Inkjet-Printed Micron-Thick Triple-Cation Absorber Layers with Columnar Crystals in Perovskite Solar Cells Exceeding 18% Stabilized Power Conversion Efficiency
Fabian Schackmar a b c, Helge Eggers a b c, Tobias Abzieher a, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa a b, Bryce S. Richards a c, Uli Lemmer a b c, Ulrich W. Paetzold a c
a Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Light Technology Institute (LTI), Engesserstrasse 13, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
b InnovationLab GmbH, Speyerer Straße 4, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany
c Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV19)
Roma, Italy, 2019 May 12th - 15th
Organizers: Prashant Kamat, Filippo De Angelis and Aldo Di Carlo
Poster, Fabian Schackmar, 126
Publication date: 11th February 2019

Solution-processed perovskite solar cells (PSC) have gained significant interest in the thin-film photovoltaics (PV) community due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties as well as power conversion efficiencies (PCE) exceeding 23% for small-area spin-coated devices. However, in terms of the economic prospects of the perovskite technology, upscalable fabrication methods have to be developed that are able to transfer the high PCEs from small laboratory scales to an industrialized large-scale fabrication. Digital inkjet printing offers the perspective of high material and cost efficiency together with the flexibility to print patterns of arbitrary shape on a wide range of different substrates, opening up novel applications for perovskite-based PV. Nowadays, high performing PSCs in planar architecture – independent of the deposition technique – employ absorber thicknesses below 500 nm as a result of structural defects or grain boundaries usually observed for thicker absorber layers, limiting the diffusion length of the generated charge carriers.

Contrary to that, high-quality inkjet-printed triple-cation perovskite (Cs0.11FA0.74MA0.15PbI0.85Br0.15) absorber layers thicker than 1 micron are reported in this contribution. By carefully tuning the deposition and crystallization process of the absorber layer, a grain boundary-free columnar crystal structure is achieved, allowing for high-quality planar PSCs with excellent stabilized PCEs as high as 18.5%. It is worth highlighting that these PCEs are the highest values for inkjet-printed triple-cation perovskite absorbers reported in literature until now. Furthermore, it is shown that the severe hysteresis problem known from similar approaches is overcome by employing efficient charge transport layers such as electron beam evaporated nickel oxide (NiOx) films. Both achievements are important steps for the promising technology of inkjet printing and are expected to strengthen the research in the field of all-printable perovskite-based PV.

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