Budniak a, Esti Ritov a, Morin Mor a, Faris Horani a, Yahel Barak a, Ellenor Geraffy a
Affiliations
a, Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Helen Diller Quantum Center, Grant Technion Energy Program, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Israel, IL
Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are of a wide interest in recent years due to their unprecedented electrical and optical characteristics. The 2D endeavor, beyond the discovery of graphene, includes the study of inorganic van der Waals (vdW) transition metal dichalcogenides and solution based-2D semiconductors. Despite the striking electronic and optical properties of the mentioned 2D materials, those are lacking long-range magnetic properties or unique magnetic textures. The current study describes the exploration of a new family of semiconductor vdW compounds that possess magnetism along with their electrical and optical properties – these compounds are transition metal phosphorous trichalcogenides (TMPTs) with a honeycomb arrangement of magnetic metal elements.  Furthermore, diamagnetic TMPTs doped with magnetic impurities will be addressed - in comparison with diluted magnetic colloidal nanoplatelets from the II-VI family.

The TMPTs have a chemical formula MPX3 (X=S, Se) with the metals (M) from the first row of transition metals, arranged in a honeycomb array with P-P at the center of each metal hexagon. These vdW materials permit the isolation of single layers down to a molecular limit via chemical or mechanical exfoliation. The 2D limit ease the Mermin-Wagner thermal agitation restriction and therefore, support intrinsic protected long-range ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, as well as spin textures (e.g., skyrmions) that are impossible in regular 3D materials. The honeycomb arrangement renders some of the TMPTs with a valley degree of freedom, similar to that found in MoS2 single layers. Above all, TMPT layers permit coupling of long-range magnetic ordering or/and magnetic doping with the semiconducting properties of the materials.

The lecture will include description of experimental observation exposing the magneto-optical properties of FePS3, MnPS3 and Mn:ZnPS3 TMPTs, and Mn-doped II-VI nanoplatelets.  The properties were investigated using circularly polarized magneto-photoluminescence at variable temperatures and optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  The preliminary observations indicated a removal of valleys' energy degeneracy by the coupling to the AFM magnetic arrangement.  Furthermore, Mn-doped diamagnetic TMPT showed a coupling between dopant and photo-generated carriers with a behavior similar to exciton-polaron found in doped colloidal II-VI nanoplatelets.  

Overall, the TMPT and magnetically doped 2D materials open a new paradigm in science and technology, from the basic understanding of magnetism, to the discovery of a plethora of new physical phenomena, thus being a base for the development of modern memory devices, spintronics, quantum computation and information. 

14:10 - 14:30
Discussion
15:00 - 16:30
ePoster Session
 
Fri Oct 23 2020
08:30 - 08:35
PerNC Opening nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
SPMEn Openning nanoGe
08:30 - 08:35
Sol2D Announcement nanoGe
08:35 - 08:45
PerNC Session Introduction 2.1 - Bodnarchuk, Maryna
08:35 - 08:45
SPMEn Session Introduction 1.1 - Sascha Sadewasser
Sol2D 2.1
Chair: Sandrine Ithurria
08:35 - 08:45
2.1-T1
Kelestemur, Yusuf
Atilim University, Turkey
CdSe colloidal quantum wells with a graded shell for optoelectronic applications
Kelestemur, Yusuf
Atilim University, Turkey, TR
Authors
Yusuf Kelestemur a, b, c, Yevhen Shynkarenko a, b, Marco Anni d, Sergii Yakunin a, b, Maria Luisa De Giorgi d, Maksym V. Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg, 1, Zürich, CH
b, EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
c, Atilim University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ankara, TR
d, Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Lecce, Via Per Arnesano, Lecce, IT
Abstract

Colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) have become a promising class of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) for optoelectronic applications with their distinctly different optical characteristics [1]. They exhibit narrow emission linewidth, large absorption cross-section, giant oscillator strength, and suppressed Auger recombination. However, the first examples of core/shell NPLs synthesized by using a colloidal atomic layer deposition (c-ALD) approach suffered from the low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY), decreased crystallinity, and limited stability.  Here, to overcome this issue, we demonstrate a high-temperature shell growth approach that enables the synthesis of NPLs with controlled shell composition [2]. Our proposed CdSe quantum wells with a graded shell, which is composed of CdS buffer interlayer and CdxZn1-xS gradient shell, exhibit highly bright emission (PLQY up to 89%) in the red spectral region (634-648 nm) with a narrow emission linewidth (down to 21 nm). With the smooth confinement potential of graded shell NPLs, hence further suppressing Auger recombination, we obtained a low threshold amplified spontaneous emission (~40 µJ/cm2) under nanosecond laser excitation. We also investigated the electroluminescent performance of graded shell NPLs in solution-processed light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Our NPL-LEDs showed a very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) value of 9.92% with high brightness up to ~46000 cd/m2 at 650 nm. These findings show that by carefully designing heterostructures of anisotropically shaped colloidal NPLs, we could obtain highly efficient NPLs with enhanced optical properties to realize their superior performance in optoelectronic applications, overcoming the limitations of the spherically shaped NCs.

08:45 - 08:55
2.1-T2
Toso, Stefano
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT
Accurate Structural Refinement of Nanocrystal Superlattices: Look Beyond Your Pattern
Toso, Stefano
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT
Authors
Stefano Toso a, b, Dmitry Baranov a, Davide Altamura c, Francesco Scattarella c, Jakob Dahl d, e, Xingzhi Wang d, e, Sergio Marras f, Paul Alivisatos d, e, g, h, Andrej Singer i, Cinzia Giannini c, Liberato Manna a
Affiliations
a, Nanochemistry Department, Italian Institute of Technology, Italy, Via Morego, 30, Genova, IT
b, International Doctoral Program in Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy, 25121 Brescia, Italia, Brescia, IT
c, Istituto di Cristallografia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
d, University of California Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, US
e, Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US, Berkeley, California 94720, US
f, Materials Characterization Facility, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
g, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, US
h, Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley, US
i, Cornell University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA, Ithaca, US
Abstract

Colloidal nanocrystal superlattices are highly ordered aggregates of particles. Crystals are highly ordered aggregates of atoms. However, nanocrystal superlattices are not conventionally considered crystals. But where does the border lie? Previously, we reported that CsPbBr3 nanocrystal superlattices have a structural perfection comparable with that of epitaxially grown multilayers, which can be considered as full-fledged single-crystals.[1]

In this talk, we will discuss a novel approach to the characterization of periodically stacked colloidal nanocrystals, which was inspired by diffraction experiments on multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy.[2] Our method takes advantage of optical interference phenomena arising from the superlattice periodicity, which enrich the profile of Bragg peaks in structural information. By fitting these profiles, collected with a common lab-grade diffractometer, we can extract structural information usually requiring high-end setups such as synchrotrons. Our approach is especially suitable for bidimensional colloidal crystals like nanoplatelets and nanosheets, because they spontaneously assemble into stacked periodic structures thanks to their highly anisotropic shape. However, we expect that our approach can be also extended 2D-layered organic-inorganic materials, which are not considered superlattices but share with them the periodic alternation of different layers.

To demonstrate our approach, we analyzed nanoplatelets of CsPbBr3 and PbS measuring with high precision thickness, interparticle distance and even distortions in their atomic lattice. In addition, we demonstrated that such nanocrystal superlattices reach stacking displacements as small as 0.3-0.5 Å. This is comparable with atomic displacement parameters found in metal-organic bulk crystals, leading to intriguing questions. For example, how different is a stacking of perovskite nanoplatelets from a bulk crystal of a hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite? Can we study nanocrystal superlattices as they were bulk crystals? In the end, are nanocrystal superlattices a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic bulk crystals?

08:55 - 09:05
2.1-T3
Khan, Ali Hossain
Gent University - BE
Synthesis and Optoelectronic Properties of CdSe/CdS/CdTe Hetero-structured 2D Colloidal Nanocrystals
Khan, Ali Hossain
Gent University - BE, BE
Authors
Ali Hossain Khan a, b, Guillaume H. V. Bertrand b, Ayelet Teitelboim c, M. Chandra Sekhar a, Anatolii Polovitsyn b, Rosaria Brescia b, Josep Planelles d, Juan I. Climente d, Dan Oron c, Iwan Moreels a, b
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Belgium, Krijgslaan 281-S3, Ghent, BE
b, Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy, Via Morego, 30, Genova, IT
c, Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
d, Universitat Jaume I, Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

Colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibit strong quantum confinement only along the vertical direction, which can be controlled with atomic precision, and have received significant attention because of their narrow emission spectra and fast fluorescence lifetimes. Here we present a synthetic approach to obtain a ternary two dimensional (2D) architecture consisting of a CdSe core, laterally encapsulated by a type-I barrier of CdS, and finally a type-II outer layer of CdTe. The introduction of CdS leads to the formation of a tunneling barrier between CdSe and CdTe, which modulates the electron-hole overlap as well as the carrier relaxation dynamics. The modulation results in a type-II emission with an extended fluorescence lifetime in addition to the emission from CdSe and CdTe. The synthesis strategies allowed us to tune the indirect and direct transition energies and intensities as a function of the barrier and crown thickness. The different emission peaks of the core/barrier/crown (CBC) heterostructure are corroborated by the photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectroscopy and single particle PL measurements. Furthermore, experimental data are also supported by k.p calculations. To summarize, we have successfully synthesized and characterized CdSe/CdS/CdTe CBC heterostructures, demonstrating that colloidal 2D nanoplatelets offer great flexibility in designing opto-electronic properties toward targeted photonic applications.

09:05 - 09:15
2.1-T4
Climente, Juan Ignacio
University Jaume I, Spain
Nature and control of shakeup processes in colloidal nanoplatelets
Climente, Juan Ignacio
University Jaume I, Spain, ES
Authors
Juan Ignacio Climente a, Jordi Llusar a
Affiliations
a, Universitat Jaume I, Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

Shakeup processes are partly radiative Auger processes whereby an electron-hole pair recombines but transfers a fraction of its energy to excite a third carrier, thus reducing the energy of emitted photons. Two very recent experiments in CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoplatelets (NPLs) have hypothesized that such processes are responsible for the multi-peaked fluorescence spectrum observed in these structures at low temperatures.[1,2] Clarifying this point is important, because it would permit defining strategies to narrow down the emission line width of colloidal NPLs, thus improving their efficiency in optical applications where color purity is desirable.

