An Electrochemical Study of Transport Properties in Perovskite Solar Cell Materials
Petra Cameron a, Adam Pockett a
a Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies, University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Claverton Down, Bath, BA27AY, United Kingdom
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV14)
Ecublens, Switzerland, 2014 May 11th - 14th
Organizers: Michael Graetzel and Mohammad Nazeeruddin
Oral, Adam Pockett, presentation 199
Publication date: 1st March 2014

Recent discoveries have demonstrated that the use of perovskite structured materials (with the general formula ABX3,where A=CH3NH3+, Cs+; B=Pb2+, Sn2+; X=I-, Cl-, Br-) in photovoltaic applications enables devices of high performance to be produced1, 2. The performance of perovskite solar cells has already exceeded that of dye-sensitized solar cells, from which they were derived. Despite a fast rate of improvement over the past year, a better understanding of the material and charge transport properties is required in order to allow the devices to reach their full potential.

In this work, electrochemical techniques are employed in order to study the photoelectrochemistry of the methylammonium lead halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx, in the dark and under illumination. These include potential sweep under chopped illumination, Mott-Schottky electrochemical capacitance, and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. The results help to elucidate the properties of the perovskite, both when deposited directly onto an FTO slide and when deposited onto an n-type or p-type contact.

These methods have helped to investigate charge transport in perovskites (see Figure). The morphological control of the perovskite layer deposited onto glass substrates has also been studied, giving a useful insight into the required production parameters for factors such as crystallite size, surface coverage and roughness. The effect of these on the transport properties of the perovskite has then been analysed.

Material characterisation has also been carried out using methods including PXRD, UV-Vis and AFM, in an attempt to better understand the properties of the material when deposited from solution. 

Potential sweep under chopped illumination of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite deposited on FTO substrate, showing anodic and cathodic photocurrents.
1. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin and M. Gratzel, Nature, 2013, 499, 316-319. 2. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston and H. J. Snaith, Nature, 2013, 501, 395-398.
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