Highly Stable and Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Via Multication Engineering
Michael Saliba a, Michael Graetzel a, Anders Hagfeldt a
a École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
Asia-Pacific International Conference on Perovskite, Organic Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics
Proceedings of International Conference Asia-Pacific Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (AP-HOPV17)
Yokohama-shi, Japan, 2017 February 2nd - 4th
Organizers: Tsutomu Miyasaka and Iván Mora-Seró
Oral, Michael Saliba, presentation 058
Publication date: 7th November 2016

Perovskites have emerged as low-cost, high efficiency photovoltaics with certified efficiencies of 22.1% approaching already established technologies. The perovskites used for solar cells have an ABX3 structure where the cation A is methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA), or cesium (Cs); the metal B is Pb or Sn; and the halide X is Cl, Br or I. Unfortunately, single-cation perovskites often suffer from phase, temperature or humidity instabilities. This is particularly noteworthy for CsPbX3 and FAPbX3 which are stable at room temperature as a photoinactive “yellow phase” instead of the more desired photoactive “black phase” that is only stable at higher temperatures. Moreover, apart from phase stability, operating perovskite solar cells (PSCs) at elevated temperatures (of 85 °C) is required for passing industrial norms.

Recently, double-cation perovskites (using MA, FA or Cs, FA) were shown to have a stable “black phase” at room temperature.(1,2) These perovskites also exhibit unexpected, novel properties. For example, Cs/FA mixtures supress halide segregation enabling band gaps for perovskite/silicon or perovskite/perovskite tandems.(3) In general, adding more components increases entropy that can stabilize unstable materials (such as the “yellow phase” of FAPbI3 that can be avoided using the also unstable CsPbI3). Here, we take the mixing approach further to investigate triple cation (with Cs, MA, FA) perovskites resulting in significantly improved reproducibality and stability.(4) We then use multiple cation engineering as a strategy to integrate the seemingly too small rubidium (Rb) (that never shows a black phase as a single-cation perovskite) to study novel multication perovskites.(5)

One composition containing Rb, Cs, MA and FA resulted in a stabilized efficiency of 21.6% (average value: 20.2%) on small areas (and a stabilized 19.0% on a 0.5 cm2 cell) as well as an electroluminescence of 3.8%. The open-circuit voltage of 1.24 volts at a band gap of 1.63 eV leads to a very small loss-in-potential of 0.39 V, versus 0.4 V for commercial silicon cells. Polymer-coated cells maintained 95% of their initial performance at 85°C for 500 hours under full solar illumination and maximum power point tracking.  

 

(1) Jeon et al., Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells. Nature (2015)

(2) Lee et al., Formamidinium and Cesium Hybridization for Photo- and Moisture-Stable Perovskite Solar Cell. Advanced Energy Materials (2015)

(3) McMeekin et al., A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells. Science (2016)

(4) Saliba et al., Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency. Energy & Environmental Science (2016)

(5) Saliba et al., Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance. Science (2016).



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