Our work provides the first theoretical description on the origin and behavior of shakeup processes in colloidal nanostructures, defines strategies to control them and assesses on the interpretation of Ref.[1,2] experiments.  The conclusions are:

(1) Shakeup processes are indeed expected in colloidal NPLs charged with trions, unlike in previous colloidal nanostructures. The magnitude of the shakeup lines is strikingly large -over one order of magnitude larger than in epitaxial quantum wells-.

(2) We show that off-centered impurities are a requirement for the processes to take place, as they are needed to break symmetry conservation rules. In doing so, we reconcile two seemingly contradictory interpretations of the asymmetric lineshape of trion emission in core/shell NPLs.[1,3].

(3) We show that the multi-peaked emission in CdSe/CdS NPLs[1] cannot be explained in terms of shakeup processes only, and propose an altermative interpretation involving emission from metastable spin triplet trion states.

09:15 - 09:45
Discussion
PerNC 2.1
Chair: Maryna Bodnarchuk
08:45 - 09:05
2.1-I1
Kovalenko, Maksym V.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Cesium and Formamidinium Lead Halide Perovskite NCs: Genesis and Present Developments
Kovalenko, Maksym V.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH

Maksym Kovalenko has been a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at ETH Zurich since July 2011 and Associate professor from January 2017. His group is also partially hosted by EMPA (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology) to support his highly interdisciplinary research program. He completed graduate studies at Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria, 2004-2007, with Prof. Wolfgang Heiss), followed by postdoctoral training at the University of Chicago (USA, 2008-2011, with Prof. Dmitri Talapin). His present scientific focus is on the development of new synthesis methods for inorganic nanomaterials, their surface chemistry engineering, and assembly into macroscopically large solids. His ultimate, practical goal is to provide novel inorganic materials for optoelectronics, rechargeable Li-ion batteries, post-Li-battery materials, and catalysis. He is the recipient of an ERC Consolidator Grant 2018, ERC Starting Grant 2012, Ruzicka Preis 2013 and Werner Prize 2016. He is also a Highly Cited Researcher 2018 (by Clarivate Analytics).

Authors
Maksym V. Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Switzerland, CH
b, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
Abstract

We discuss the discovery and recent developments of colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (LHP NCs, NCs, A=Cs+, FA+, FA=formamidinium; X=Cl, Br, I) [1-5].  LHP NCs exhibit spectrally narrow (<100 meV) fluorescence, originating form bright triplet excitons [6], and tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 400-800 nm. Cs- and FA-based perovskite NCs are promising for LCD displays, for light-emitting diodes and as precursors/inks for perovskite solar cells.  Perovskite NCs also readily form long-range ordered superlattices, which exhibit accelerated coherent emission (superfluorescence) [7]. Unique structure engineerability of perovskites allows for (nearly) independent tuning of the emission color and radiative rates, which can be used in printable unicolor security tags [8].

 

1. L. Protesescu et al. Nano Letters 2015, 15, 3692–3696

2. L. Protesescu et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 14202–14205

3. L. Protesescu et al. ACS Nano 2017, 11, 3119–3134

4. M. V. Kovalenko et al. Science 2017, 358, 745-750

5. Q.A. Akkerman et al. Nature Materials 2018, 17, 394–405

6. M. A. Becker et al, Nature 2018, 553, 189-193

7. G. Raino et al. Nature 2018, 563, 671–675

8. S. Yakunin et al. in revision

 

09:05 - 09:25
2.1-I2
Lee, Tae-Woo
Seoul National University
Core/shell structured metal halide perovskites for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes
Lee, Tae-Woo
Seoul National University, KR

Tae-Woo Lee is an associate professor in Materials Science and Engineering at the Seoul National University, Korea. He received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the KAIST, Korea in 2002. He joined Bell Laboratories, USA as a postdoctoral researcher and worked at Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology as (2003-2008). He was an associate professor in Materials Science and Engineering at the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Korea until August 2016. His research focuses on printed flexible electronics based on organic, carbon, and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials for displays, solar cells, and bio-inspired neuromorphic electronics.

Authors
Joo Sung Kim a, f, Hobeom Kim a, Jung-Min Heo a, f, Min-Ho Park a, Tae-Woo Lee a, b, c, d, e, f
Affiliations
a, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, seoul, 151-744, KR
b, Seoul National University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, KR
c, Seoul National University, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, KR
d, Seoul National University, Institute of Engineering Research, KR
e, Seoul National University, Nano Systems Institute (NSI), KR
f, Seoul National University, BK21 PLUS SNU Materials Division for Educating Creative Global Leaders, KR
Abstract

Metal halide perovskite materials have emerged as a promising light emitter with various advantages including high color purity, easy color tunability, high charge-carrier mobility, solution processability, and low material cost. However, perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) showed low electroluminescence (EL) efficiency at room temperature because of its intrinsically low exciton binding energy. Here, we present high-efficiency PeLEDs using various strategies to overcome the EL efficiency limitations. We suggest that the efficiency in PeLEDs can be increased by realizing core/shell structured perovskites, which can decrease the grain size and passivate the surface traps of perovskite grains. By introducing the organic-shielded nanograin engineering method, organic conducting materials could surround the perovskite grains in form of a core/shell structure to maximize the EL efficiency (current efficiency = 87.35 cd/A).[1] Also, new strategies to improve efficiency and operational stability of PeLEDs were applied by assembling 2D perovskites as shells for 3D bulk perovskites. Realization of the 3D/2D core/shell structure could successfully suppress the ion migration in perovskite materials, extending the operational lifetime ~15 times and extremely suppressing abnormal luminance overshoot in PeLEDs.[2]

09:25 - 09:45
2.1-I3
Infante, Ivan
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT)
Chemical Processes at the Surface of Colloidal Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
Infante, Ivan
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), IT
Authors
Ivan Infante a
Affiliations
a, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), IT
Abstract

Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are characterized by a large surface-to-volume ratio that renders them extremely sensible to surface processes. Passivating ligands, employed to stabilize NCs in organic solvents, play a pivotal role in influencing the structure and the optoelectronic properties of these materials. Despite major progresses attained in the last years to model the surface of NCs, there are still several key questions to be answered on the nature of the NC-ligand interactions and how trap states, which are deleterious to optical efficiency, develop on the surface.

A leap forward in solving the above issues is to analyze the surface using first principle simulations, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT). Until now some of the major drawbacks of this approach have been: (i) the size of the system that can be handled that in the best cases is restrained to a few hundredths atoms (i.e. a small sized NC surrounded by short ligands), and (ii) the description of static properties with the absence of dynamic effects.

Here, I will present a tool to automatically parametrize the force-field of nanoscale semiconductor crystallites, then we show the first multiscale modeling of real sized CsPbX3 NCs (X = Cl, Br, I) passivated with oleate and quaternary ammonium ligands with a simulation box containing one million of atoms including the solvent. Molecular dynamics simulations, carried out up to the nanosecond timescale, provide crucial insights on the surface dynamics, and the role of the ligands in influencing the properties of these materials.  

 

09:45 - 10:05
Discussion
SPMEn 1.1
Chair: Sascha Sadewasser
08:45 - 09:05
1.1-I1
Redinger, Alex
University of Luxembourg
The Impact of Processing Conditions on Hybrid Perovskite Surfaces; A Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Study
Redinger, Alex
University of Luxembourg, LU

Alex Redinger is an associate professor at the University of Luxembourg in the Physics and Materials Science Research Unit.

His research interests are:

Thin film solar cells such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 , kesterites and hybrid perovskites

Scanning Probe microscopy methods (STM, STS, KPFM) 

Alex Redinger studied Physics at the RWTH Aachen in Germany. He carried out his PhD in Aachen and Cologne where he studied ion-surface interactions with scanning tunneling microscopy. As a Postdoc he worked at the University of Luxembourg and at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin. The overarching topic of his postdoctoral stays where the fabrication and characterization of kesterite solar cells.

In 2016, he was granted with an FNR ATTRACT Consolidator grant, which allows him to build up a scanning probe microscopy group to study the surfaces and interfaces of thin film solar cells.

Since 03.2017 Alex is building up his new group at the University of Luxembourg.

Authors
Alex Redinger a
Affiliations
a, University of Luxembourg, Scanning Probe Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics and Materials Science, LU
Abstract

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites are highly promising candidates for next generation single- and multi-junction solar cells. Despite their extraordinarily good semiconducting properties, there is a need to increase the intrinsic material stability against heat, moisture and light exposure. Understanding how variations in synthesis affect the bulk and surface stability is therefore of paramount importance to achieve a rapid commercialization on large scales. In this work, I show for the case of methylammonium lead iodide that a thorough control of the methylammonium iodide (MAI) partial pressure during co-evaporation is essential to limit photostriction and phase purity, which dictate the absorber stability. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements in ultra-high vacuum combined with X-Ray diffraction measurements corroborate that off-stoichiometric absorbers prepared with an excess of MAI partial pressure exhibit trances of stacked perovskite sheets that have adverse effects on the intrinsic material stability. Furthermore, I discuss the impact of processing conditions on grain boundary band bending. I compare the results from UHV KPFM to measurements carried out in air and highlight the importance of FM-KPFM in order to achieve a reliable estimate of the workfunctions. In addition I discuss measurements carried out on absorbers grown on different substrates and I show that surface photovoltage measurements are likely to be falsified by band bending at the rear interface. Finally, I will present preliminary work on halide perovskites grown via van-der-Waals epitaxy on graphene.

09:05 - 09:25
1.1-I2
Wirtz, Tom
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology
3D nano-analytics using integrated HIM-SIMS and AFM-SIMS
Wirtz, Tom
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, LU
Authors
Tom Wirtz a, Alexander Ost a, Jean-Nicolas Audinot a
Affiliations
a, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41, Rue du Brill, Belvaux - Luxembourg, 4422, LU
Abstract

Over the last decade, the 3D characterization of samples has become of increasing importance, as modern devices (e.g. state-of-the-art energy devices and electronic devices) integrate a number of advanced materials, very often in a complex 3D manner at nanometre spatial scales. The development of innovative characterization tools providing high spatial resolution in 3D combined with excellent chemical or elemental sensitivity is hence of paramount importance to advance the frontiers of science and technology in numerous areas of research.

