How Photoelectron Spectroscopy can be used to Investigate Perovskite Solar cells? From MAPbI3 to the Quadruple Cation RbCsMAFA Mixed Perovskite
Bertrand Philippe a, Håkan Rensmo a, Michael Saliba b, Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena c, Anders Hagfeldt c, Jesper Jacobsson d, Michael Odelius e, Erik Johansson f, Malin Johansson f, Gerrit Boschloo f
a Uppsala University, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden
b École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
c École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
d University of Cambridge, The Old Schools, Trinity Ln, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK, Cambridge, United Kingdom
e Stockholm University, Physical Chemistry Division, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Sweden
f Uppsala University, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden
Asia-Pacific International Conference on Perovskite, Organic Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics
Proceedings of International Conference Asia-Pacific Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (AP-HOPV17)
Yokohama-shi, Japan, 2017 February 2nd - 4th
Organizers: Tsutomu Miyasaka and Iván Mora-Seró
Oral, Bertrand Philippe, presentation 071
Publication date: 7th November 2016

The use of organic/inorganic perovskite and especially CH3NH3PbI3 as solar cells material constitutes one of the main breakthrough of this last five years in solar energy research. A lot attention has since been devoted to the development and improvement of these organic/inorganic perovskite materials and alternative chemistry have been proposed i.e. different nature of the halide (X), the metal (B), or the cation group (A), combination with hole conductors as well as the development and optimization of novel fabrication/deposition techniques bringing efficiency up to 22.1%. While these materials are usually characterized through their structure (XRD) and performance within solar cell communities, not so much attention is devoted to their chemical composition and, specifically at the surface. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) can easily fulfill this task. In addition to chemical information, PES provides an overall picture of the electronic structure of the perovskite in relation to its scaffold layer (e.g. TiO2, Al2O3), when studied with hard X-rays and calculations methods. Through various examples following the evolution of the perovskite from MAPbI3 to the quadruple cations system [1], we will show how PES can be used to investigate lead based perovskite materials prepared with various anion (I-, Br-, Cl-) or cation (Rb+, Cs+, MA+, FA+). [2][3] By probing different surface sensitivity by coupling soft and hard X-ray PES, we will also show that the outermost surface (first nanometers) can be significantly different from the bulk.[4] Finally, PES work performed on bismuth based materials will also be presented in this communication.[5]  

[1] M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5557

[2] R. Lindblad, N. K. Jena, B. Philippe, J. Oscarsson, D. Bi, A. Lindblad, S. Mandal, B. Pal, D. D. Sarma, O. Karis, H. Siegbahn, E. M. J. Johansson, M. Odelius, H. Rensmo J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 119, 1818-1825

[3] S. M. Jain, B. Philippe, E. M. J. Johansson, B.-w. Park, H. Rensmo, T. Edvinsson, G. Boschloo, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c5ta08745g

[4] T. J. Jacobsson, J.-P. Correa-Baena, E. Halvani Anaraki, B. Philippe, S. D. Stranks, M. E. F. Bouduban, W. Tress, K. Schenk, J. Teuscher, J.-E. Moser, H. Rensmo, A. Hagfeldt, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 10331–10343

[5] B. W. Park, B. Philippe,
X. Zhang, H. Rensmo, G. Boschloo, E. M. J. Johansson, Adv. Mater., 2015, 6806-6813

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