Thermally Co-Evaporated Large Area Perovskite Solar Cells and Mini-Modules for tandem integration
Subodh Mhaisalkar a, J Li H Wang a, AD Herlina a, N Mathew a, A Bruno a
a NTU Singapore - Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Avenue, 50, Singapore, Singapore
Online Conference
Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Light Absorbing Materials for Next Generation Photovoltaics (ABSOGEN)
Online, Spain, 2020 November 17th - 18th
Organizers: Hongxia Wang, Xiaojing Hao and Lydia Wong
Invited Speaker, Subodh Mhaisalkar, presentation 017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.29363/nanoge.absogen.2020.017
Publication date: 6th November 2020

Metal-halide perovskites are one of the most promising active materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting technologies, due to their excellent optoelectronic properties and thin films fabrication versatility. In less than 10 years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.2% [1] presently demonstrated over an active area much smaller than 1 cm2 and a continued focus on improving the operational stability [2-5]. The rapid progress has triggered the interest of transferring the existing technology from small area PSCs into large-area perovskite solar modules (PSMs), necessary for industrial expansion.

 

Recently we have demonstrated highly efficient, large area, planar PSCs with uniform MAPbI3 perovskite active layer deposited by thermal co-evaporation of PbI2 and MAI. The high-quality co-evaporated perovskite thin films are pinhole-free and uniform over several centimetres, showing large grain sizes, low surface roughness, and a long carrier lifetime. The high-quality perovskite thin films translates to small area PSCs (0.16 cm2) with PCE above 20% and high reproducibility. Large area PSCs with area up to 4 cm2 did not show a significant drop in the PCE. Furthermore, the first thermally evaporated mini-modules with an active area larger than 20 cm2 achieved the record PCE of 18.13%. [6]

 

At the same time, looking forward to tandem integration and building-integrated photovoltaics we have also developed coloured semi-transparent PSCs using sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) as a semi-transparent electrode. The semi-transparent PSCs achieved a consistent PCEs ~16.0% and transparency above 75% in near infrared for all the colors we have developed. Our work represents an important step towards the development of high quality and reproducible large-area perovskite solar cells and mini-modules, the main requirements for the commercialization of the technology.

 

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NREL. Best Research-Cell Efficiency Chart; U.S. Department of Energy; https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.htm.

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N. Arora, M. I. Dar, A. Hinderhofer, N. Pellet, F. Schreiber, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, Science 2017, 358, 768.

S. Yang, S. Chen, E. Mosconi, Y. Fang, X. Xiao, C. Wang, Y. Zhou, Z. Yu, J. Zhao, Y. Gao, Science 2019, 365, 473.

Y. Wang, T. Wu, J. Barbaud, W. Kong, D. Cui, H. Chen, X. Yang, L. Han, Science 2019 365, 687.

J. Li, H. Wang, X. Y. Chin, H. A. Dewi, K. Vergeer, T. W. Goh, J. W. M. Lim, J. H. Lew, K. P. Loh, C. Soci, T. C. Sum, H. J. Bolink, N. Mathews, S. Mhaisalkar, A. Bruno, Joule 2020, 4, 1035 

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