In order to overcome the limitations of individual techniques, correlative microscopy has been recognized as a powerful approach to obtain complementary information about the investigated materials [1]. In this context, we have combined Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), which is an extremely powerful technique for analysing surfaces owing in particular to its excellent sensitivity, high dynamic range, high mass resolution and ability to differentiate between isotopes, with Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. We have developed integrated HIM-SIMS [2,3] and AFM-SIMS [4,5] instruments, which allow the chemical or elemental information obtained by SIMS to be correlated with nano-scale 3D mapping of the investigated samples obtained by a photogrammetric approach on the HIM or AFM scanning, respectively.

In this presentation, we will first introduce the HIM-SIMS and AFM-SIMS instruments and discuss their performance characteristics. We will then present a number of examples taken from various fields of materials science and life science to show the powerful correlative microscopy possibilities enabled by these new in-situ methods.

09:25 - 09:45
Discussion
09:30 - 09:35
INfraNC Opening nanoGe
09:35 - 09:45
INfraNC Session Introduction 2.1
INfraNC 2.1
Chair: Andrey Rogach
09:45 - 10:05
2.1-I1
Konstantatos, Gerasimos
ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology
Colloidal Quantum Dots: A platform for SWIR Light Emitters
Konstantatos, Gerasimos
ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, ES
Gerasimos Konstantatos received the Diploma from the University of Patras, Patras, Greece, in 2001 and the M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, in 2004 and 2008, respectively, all in electrical and computer engineering.He is currently a Group Leader with ICFO - the Institute of Photonic Sciences, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain. His work has been published in over 25 journal articles, 7 of them in Nature-family journals, in the field of colloidal quantum dot optoelectonics. He is also an inventor of 5 granted patents licensed to Invisage Technologies and a recipient of the TR35 Spain 2012 award for his contributions on colloidal quantum dot photodetectors. His current research interests lie in the field of solution processed functional nanomaterials for solar cell and optical sensor applications.
Authors
Gerasimos Konstantatos a, b
Affiliations
a, ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Avinguda Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, Castelldefels, ES
b, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Spain, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona, ES
Abstract

Optoelectronic applications in the short wave infrared (SWIR) address a number of societal and technology challenges, including safety and security, food and process quality inspection, night vision, automotive safety, biological and environmental monitoring, just to name a few. However despite the huge impact and market potential currently available technologies based on costly III-V semiconductors impose commercialization challenges. That said, CQDs offer a unique opportunity to address this in view of their unique optoelectronic properties, low cost and CMOS compatibility. In this talk I will present recent lines of activities at ICFO towards high performance light emitters in the SWIR.

I will present record quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency LEDs based on PbS CQDs enabled by engineering the energetic landscape and density of states of the active layers towards high PLQY, ultra-low trap-state density and improved charge balance [1]. Further, band engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level has led to droop suppression and thereby to the achievement of record EQEs of 8% at high radiance conditions and exceptional stability of devices [2]. The talk will be concluded by recent results demonstrating for the first time tunable stimulated emission across the optical telecommunication band with high modal gain in excess of 100 cm-1 and record low threshold in the single exciton regime, despite the 8-fold degeneracy of PbS CQDs, paving the way towards infrared CQD lasing [3].

References

[1] S. Pradhan et al., High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level. Nature Nanotechnol. 14, 72-79 (2019)

[2] S. Pradhan et al., Highly efficient, Bright and Stable SWIR CQD LEDs, Adv. Fun. Mat. Accepted 2020.

[5] S. Christodoulou et al. Single-Exciton Gain and Stimulated Emission Across the Infrared Optical Telecom Band from Robust Heavily-doped PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots. arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.03796.

10:05 - 10:25
2.1-I2
Heiss, Wolfgang
Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg,Germany
PbS nanocrystal growth and overgrowth by thiourea precursors
Heiss, Wolfgang
Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg,Germany, DE
Authors
Wolfgang Heiss a, Niall Killilea a, Mykhailo Sytnyk a
Affiliations
a, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Energy Campus Nürnberg, Fürther Straße, 250, Nürnberg, DE
Abstract

Colloidal nanocrystals from PbS are most prominent materials for applications in optoelectronic devices operating in near to mid-infrared. Traditionally, they are synthesized by a hot injection method based on bis(trimethylsilyl) sulfide used as sulfur precursor. More recently Hendricks et al. [1] introduced a library of substituted thio-ureas as sulfur precursors of varying reactivity that can be used for size tuning. We combined these two approaches and selected a disubstituted thiourea compound as sulfur precursor and show the growth [2] and overgrowth of colloidal nanocrystals with this precursor. The advantage of this method is, that we can obtain controlled growth over infinitely large substrates, over all the nanocrystal size range towards bulk material (Figure 1). With the thio-urea precursor homo-epitaxial growth is achieved as well as heteroepitaxial growth, certainly related to the lattice matching between the substrate and the overgrowing PbS crystal. The obtained materials are of excellent quality and based on the nanocrystals grown from the thiourea precursor, photoconducting devices are demonstrated with band gap energies reaching those of the bulk material. The nanocrystals were also applied in photovoltaic devices providing record like behavior, especially for relatively long wavelengths [3]. Thus the growth of optoelectronic structures form thiourea precursors in organic solvents represents a versatile and promising rout for the low cost fabrication of infrared-optoelectronic devices.

10:25 - 10:45
2.1-I3
Hens, Zeger
Surface Chemistry of Infrared Emitting Quantum Dots
Hens, Zeger
Authors
Zeger Hens a
Affiliations
a, Gent University - BE, Krijgslaan 281 - S3, Gent, BE
Abstract
10:45 - 11:05
Discussion
09:45 - 09:50
SPMen Short Break
09:45 - 09:50
Sol2D Short Break
09:50 - 10:00
SPMEn Session Introduction 1.2 - Alex Redinger
09:50 - 10:00
Sol2D Session Introduction 2.2 - Sandrine Ithurria
SPMEn 1.2
Chair: Alex Redinger
10:00 - 10:20
1.2-I1
Kholkin, Andrei
University of Aveiro, Portugal
Strain-Polarization Coupling Mechanism of Enhanced Conductivity at the Grain Boundaries in BiFeO3 Thin Films
Kholkin, Andrei
University of Aveiro, Portugal, PT

Dr. Andrei Kholkin received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Physics from the St. Petersburg State University and Ph.D. degree from the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russia. In consequent years, he held research positions in IFW (Dresden, Germany), EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland) and Rutgers University (USA). He is currently a research coordinator and head of the laboratory of advanced microscopy of nanomaterials in the University of Aveiro (Portugal). His group develops multifunctional materials (including ferroelectrics and multiferroics) and scanning probe microscopy techniques. He is a coauthor of more than 500 technical papers in this area including numerous reviews and book chapters. He was a coordinator of three European projects on multifunctional materials and serves as an associate editor for the IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (TUFFC) and member of editorial boards of several scientific journals. He is a member of the Ferroelectric Committee of IEEE and was a recipient of the “Excellency” award from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. He has been a Technical Committee member of several international conferences and cofounded a new conference series on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. He was a guest editor of the special issues on ferroelectrics in TUFFC, Journal of Applied Physics and Materials Research Society Bulletin. Dr. Kholkin is a Fellow of IEEE (class 2012), and member of IEEE, Materials Research Society and Portuguese Materials Society.

Authors
Andrei Kholkin a, Denis Alikin b, Yevhen Fomichov c, Saulo dos Reis e, Alexander Abramov b, Dmitry Chezganov b, Vladimir Shur b, Eugene Eliseev f, Anna Morozovska g, Eudes Araujo d
Affiliations
a, Department of Physics & CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, PT
b, Ural Federal University, School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ekaterinburg, Russia, RU
c, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague 8, 180 00, Czech Republic
d, Department of Chemistry and Physics, São Paulo State University, Brazil, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, 15385-000, Brasil, Ilha Solteira, BR
e, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo, 15503-110 Votuporanga, Brazil
f, Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, UA
g, Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine/ Department of Physics & CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro
Abstract

Transport across the interfaces in complex oxides attracts a lot of attention because it allows creating novel functionalities useful for device applications, e.g. for electric energy storage or non-volatile memories. It has been observed that movable domain walls (DWs)  in epitaxial BiFeO3 films possess enhanced conductivity that can be used for ferroelectric-based memories [1,2]. In this case, the apparent memristive effect is based on the low resistance state induced by writing the DWs and high resistance by their erasure. In this work, the relation between the polarization, strain, and conductivity was investigated in sol-gel BiFeO3 (BFO) films with special emphasis on grain boundaries (GBs) as natural interfaces in polycrystalline ferroelectrics. To explore the interplay between the transport properties of the GBs and polarization we studied domain structure and local conductivity by vector Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) and conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (c-AFM). We found that the individual grains were all single domain and did not contain any domain walls inside the grains. Surprisingly, we found a self-assembled arrangement of the domain structure confined in “clusters” with the correlated orientation of the spontaneous polarization. In addition, grain boundaries at the cluster circumference were highly conductive, while the electrical conductivity of GBs inside the clusters was similar to that in the bulk. Thus, the conductivity of GBs was dependent on the polarization state in adjacent grains being maximized for the opposite polarization directions. The enhanced conductivity was attributed to the strain concentration at GBs coupled with the local band bending. In order to put the proposed qualitative explanation of GBs effect on a theoretical basis, we used well-known Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire (LGD) formalism to model the interface charge and polarization distribution in BFO films. PFM tip was modeled as a quasi-planar electrode separated from the film surface by a gap. In accordance with the proposed model, the experimentally observed conductivity enhancement at the GBs was explained by the electric potential and elastic strain variation at the interfaces. Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to calculate the polarization, electric field, potential, and elastic stress distributions across the GBs for the analysis of c-AFM contrast in BFO films. The observed phenomena provide further insight into the physics of interfaces in polycrystalline ferroelectrics and may strongly affect their technological applications, such as capacitors for energy storage or non-volatile memory cells.

