Continuous-Flow Synthesis of BiVO4 Nanoparticles: From laboratory scale to practical systems
Ana Gutiérrez Blanco a, Christian Robles a, Laura Montañés a, Camilo Arturo Mesa b, Diego Iglesias a, Helena Rabelo b, Maria Chiara Spadaro b c, Jordi Arbiol b d, Jesús Redondo e f g, Frederik Schiller e f h, Sara Barja e f h i, Beatriz Julián López a, Víctor Sans a, Sixto Giménez Juliá a
a Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, Av. De Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n 12071 Castellò, Spain
b Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), ES
c Department SIMAU, Marche Polytechnic University. Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona (Italy)
d ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain
e Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (UPV/EHU-CSIC), Donostia-San Sebastián 20018, Spain
f University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena, S/N, Leioa, Spain
g Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 180 00 Prague 8, Czech Republic
h Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian, Spain
i IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48009 Bilbao, Spain.
Proceedings of The Future of Hydrogen: Science, Applications and Energy Transition (H2Future)
Ibiza, Spain, 2024 April 17th - 19th
Organizers: Carolina Gimbert Suriñach, Sixto Gimenez Julia and Emilio Palomares
Oral, Ana Gutiérrez Blanco, presentation 025
Publication date: 27th February 2024

Cost-effective and efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting stands out as one of the most promising strategies to address sustainable energy supply in the form of green H2. However, large-area photoelectrodes featuring precise chemical and morphological control are needed for a practical solar-to-hydrogen conversion. In this regard, it is necessary to find efficient ways to up-scale laboratory synthesis to an industrial relevant scale. The emergence of continuous flow technologies offers an alternative strategy for preparing advanced materials in a highly controlled, reproducible, and scalable fashion,[1] influencing the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). Semiconductor NPs have attracted a great deal of interest in the last decades due to the increasingly range of applications. Among n-type semiconductors, Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is one of the most attractive materials used as photoanode for water oxidation due to its low cost, stability in aqueous solutions and moderate band gap (2.4 eV).[2] However, the large-scale synthesis of this material is still limited to the use of conventional batch processes, and it is necessary to achieve high-production yields due to the increasing demand in the field of energy materials.

In this communication we show the preparation of BiVO4 NPs by using a simple continuous-flow method. The proposed system allows to up-scale the synthesis through a microreactor and provides an affordable methodology for the fabrication of cost-effective, large-scale BiVO4 photoanodes with areas up to 50 cm2 and competitive performance.

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