10:20 - 10:40
1.2-I2
Luna, Monica
Instituto de Micro y Nanotecnología (IMN-CSIC)
Surface charge changes in the enhanced photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 (110) by means of Photo-Assisted Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
Luna, Monica
Instituto de Micro y Nanotecnología (IMN-CSIC), ES
Authors
Monica Luna a, Mariam Barawi b, Yi-Hsien Lu c, d, Ravi Chintala c, Patricia Reñones b, Virginia Altoe c, Lidia Martínez e, Yves Huttel e, Seiji Kawasaki c, Alexander Weber-Bargioni c, Víctor A. dela Peña O´Shea b, Paul D. Ashby c, Miquel Salmeron d, f
Affiliations
a, IMN-Instituto de Micro y Nanotecnología (CNM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid, España, Tres Cantos, ES
b, Institute IMDEA Energy, Spain, Móstoles, Madrid, España, Móstoles, ES
c, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California 94720, USA, US
d, Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US, Berkeley, California 94720, US
e, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain., C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Madrid, ES
f, University of California Berkeley, Materials Science and Engineering Dept., Berkeley, California 94720, EE. UU., Berkeley, US
Abstract

 

The carbon dioxide transformation into useful fuels by means of just sunlight aims to solve a crucial problem of nowadays society. Lamentably, just an insufficient 1% of the generated CO2 is reused today due, primarily, to the lack of efficient conversion technologies. However, the scientific accomplishments achieved during the last decade [1] have renewed the interest in this field.

 

            A fundamental part in a photocatalytic process is the electron-hole pair formation, due to the absorption of photons. One of the main limitations to obtain good conversion efficiency is the fact that electron-hole pair recombination speed is between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than the speed of separation and charge transport. A recent proposal consists in the deposition of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on the TiO2 surface. NPs trap the semiconductors excited electrons, thus reducing the photo generated carriers recombination speed and, therefore, enhancing the photocatalytic activity [2].

            Despite the fact that TiO2 is the most studied photocatalyzer, the mechanisms that operate in the process of charge separation and transfer are still not completely understood [3]. Particularly, the metal nanoparticle trapping electron phenomenon is still an unexplored field but relevant in the redesigning of a more efficient photocatalyzer. In this work, we have studied the surface charge changes of individual ligand-free Au nanoparticles deposited on n-doped TiO2 (110), under different catalytic conditions. Among other results, we will report the increased rate of hole trapping by the catalyzer and the decrease of contact potential difference experienced by the Au nanoparticles, as a function of light irradiance. 

10:40 - 11:00
Discussion
Sol2D 2.2
Chair: Sandrine Ithurria
10:00 - 10:20
2.2-I1
Delerue, Christophe
IEMN - UMR 8520
Quantized optical absorption in quasi-2D semiconductors: Theory, comparison with experiments and open questions
Delerue, Christophe
IEMN - UMR 8520, FR
Authors
P. Tim Prins a, Zeger Hens b, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh a, Christophe Delerue c
Affiliations
a, Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, NL
b, Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Belgium, BE
c, IEMN, UMR-CNRS 8520, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Abstract

The optical absorptance A of a semiconductor layer is the ratio between the absorbed and incident energy. It was shown experimentally that, after corrections due to local-field effects, the absorptance of thin InAs layers is characterized by very clear steps corresponding to nA0, where n is an integer and A0 is the product of pi and the fine structure constant [1]. Remarkably, the quantum of absorptance was originally found for graphene monolayers, in a wide energy region [2]. In both cases, the explanation of this observation was provided on the basis of simplified calculations applied to a two-band model. In order to go beyond these approximations, we present atomistic multi-band tight-binding calculations of the absorptance of different types of semiconductor layers. We confirm that, in absence of strong excitonic effects, A is characterized by clear steps which can be related to A0. The cases of layers of InAs and PbSe are studied in detail, taking into account the complex band structure of these materials. In the case of InAs, remarkable agreement with experiments is found. The origin of the quantization is discussed.

10:20 - 10:40
2.2-I2
Heine, Thomas
Two routes to computationally design new 2D photoelectrocatalysts
Heine, Thomas

Thomas Heine graduated in physics from TU Dresden under the guidance of Gotthard Seifert, with research stages in Montréal (Dennis R. Salahub) and Exeter (Patrick Fowler). After postdoctoral stages in Bologna (Francesco Zerbetto) and Geneva (Jacques Weber) he obtained the venia legendi in Physical Chemistry at TU Dresden. In 2008 he was appointed as Associated Professor of Theoretical Physics/Theoretical Materials Science at Jacobs University and was promoted to Full Professor in 2011. From 2015-2018 he held the Chair of Theoretical Chemistry at University of Leipzig, Germany. Since 2018 is professor of theoretical chemistry at TU Dresden in joint appointment with Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf. His research interests include molecular framework compounds, two-dimensional materials, theoretical spectroscopy, and the development of methods and software for materials science.

Authors
Thomas Heine a
Affiliations
a, Technical University (TU) Dresden, Mommsenstr. 13, Dresden, 1062, DE
Abstract

In this talk I will present two routes to computationally develop new photocatalysts. In the first one, layered noble metal chalconides and pnictonides [1], which show potential to be photocatalytically active, are exfoliated, and the resulting layers are investigated with respect to their properties, most importantly their stability and performance to (photo)catalyze hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions in dependence on the pH and other factors. We have successfully applied this strategy recently to a series of noble-metal chalcogenides [2], phosphochalcogenides [3,4] and pnictonides [5].

In the second route, photoactive molecules, for example phorphyrin derivatives [6], are incorporated into synthetic framework materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [7], where stacking provides additional band dispersion and supports charge carrier separation [8]. A similar approach is possible for covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) [9].

10:40 - 11:00
2.2-I3
Achtstein, Alexander
Tuning Trion and Exciton Properties, Phonon Coupling and Exciton Diffusion in CdSe Quantum Wells of Finite Size
Achtstein, Alexander
Authors
Alexander Achtstein a, Sabrine Ayari b, Michael Quick a, Nina Owschimikow a, Sihem Jaziri b, c, Ulrike Woggon a
Affiliations
a, Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, DE
b, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite de Carthage, Jarzouna, Tunisia, TN
c, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire,Tunis, Tunisia, TN
Abstract

We present combined experimental and theoretical studies [1-3], demonstrating that CdSe nanoplatelets are a model system to investigate the tunability of trions and excitons in laterally finite 2D semiconductors. Our results show that the trion binding energy can be tuned from 36 meV to 18 meV with lateral size and decreasing aspect ratio, while the oscillator strength ratio of trion to exciton decreases.[3] In contrast to conventional quantum dots the trion oscillator strength in a nanoplatelet at low temperature is smaller than that of the exciton. The trion and exciton Bohr radii become lateral size tunable, e.g. from ~3.5 to 4.8 nm for the trion. This lateral tunability is practically independent of the transition energy, which is determined by the strong z-confinement in the colloidal wells. We show that dielectric screening has strong impact on these properties. By theoretical modeling of transition energies, binding energies and oscillator strength of trion and exciton and comparison to experimental findings we demonstrate that these properties are lateral size and aspect ratio tunable and can be engineered by the dielectric confinement. The trion binding energy can be tuned below or above the room temperature thermal energy. This allows e.g. together with the size tunable trion to exciton oscillator strength ratio (tunable by more than a factor of three) to suppress detrimental trion emission in devices by the choice of platelet size. [3]

 

We further show that e.g. the size tunable Bohr radii or wavefunctions together with the appropriate matrix elements for acoustic and polar phonon coupling result in a strong tunability of e.g. the exciton mobility and linewidth.[4] At low temperature e.g. the exciton mobility and diffusion coefficient show an platelet area dependence,  resulting from the inverse area scaling of the exciton-phonon scattering rate. The exciton mobility and diffusion coefficient become size and additionally lateral aspect ratio tunable.

 

Our results strongly impact further studies, as the demonstrated lateral size and aspect ratio tunable trion and exciton manifold is expected to influence properties like gain mechanisms, lasing, exciton-phonon interaction and transport at low temperature, but also even at room temperature due to the high and tunable exciton and trion binding energies.

11:00 - 11:20
Discussion
10:05 - 10:10
PerNC Short Break
10:10 - 10:20
PerNC Session Introduction 2.2 - Gabriele Raino
PerNC 2.2
Chair: Gabriele Raino
10:20 - 10:40
2.2-I1
Lifshitz, Efrat
The influence of magnetic doping and alloying on magneto-optical properties of three- and two-dimensional Perovskite structures
Lifshitz, Efrat
Authors
Efrat Lifshitz a, Anjani Gavenkar a, Allysa Kostadinov a, Arthur Saphiro a, Shahar Zuri a, Yahel Barak a
Affiliations
a, Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Helen Diller Quantum Center, Grant Technion Energy Program, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Israel, IL
Abstract

The halide perovskites have received a humongous attention in the last decade due to their unique opto-electronic properties and extensive compositional tunability. At the focus of interest are the three-dimensional (3D) structures with the generic chemical formula ABX3 (A- counter ion, B-metal, X-halide), as well as emerging two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper halide perovskites with a chemical formula L2An-1BnX3n+1 (L-site: van der Waals (vdW) ligands between the perovskite layers). The 2D halide perovskites possess a quantum well structure with a sandwich configuration, where inorganic perovskites are stacked between organic spacer ligands. While the electronic and optical properties of the mentioned halide perovskites have been meticulously studied in recent years, the era of magnetism was explored to a lesser extent.

This work focuses on a thorough investigation of intrinsic phenomena leading to effective magnetic fields, including spin-orbit coupling, breaking of inversion of symmetry, nuclear field and intentional doping or alloying. The material platform is based on the 3D and 2D of lead-halide perovskite with/without the incorporation of magnetic impurities (e.g., transition metal or lanthanide cations). The concentration of the foreign cations varies from a doping to an alloying level. The physical phenomena are explored using polarized magneto-photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A few specific examples will be discussed: (a) Rashba and intrinsic nuclear magnetic fields in 3D structures; (b) The added value of magnetic impurities, with the example of Ni- doping in 3D perovskite and Gd-doping in 2D structures, either as bulk single crystals or as nanostructures.

10:40 - 11:00
2.2-I2
Lounis, Brahim
University of Bordeaux
Photophysical properties of individual lead halide perovskite nanocrystals
Lounis, Brahim
University of Bordeaux, FR
Authors
Brahim Lounis a
Affiliations
a, University of Bordeaux, Institut d’Optique & CNRS, France
Abstract

Lead halide perovskites have emerged as promising new semiconductor materials for high-efficiency photovoltaics, light-emitting applications and quantum optical technologies. Their luminescence properties are governed by the formation and radiative recombination of bound electron-hole pairs known as excitons, whose bright or dark character of the ground state remains debated [1, 2].

Spectroscopically resolved emission from single lead halide perovskite nanocrystals at cryogenic temperatures provides unique insight into physical processes occurring within these materials. The emission spectra collapse to narrow lines revealing a rich spectroscopic landscape and unexpected properties, completely hidden at the ensemble level and in bulk materials.

In this talk, I will discuss how magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy provides a direct spectroscopic signature of the dark exciton emission of single lead halide perovskite nanocrystals [3]. The dark singlet is located several millielectronvolts below the bright triplet, in fair agreement with an estimation of the electron-hole exchange interaction. Nevertheless, these perovskites display an intense luminescence because of an extremely reduced bright-to-dark phonon-assisted relaxation [4]. Resonant photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy allows the determination of the optical coherence lifetimes in these nanocrystals and to assess their suitability as sources of indistinguishable single photons [5]. Memories in the Photoluminescence Intermittency of Single Nanocrystals are observed [6].

References:

[1] M. Fu, P. Tamarat, J. Even, A. L. Rogach, and B. Lounis, “Neutral and Charged Exciton Fine Structure in Single Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Revealed by Magneto-optical Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2895–2901, Apr. 2017.

[2] G. Nedelcu, A. Shabaev, T. Stöferle, R. F. Mahrt, M. V. Kovalenko, D. J. Norris, G. Rainò, and A. L. Efros, “Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nature, vol. 553, no. 7687, pp. 189–193, Jan. 2018.

[3] P. Tamarat, M. I. Bodnarchuk, J.-B. Trebbia, R. Erni, M. V. Kovalenko, J. Even, and B. Lounis, “The ground exciton state of formamidinium lead bromide perovskite nanocrystals is a singlet dark state,” Nat. Mater., pp. 1–9, May 2019.

[4] P. Tamarat, J.-B. Trebbia, M. I. Bodnarchuk, M. V. Kovalenko, J. Even, and B. Lounis, “Unraveling exciton-phonon coupling in individual FAPbI3 nanocrystals emitting near-infrared single photons.,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, p. 3318, Aug. 2018.

[5] P. Tamarat et al., submitted (2020)

[6] L. Hou, C. Zhao, X. Yuan, J. Zhao, F. Krieg, P. Tamarat, M. V. Kovalenko, C. Guo, B. Lounis,"Memories in the Photoluminescence Intermittency of Single Cesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals" Nanoscale 12 (2020) 6795-6802

11:00 - 11:20
2.2-I3
Stöferle, Thilo
IBM Research – Zurich
Quantum light emission and strong light-matter interaction in cesium lead halide quantum dots
Stöferle, Thilo
IBM Research – Zurich, CH

Dr. Thilo Stöferle has been a permanent Research Staff Member at the IBM Research – Zurich Laboratory since August 2007. His current research interests are quantum simulation and quantum fluids, Bose-Einstein condensates with exciton-polaritons, integrated high Q/V cavities, nanophotonic lasers and switches. Another focus is on hybrid nanocomposite quantum materials for strong-light matter interaction and opto-electronic applications.

Authors
Michael Becker a, Franziska Krieg b, c, Darius Urbonas a, Gabriele Rainò b, c, Maryna Bodnarchuk b, c, Rainer Mahrt a, Maksym Kovalenko b, c, Thilo Stöferle a
Affiliations
a, IBM Research – Zurich, Säumerstrasse, 4, Rüschlikon, CH
b, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry & Applied Biosciences, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg, 1, Zürich, CH
c, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
Abstract

In the last few years, fully inorganic cesium lead halide nanocrystals have shown to exhibit extraordinary optical properties. We have found that their unprecedently fast radiative decay at cryogenic temperature is a direct consequence from a unique bright triplet exciton state with giant oscillator strength that leads to exceptionally strong intrinsic light-matter coupling. At the same time, their fluorescence intermittency is comparably very low for some halide compositions, which is important to make high-quality photon sources. Yet, detailed intermittency studies in single CsPbBr3 nanocrystals that are underpinned with Monte Carlo simulations allow us to shed light on the exciton and charge dynamics and processes.

When assembling the colloidal perovskite nanocrystals into superlattices we can exploit their high oscillator strength to achieve coherent, collective emission from such an ensemble. In this so-called superfluorescence the quantum dots spontaneously synchronize by interaction via the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. We will also discuss our progress towards incorporating perovskite quantum dots into optical microcavities in order to form exciton-polaritons in the strong light-matter interaction regime that have the potential to create coherent macroscopic quantum fluids.

11:20 - 11:40
Discussion
11:00 - 14:00
SPMEn Break
11:05 - 11:10
INfraNC Closing
11:20 - 12:30
Sol2D Break
11:40 - 13:00
PerNC Break
12:30 - 12:35
Sol2D Announcement nanoGe
12:35 - 12:45
Sol2D Session Introduction 2.3 - Christian Klinke
Sol2D 2.3
Chair: Christian Klinke
12:45 - 13:05
2.3-I1
Moreels, Iwan
Gent University - BE
Multiphoton Fluorescence Upconversion in Core/Barrier/Crown 2D Colloidal Nanocrystals
Moreels, Iwan
Gent University - BE, BE

I obtained my PhD degree in applied physics at Ghent University in 2009, studying near-infrared lead salt quantum dots. This was followed by a postdoc on quantum dot emission dynamics at Ghent University in collaboration with the IBM Zurich research lab. In 2012 I joined the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, where I led the Nanocrystal Photonics Lab in the Nanochemistry Department. In 2017 I returned to Ghent University as associate professor, focusing mostly on 2D and strained nanocrystals. The research in our group ranges from the synthesis of novel fluorescent nanocrystals to optical spectroscopy and photonic applications.

Authors
Ali H. Khan a, Guillaume H.V. Bertrand b, Ayelet Teitelboim c, Chandra Sekhar M. a, Anatolii Polovitsyn a, Rosaria Brescia b, Josep Planelles d, Juan I. Climente d, Dan Oron c, Iwan Moreels a
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Belgium, Krijgslaan 281-S3, Ghent, BE
b, CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Genova, IT
c, Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
d, Universitat Jaume I, Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Spain, Avinguda de Vicent Sos Baynat, Castelló de la Plana, ES
Abstract

Two-dimensional fluorescent colloidal nanocrystals combine the flexibility of solution-processed nanomaterials with the advantages of a (quasi-)2D band structure that offers enhanced optical properties compared to 0D quantum dots. In this presentation, I will discuss the synthesis of a novel ternary heterostructure, composed of a CdSe core, laterally extended by a CdS tunneling barrier, and finally a CdTe crown.[1] The type-II band offset between CdSe and CdTe, in combination with the CdS barrier layer, allows to separate core and crown electron and hole wave functions, yielding an emission spectrum consisting of a long-lived indirect transition at 625 nm, as well as direct CdSe and CdTe transitions around 510 nm and 575 nm, resp. Up to 2% of the total emission can be attributed to CdSe, and we were able to demonstrate two- and even three-photon fluorescence upconversion by exciting the sample with red and near-infrared photons, to yield green emission from the CdSe core.

13:05 - 13:25
2.3-I2
Lauth, Jannika
Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universität Hannover, DE
From Probing Coupled States in ultrathin PbS Nanoplatelets to Controlling Metallic and Semiconducting Properties in WS2 Nanosheets
Lauth, Jannika
Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universität Hannover, DE, DE
Authors
Jannika Lauth a, b
Affiliations
a, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universität Hannover, DE, Callinstraße, 3A, Hannover, DE
b, Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD (Photonics, Optics, and Engineering - Innovation Across Disciplines), Hannover, DE
Abstract

Colloidal 2D nanosheets and nanoplatelets with thickness- and dimensionality-dependent properties are highly interesting for innovative optoelectronics in the visible and near-infrared.

The first part of my talk is focused on our work in tailoring the synthesis and optoelectronic properties of ultrathin lead chalcogenide nanoplatelets (NPLs). E.g., we have recently shown increased exciton binding energies in thin PbS nanosheets by time-resolved THz spectroscopy.[1] Here, I will disentangle the charge-carrier dynamics of coupled states in ultrathin PbS NPLs with enhanced near-infrared emission by transient absorption spectroscopy.

In the second part of my talk, I will focus on our progress in controlling the formation of ultrathin metallic and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide layers by wet-chemical methods.

Our work emphasizes the excellent usability of colloidal chemistry and time-resolved spectroscopy methods for producing tailor-made 2D materials.

[1] J. Lauth*, M. Failla, E. Klein, C. Klinke, S. Kinge, L. D. A. Siebbeles, Photoexcitation of PbS Nanosheets Leads to Highly Mobile Charge Carriers and Stable Excitons, Nanoscale 2019, 11, 21569-21576.

13:25 - 13:45
Discussion
PerNC 2.3
Chair: Oleksandr Voznyy
13:00 - 13:10
2.3-T1
McCall, Kyle
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich
Perovskite Nanocrystal Scintillators for Fast Neutron Imaging
McCall, Kyle
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, CH
Authors
Kyle McCall a, b, Kostiantyn Sakhatskyi a, b, Eberhard Lehmann c, Bernhard Walfort d, Adrian Losko e, Federico Montanarella a, b, Maryna Bodnarchuk a, b, Franziska Krieg a, b, Yusuf Kelestemur a, b, f, David Mannes c, Yevhen Shynkarenko a, b, Sergii Yakunin a, b, Maksym Kovalenko a, b
Affiliations
a, ETH – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Switzerland, CH
b, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
c, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Forschungsstrasse 111, Villigen, CH
d, RC Tritec AG, Speicherstrasse, 60A, Teufen, CH
e, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, DE
f, Atilim University, Turkey, Ankara, TR
Abstract

Radiographical imaging with X-rays, gamma-rays, and thermal neutrons (~25 meV) has developed into a crucial tool for medical imaging and security applications over the past century. Fast neutron (> 1 MeV) imaging is a rising technique which benefits from the high penetration power of fast neutrons, ideal for imaging large-scale objects such as construction beams and as-built plane turbines. However, widespread application of fast neutron imaging is hindered by inefficient detection of fast neutrons. The leading material in the field consists of microscale ZnS:Cu embedded in hydrogen-dense polypropylene (PP), with indirect detection of fast neutrons through the detection of recoil protons generated by fast neutrons scattering off hydrogen. However, such detectors exhibit drawbacks such as long-lived afterglows (order of minutes), light scattering at the plastic-phosphor interface, and high gamma-ray absorption and sensitivity. Hence, alternative solutions are needed to improve the performance of fast neutron detectors. Meanwhile, the advent of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) has ushered in a golden age for nanoscale emissive materials, with the defect-tolerant halide perovskites receiving significant attention in the past five years.

Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals in hydrogen-dense solvents as scintillators for fast neutron imaging. Light yield, spatial resolution, and neutron-vs.-gamma sensitivity of several compositions are compared, including both chalcogenide (CdSe and CuInS2)-based and perovskite-based NCs (FAPbBr3, CsPbBr3, and CsPbBrCl2:Mn). FAPbBr3 NCs exhibit the brightest total light output at 19.3% of the commercial ZnS:Cu(PP) standard. Colloidal NCs uniformly showed less sensitivity to gamma radiation than ZnS:Cu, with the ratio of detected neutrons to gamma-rays ranging from 2.2 in CsPbBrCl2:Mn NCs to 4.1 for CsPbBr3 NCs, compared to 1.0-1.1 for ZnS:Cu(PP). For example, 79% of the FAPbBr3 light yield results from neutron-induced radioluminescence and hence the neutron-specific light yield of FAPbBr3 is 30.4% of that of ZnS:Cu(PP), despite the tenfold higher phosphor load of ZnS:Cu(PP) relative to the perovskite NCs. Metal blocks with sharp edges used to estimate the spatial resolution reveal that the high Stokes shift CsPbBrCl2:Mn NCs offer the best spatial resolution at ~2.6 mm, while that of FAPbBr3 NCs is ~5.2 mm due to greater reabsorption and re-emission. Importantly, all NCs showed no evidence for afterglow on the order of seconds. Concentration and thickness-dependent measurements highlight the importance of high concentrations and reducing self-absorption, yielding design principles for perovskite NC-based scintillators to enable effective fast neutron imaging.

13:10 - 13:20
2.3-T2
Liu, Maning
Tampere University
Manganese-doping promotes the synthesis of bismuth-based perovskite nanocrystals while tuning their band structures
Liu, Maning
Tampere University, FI
Authors
Maning Liu a, Paola Vivo a, Arto Hiltunen a, Harri Ali-Löytty b, Mika Valden b, Essi Sarlin c, Jan-Henrik Smått d, Syeda Qudsia d, Sri Matta e, Salvy Russo e
Affiliations
a, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, FI
b, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, FI
c, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, FI
d, Laboratory of Molecular Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Porthaninkatu, 3, Turku, FI
e, School of Science Cluster, RMIT University, Melbourne, Melbourne Victoria, Australia, Melbourne, AU
Abstract

The doping of colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) with manganese cations (Mn2+) has recently enabled enhanced stability, novel optical properties and featured charge carrier dynamics in PNCs. However, the influence of Mn-doping on the synthetic routes and the band structures of the host PNCs has still not been clearly elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate that Mn-doping promotes a facile, less toxic, and less corrosive path toward the synthesis of all-inorganic bismuth-based PNCs (Cs3Bi2I9) by effectively suppressing the CsI by-product of the Cs3BiI6 intermediate decomposition reaction. Furthermore, the energy levels of the as-formed Cs3Bi2I9 PNCs can be tuned upon different Mn-doping amounts. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the valence band maximum level of the host Cs3Bi2I9 PNCs is deepened with an increased Mn-doping amount up to 5% of Bi content. This results in a higher open-circuit voltage of the corresponding PNCs-based solar cells compared to those employing the undoped Cs3Bi2I9. Our photophysical studies also demonstrate that the excitonic lifetime of the host Cs3Bi2I9 PNCs is prolonged with the increased Mn-doping amount, mainly due to the hindering of back energy transfer from doped Mn2+ to the excited state of the host PNCs. This work opens new insights on Mn-doping’s role in the synthetic route and optoelectronic properties of lead-free halide PNCs for further unexplored applications.

13:20 - 13:30
2.3-T3
Dahl, Jakob
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley
Elucidating the Weakly Reversible Cs–Pb–Br Perovskite Nanocrystal Reaction Network with High-Throughput Maps and Transformations
Dahl, Jakob
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, US
Authors
Jakob Dahl a, c, d, Xingzhi Wang a, Xiao Huang a, d, Emory Chan c, Paul Alivisatos a, b, d
Affiliations
a, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, EE. UU., Berkeley, US
b, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, US
c, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California 94720, USA, US
d, Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US, Berkeley, California 94720, US
Abstract

Advances in automation and data analytics can aid exploration of the complex chemistry of nanoparticles. Lead halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals provide an interesting proving ground: there are reports of many different phases and transformations, which has made it hard to form a coherent conceptual framework for their controlled formation through traditional methods. In this work, we systematically explore the portion of Cs–Pb–Br synthesis space in which many optically distinguishable species are formed using high-throughput robotic synthesis to understand their formation reactions. We deploy an automated method that allows us to determine the relative amount of absorbance that can be attributed to each species in order to create maps of the synthetic space. These in turn facilitate improved understanding of the interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic factors that underlie which combination of species are likely to be prevalent under a given set of conditions. Based on these maps, we test potential transformation routes between perovskite nanocrystals of different shapes and phases. We find that shape is determined kinetically, but many reactions between different phases show equilibrium behavior. We demonstrate a dynamic equilibrium between complexes, monolayers, and nanocrystals of lead bromide, with substantial impact on the reaction outcomes. This allows us to construct a chemical reaction network that qualitatively explains our results as well as previous reports and can serve as a guide for those seeking to prepare a particular composition and shape.

13:30 - 13:40
2.3-T4
Shcherbakov-Wu, Wenbi
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Temperature-Independent Dielectric Constant in CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals Revealed by Linear Absorption Spectroscopy
Shcherbakov-Wu, Wenbi
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US
Authors
Wenbi Shcherbakov-Wu a, Peter Sercel b, c, Franziska Krieg d, e, Maksym Kovalenko d, e, William Tisdale f
Affiliations
a, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology (MIT), Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Avenue, 77, Cambridge, US
b, Center for Hybrid Organic Inorganic Semiconductors for Energy, Golden, CO, USA
c, Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, US
d, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir Prelog Weg 1, 8093 Zürich, CH
e, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland, Überland Strasse, 129, Dübendorf, CH
f, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Green Bldg, Cambridge, MA 02142, EE. UU., Cambridge, US
Abstract

CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted much attention over the past five years due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties and potential applications in devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, and single-photon emitters. However, their fundamental photophysical properties, especially at low temperatures, are still under active debate. To date, almost all of the reports have used photoluminescence (PL) alone to infer the lattice dynamics in these materials. Here, we measure both the temperature-dependent (35 K - 300 K) absorption and PL spectra of zwitterionic ligand-capped CsPbBr3 NCs with four different edge lengths (L = 4.9 - 13.2 nm). The excitonic transitions observed in the absorption spectra can be explained with an effective mass model considering the quasicubic NC shape and non-parabolicity of the electronic bands. We observe a temperature-dependent Stokes shift; while the trend is similar to the Stokes shift observed in both MAPbBr3 and CsPbBr3 single crystals, it does not approach zero at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to an additional contribution intrinsically present in the NCs. Surprisingly, the effective dielectric constant determined from the best fit model parameters is independent of temperature, contrary to the previous report that the change in dielectric constant leads to the Stokes shift temperature dependence. Overall, our study sheds light on the fundamental lattice dynamics in these materials, and can potentially be used to guide future material optimization for device applications.

13:40 - 14:10
Discussion
13:45 - 13:50
Sol2D Closing
SPMEn 1.3
Chair: Marina Leite
14:00 - 14:10
1.3-T1
Eichhorn, Johanna
Technische Universität München, Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Germany
Impact of Surface Adsorbates on Charge Carrier Transport in Metal-Oxides for Solar Water Splitting
Eichhorn, Johanna
Technische Universität München, Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Germany, DE
Authors
Johanna Eichhorn a, b, Ian Sharp a, Francesca Toma b
Affiliations
a, Technische Universität München, Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, DE
b, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, US, US
Abstract

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising route for efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. The chemical transformation of water into oxygen and hydrogen takes place at the photoelectrode surface. Consequently, the activity, efficiency, and reaction pathway are critically controlled by the material surface properties. Under operating conditions, surface properties depend on the surrounding environment, and may be altered in the course of the reaction. Thereby, absorption of molecules can modify the chemistry at the surface, for example by influencing the kinetics of reactants, products, or reaction intermediates, but they can also directly impact the electronic transport properties by acting as surface trap states. In this context, improved understanding of these complex surface interactions will aid the development of highly efficient light absorbers as well as the integration of effective passivation and catalyst layers for these materials.

Among different photoelectrode materials, bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is one of the most actively investigated oxide semiconductors. Here, we employ photoconductive AFM under controlled in-situ conditions to gain insight into the relationship between surface interactions and interfacial charge transport characteristics in polycrystalline BiVO4 thin films. We demonstrate that the low intrinsic bulk conductivity of BiVO4 limits charge transport through the film, and that the transport mechanism can be attributed to space charge limited current in the presence of trap states.[1] By analyzing the space charge limited current in selective gas environments, we are able to quantify the impact of surface adsorbates on bulk transport properties. We find that surface adsorbed oxygen acts as a shallow trap state and accounts for 40% of the effective trap density in BiVO4 thin films.[2] For humid environments, our results are consistent with the adsorption of water as an oriented dipole layer, which does not induce a surface charge transfer but partially inhibits the adsorption of oxygen at the surface. Disentangling the individual effects of oxygen and water on charge carrier trapping underpins the importance of trap state passivation for efficient transport of photogenerated charge carriers in BiVO4.

14:10 - 14:20
1.3-T2
Sharma, Deepanjan
INL International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga
Electrical characterization of RbF-PDT Cu(In,Ga)Se2 by conductive-AFM tomography and EBSD
Sharma, Deepanjan
INL International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, PT
Authors
Deepanjan Sharma a, Mohit Raghuwanshi b, Nicoleta Nicoara a, Cojocaru Mirédin b, Sascha Sadewasser a
Affiliations
a, INL International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga, 4715-330 Braga, PT
b, I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstraße, 14, Aachen, DE
Abstract

For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells an alkali-fluoride (AlkF) post-deposition treatment (PDT) has recently led to a significant increase in the efficiencies. It has been observed by Kelvin probe force microscopy that the AlkF-PDT passivates the grain boundaries (GBs) in CIGSe by modifying their electronic properties in a beneficial way [1]. However, these results rely on surface potential information collected at the surface of the AlkF-PDT CIGSe.

In the present work, we explore the depth dependent electrical properties of a rubidium-fluoride (RbF)-PDT CIGSe, a treatment which has led to efficiencies as high as 22.6%. We apply conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) tomography to study the depth dependent conductive properties of the CIGSe absorber, aiming at getting electronic information about the grains and grain boundaries inside the material. In order to achieve the depth resolution, we use highly-doped diamond-coated tips for the experiments with an applied tip force of several µN, leading to the removal of a thin layer of material with every scan frame. This combination of tip-induced material erosion with the sensing capability of C-AFM, enables a slice-and-view conductive tomography technique. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative current measurements are obtained, providing deeper insight into the conductive paths in relation to grains and grain boundaries. In order to understand different current signals obtained on different grains, we performed electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on the same areas, providing information about the crystallographic orientation. Based on these correlative c-AFM and EBSD data, we attribute the differences in currents to different surface dipoles related to the different crystallographic orientations and atomic arrangements of the different grains

14:20 - 14:30
1.3-T3
Giridharagopal, Rajiv
University of Washington, US
Time-Resolved Electrical Microscopy of Photoinduced Charging and Ion Motion in Layered Perovskites
Giridharagopal, Rajiv
University of Washington, US, US
Authors
Rajiv Giridharagopal a, David Ginger a
Affiliations
a, University of Washington, US, Seattle, US
Abstract

The combination of functional scanning probe microscopy with advanced signal processing techniques in recent years has enabled new discoveries in a wide range of energy materials. These “big data” methods merge the availability of affordable data storage with the advances of the broader data science community to extract hidden information from gigabytes of raw time-dependent cantilever response data. In this talk, we will discuss our work using data-driven scanning probe methods, in particular time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy, for analyzing mixed organic-inorganic halide perovskites in situ in response to illumination. Through signal processing of the raw cantilever deflection signal during photoinduced charging, it is possible to extract the photoresponse of materials at microsecond timescales via analysis of the instantaneous frequency or the reconstructed electrostatic force. Importantly, we show that in layered (n=1) perovskites it is possible to observe photovoltage dynamics with timescales comparable to ion motion or trap-mediated carrier motion, in contrast to device-level studies. Furthermore, these timescales exhibit strong spatial dependence, with grain centers showing faster response compared to grain boundaries. This result is confirmed by general mode scanning Kelvin probe microscopy as well as by unsupervised clustering methods like k-means. These data indicate that layered perovskite materials may be more defect-prone than previously thought. Lastly, we discuss our work on analysis of hyperspectral photoinduced force microscopy for studying the spatial distribution of components in layered perovskites.

14:30 - 14:40
1.3-T4
Pothoof, Justin
University of Washington, US
Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy Reveals Ion Motion Varies with Dimensionality in 2D Halide Perovskites
Pothoof, Justin
University of Washington, US, US
Authors
Fangyuan Jiang a, b, Justin Pothoof a, Franziska Muckel a, Jian Wang a, Rajiv Giridharagopal a, David Ginger a
Affiliations
a, University of Washington, Department of Chemistry, US
b, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan 430074, P.R. China, Wuhan, 4300074, CN
Abstract

We study ion migration in 2D lead halide perovskites of varying dimensionality using scanning-Kelvin probe microscopy.  We perform potentiometry on micron-scale lateral junctions in the absence of injected charge and we compare how ion motion varies between prototypical two-dimensional n-butylammonium lead iodide perovskites (BA2PbI4, n=1), and methylammonium-incorporated quasi-2D perovskites (BA2MA3Pb4I13, ~<n>=4) both in the dark and under illumination. For pure 2D BA2PbI4 films (n=1) under applied bias, we observe symmetric potential profiles with charges migrating towards the anode and cathode (the charging process), and then away from the anode and cathode when the electric field is removed (the discharging process), both in the dark and under illumination.  In contrast, we observe asymmetric charging and discharging potential profiles for quasi-2D BA2MA3Pb4I13 films in the dark, which become symmetric under illumination. We attribute such a difference to the n=1 film being intrinsic and the n=4 film being self p-doped, on which the electric field is then screened by photogenerated carriers. We also measure the relaxation of the bias-induced ionic charge distributions at different temperatures to extract the activation energies associated with the ionic motion in each case. The relaxation dynamics during the discharging of both positive and negative potentials are similar for the n=1 film, but vary significantly for the n=4 film. Finally, we propose an explanation for these phenomena by hypothesizing that ion motion in purely 2D BA2PbI4 perovskite films is dominated by paired halide and halide vacancy motion, whereas for quasi-2D BA2MA3Pb4I13 films, the ion motion is a combination of both halide and methylammonium (vacancy) migration. These data show that dimensionality in these systems plays a critical role in the ion dynamics.

14:40 - 15:10
Discussion
15:10 - 15:15
SPMEn Closing
 
Posters
Syed Ghufran Hashmi, Maryam Borghei, Taina Lamminmäki
High Performance and Electrochemically Active Carbon Composite Catalyst-based Counter Electrodes Outperforming Pt Catalyst with Copper Electrolytes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
Catherine Mauck
Donor-acceptor Molecular Doping Enables Tunable Exciton Binding Energy in n = 1 Lead Halide Perovskites
Alberto Vega-Poot, Manuel Rodriguez-Pérez, Juan Becerril-González, Ingrid Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Jian Wang, Jinzan Su, Gerko Oskam
Charge Separation and Electron Transfer Processes at Surface Modified Hematite Electrodes for Solar Water Splitting
Chun-Hao Chiang, Hung-Min Lin, Che-Kuei Ku, Po-Hsien Wu, Chun-Wei Chen
3D Textured Graphene/Silicon Schottky Junction photocathode for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance
Jorge Martins, Seyedali Emami, Ruben Madureira, Joaquim Mendes, Dzmitry Ivanou, Adélio Mendes
Ultra Low Temperature Laser-Assisted Glass Frit Encapsulation of n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells
Maximilian Jansen, Nuri Yazdani, Fanni Juranyi, Olesya Yarema, Maksym Yarema, Sebastian Volk, Weyde Lin, Tilo Seydel, Vanessa Wood
Neutron scattering on nanocrystal solids: Interparticle vibrations and ligand dynamics
Saptarshi Chakraborty, Ranjani Viswanatha
Local Surface Plasmon Assisted Metal Oxide Perovskite Heterostructure for Small Light Emitters
Anna Wilson, Benjamin Moss, Takashi Hisatomi, Kazunari Domen, James Durrant
Investigating the extended charge lifetimes in photocatalyst sheets for sunlight-driven overall water splitting
Stefano Toso, Dmitry Baranov, Davide Altamura, Francesco Scattarella, Jakob Dahl, Xingzhi Wang, Sergio Marras, Paul Alivisatos, Andrej Singer, Cinzia Giannini, Liberato Manna
Accurate Structural Refinement of Nanocrystal Superlattices: Look Beyond Your Pattern
Apostolos Ioakeimidis, Stelios Choulis
Nitrobenzene as Additive to Improve Reproducibility and Degradation Resistance of Highly Efficient Methylammonium-Free Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells
Issoufou Ibrahim Zamkoye, Sylvain Vedraine, Bruno Lucas
Fabrication, Characterization and Numerical Simulation of Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowires for Inverted Organic Solar Cells
Peter Fürk, Stefan Weber, Jakob Hofinger, Matiss Reinfelds, Thomas Rath, Sergey M. Borisov, Heinz Amenitsch, Markus C. Scharber, Gregor Trimmel
Perylene-Linker-Perylene Triad Structures as Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells
Marcial Fernandez Castro, Eva Mazzolini, Roar R. Søndergaard, Moises Espindola-Rodriguez, Jens Wenzel Andreasen
Roll-processing optimization procedure for NFA-based OSCs
Andriy Stelmakh, Andriy Baumketner, Maksym Kovalenko
Binding of Ammonium Ligands to the Surface of CsPbBr3: a Mechanistic View
Deimante Vaitukaityte, Giedre Bubniene, Artiom Magomedov, Egidijus Kamarauskas, Vygintas Jankauskas, Maryte Daskeviciene, Amran Al-Ashouri, Brone Barvainiene, Steve Albrecht, Vytautas Getautis
Cross-linkable Fluorene-based Enamines as Hole Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells
Rhys Kennard, Clayton Dahlman, Ryan DeCrescent, Jon Schuller, Kunal Mukherjee, Ram Seshadri, Michael Chabinyc
Ferroelastic Hysteresis in MAPbI3 Films
Moritz Loy, Erik Ahlswede
Perovskite-CIGS 4T Tandem Solar Cells with Thin IZO Rear Electrodes
Fedros Galatopoulos, Ioannis Papadas, Apostolos Ioakeimidis, Polyvios Eleftheriou, Stelios Choulis
SURFACE TREATMENT OF Cu:NiOx HOLE-TRANSPORTING LAYER USING β-ALANINE FOR HYSTERESIS-FREE AND THERMALLY STABLE INVERTED PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS
Yunhua Xing, Nuri Yazdani, Weyde Lin, Vanessa Wood
Effect of Positional Disorder ion Charge Transport in Nanocrystal Thin Films
Mohammed Amir Yakoob, Jani Lamminaho, Karlis Petersons, Horst-Günter Rubahn, Jan Stensborg, Morten Madsen
Efficiency Enhanced Industrial-Compatible Organic Photovoltaics using Roll-To-Plate (R2P) Nanoimprint Lithography
Ngoc-Le Maria Lena Nguyen
Efficient Solar Cells with Non-fullerene Acceptors (NFAs) on Industrial Scale
Erik Beck, Agnes Weimer, Artur Feld, Dieter Lott, Vedran Vonk, Thomas Keller, Tobias Vossmeyer, Andreas Stierle
Solvent-dependent control of 2D magnetite nanoparticle superlattice structure
Jeffrey DuBose, Preethi Mathew, Prashant Kamat
Modulation of Photo Induced Iodine Expulsion in Mixed Halide Perovskites with Electrochemical Bias
Sixto Giménez, Miguel Garcia-Tecedor, Roser Fernandez-Climent
Cu-DeRIVED Catalysts for Electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction
Jose G. Sanchez, Alfonsina Abat Amelenan Torimtubun, Victor S. Balderrama, Magali Estrada, Josep Pallares, Lluis F. Marsal
Thermal Annealing Effect on the Performance of Polymer : Non-Fullerene-based Solar Cells using V2O5 as HTL
David Mueller, Laura Campos-Guzman, Shu-Ngwa Asa'a, Birger Zimmermann, Uli Wuerfel
Organic Photovoltaic Modules for Harves ting Indoor Light to Power IoT Devices – Upscaling and Long-Term-Stability
Walter O. Herrera Martínez, Paula Giudici, Natalia B. Correa Guerrero, Martin Alurralde, Maria Dolores Perez
High energy proton irradiation on MAPbI3 films for space applications observed by micro-Raman spectroscopy
Mariam Ahmad, Mehrad Ahmadpour, Dylan Amelot, Hervé Cruguel, Nadine Witkowski, Morten Madsen
Unveiling the Electronic State Interplay at the DBP/4P-NPD Interface in Organic Solar Cells
Danja Fischli, Sebastian Sutter, Florian Enders, Klaus Boldt
Mechanisms for Regioselective Synthesis of Anisotropic Nano-Heterostructures
Gahyeon Kim, Dongsun Choi, Kwang Seob Jeong
Promising Materials for Strong Mid-IR Light Source: The Tellurium Elemental Solid and Microcrystals
Sébastien Sauvage, Guy Fishman, Nicolas Moghaddam, Charlie Gréboval, Junling Qu, Audrey Chu, Prachi Rastogi, Clément Livache, Adrien Khalili, Xiang Zhen Xu, Benoit Baptiste, Stefan Klotz, Francesco Capitani, Sandrine Ithurria, Emmanuel Lhuillier
Theoretical Analysis of the Strong Confinement in HgTe Nanostructures Using a 14-band k.p Formalism
Dongsun Choi, Juhee Son, Mihyeon Park, Juyeon Jeong, Bitna Yoon, Kwang Seob Jeong
Mid Wavelength Infrared Electronic Transition in Self-Doped Nanocrystals and Correlation of Physical Property
Cedric Gonzales, Hakimeh Teymourinia, Juan Jesús Gallardo, Masoud Salavati-Niasari, Juan Bisquert, Javier Navas, Antonio Guerrero
Thin Silver Buffer Layer as Reactive Ion Scavenger for Interfacial Passivation of Perovskite Solar Cells
Dylan Amelot, Mehrad Ahmadpour, Quim Ros, Hervé Cruguel, Albano Cossaro, Luca Floreano, Morten Madsen, Nadine Witkowski
Hybrid state at the organic acceptor / low-temperature sputtered TiOx interface : a necessary property for efficient charge transport ?
Simone Sansoni, Michele De Bastiani, Erkan Aydin, Esma Ugur, Furkan Halis Isikgor, Areej Al-Zahrani, Francesco Lamberti, Frederic Laquai, Moreno Meneghetti, Stefaan De Wolf
Eco-Friendly Spray Deposition of Perovskite Films on Macroscale Textured Surfaces
Andreas Manoli, Paris Papagiorgis, Caterina Bernasconi, Maryna Bodnarchuk, Maksym Kovalenko, Grigorios Itskos
Probing the Influence of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Treatment on the Luminescent Properties of Caesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals
Paris Papagiorgis, Eleftheria Charalambous, Caterina Bernasconi, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko, Grigorios Itskos
Thermal Annealing Studies of Formamidinium Lead Iodide (FAPbI3) Nanocrystals
Telmo da Silva Lopes, Paula Dias, João Azevedo, Ricardo Monteiro, Dzmitry Ivanou, Adélio Mendes
Facing the Engineering Challenges of Upscaling: The SolarFlow25 Cell
Modestos Athanasiou, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko, Grigorios Itksos
Continuous Wave Superluminescence from Solution Processed CsPbBr3 Nanocrystal Microcavities.
Aleksandr Golovatenko, Anna Rodina, Elena Shornikova, Dmitri Yakovlev
Nonradiative recombination of dark excitons in CdSe nanoplatelets
Filipe Francisco, Paula Dias, João Azevedo, Adélio Mendes
Employing DoE on the synthesis of Ta3N5 photoanodes by electrophoretic deposition
Hamid Pashaei Adl, Setatira Gorji, Guillermo Muñoz Matutano, Andrés F. Gualdrón-Reyes, Ivan Mora-Seró, Juan P. Martínez Pastor
Investigation of inorganic single CsPbX3(X=I, Br) Perovskite nanocrystals by micro-photoluminescence
Ramón Arcas, Agustin O. Alvarez, Clara A. Aranda, Loengrid Bethencourt, Elena Mas-Marzá, Michael Saliba, Francisco Fabregat-Santiago
Negative in Capacitance and Inverted Hysteresis: Matching Features Perovskite Solar Cells
Ivan Sudakov, Melissa Van Landeghem, Ruben Lenaerts, Wouter Maes, Sabine Van Doorslaer, Etienne Goovaerts
The Interplay of Stability between Donor and Acceptor Materials in a Fullerene-Free Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Blend
Elena Shornikova, Dmitri Yakovlev, Danil Tolmachev, Vitalii Ivanov, Ina Kalitukha, Victor Sapega, Dennis Kudlacik, Sushant Shendre, Savas Delikanli, Hilmi Volkan Demir, Manfred Bayer
Excitons interacting with magnetic ions in CdSe/CdMnS colloidal nanoplatelets
Lars F. Klepzig, Leon Biesterfeld, Michel Romain, Anja Schlosser, Nadja C. Bigall, Jannika Lauth
2D PbSe Nanoplatelets with Tunable Emission and High Quantum Yield
Christian Engelbrekt, Matt Law, Dmitry Fishman, Vartkess A. Apkarian
Au-Pt Core-Shell (Au@Pt) Nanocrystals (NCs) and Plasmon-Mediated Energy Funneling to the NC Surface
Victoria Alejandra Gomez Andrade, Walter Herrera, Federico Redondo, Angelica M. Payan A., Federico Roncaroli, Natalia Correa, M. Dolores Perez
2-aminoterephthalic - MOFs as electron transporting layers in PSC
Jose M. Viaña, Jose M. Miranda, Gabriel Lozano, Hernán Míguez
Optical Disorder for Enhanced Colour Conversion and Efficient Bifacial Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. The Mie Glass: Fabrication and characterization
Juan F. Galisteo-López, David O. Tiede, Mauricio E. Calvo, Hernán Míguez
Phase Segregation in Mixed-Halide Perovskites: The role of the Iodide Defect Structure and its Local Rearrangement
Laura Caliò, Aaron Bayles, Sol Carretero-Palacios, Gabriel Lozano, Mauricio E. Calvo, Hernán Míguez
Localized surface plasmon effects on the photophysics of perovskite thin films embedding silver nanocubes
Gustavo A. S. Alves, Renato V. Golçalves
Band-gap Narrowing of NaTaO3 for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Under Simulated Sunlight: a Pseudo-cubic Phase Induced via Bi-doping
Marie Krecmarova, Rodolfo Canet-Albiach, Hamid Pashaei-Adl, Setatira Gorji, Guillermo Muñoz-Matutano, Jesús Rodríguez-Romero, Iván Mora-Seró, Isaac Suárez, Vladimir Chirvony, Juan P. Martínez-Pastor, Juan F. Sánchez-Royo
Temperature dependent emission properties of mechanically exfoliated layered lead halide perovskites
Yolanda Pérez, Patricia Horcajada
Stable lead-free hybrid perovskite based on iodobismuthates
Konstantinos Brintakis, Athanasia Kostopoulou, Emmanuel Stratakis Stratakis
Laser-Assisted Fabrication for Metal Halide Perovskite-2D Nanoconjugates: Control on the Nanocrystal Density and Morphology
Athanasia Kostopoulou, Konstantinos Brintakis, Dimitra Vernardou, Emmanuel Stratakis
All-inorganic Metal Halide Perovskites for Energy Storage Applications
Marisé Garcia-Batlle, Oriane Baussens, Smaïl Amari, Eric Gros-Daillon, Jean-Marie Verilhac, Julien Zaccaro, Antonio Guerrero, Germà Garcia-Belmonte
Moving Ions Vary Electronic Conductivity in Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals through Dynamic Doping
M. Córdoba, M. Unmüssig, U. Würfel, K. Taretto
Bias and light step-response in double-cation perovskite solar cells explained by ionmediated interface recombination
Andrea Rubino, Mauricio E. Calvo, Hernan Miguez
APbX3 perovskites in mesoporous matrices
We use our own and third party cookies for analysing and measuring usage of our website to improve our services. If you continue browsing, we consider accepting its use. You can check our Cookies Policy in which you will also find how to configure your web browser for the use of cookies. More info