Automated Scalable Spray Coating of SnO2 Colgel and SnO2 Nano Particles for the Realization of Low Temperature and Large Area Perovskite Solar Cells
Babak Taheri a, Giorgio Cardone b, Aldo Di Carlo a, Francesca Brunetti a
a CHOSE - Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1, Roma, Italy
b PPG Italy Business Support Srl, via Comasina, 121, 20161 Milano (Italy)
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV19)
Roma, Italy, 2019 May 12th - 15th
Organizers: Prashant Kamat, Filippo De Angelis and Aldo Di Carlo
Poster, Babak Taheri, 180
Publication date: 11th February 2019

In the energy field, the use of hybrid perovskite materials has opened up new directions to fabricate cost effective and highly efficient photovoltaic devices. Despite the impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) already achieved (23.7% [1]), scalability and stability of device are topical challenges. Furthermore, large area deposition procedures and automatized fabrication protocols are required in order to obtain high throughput serial production of modules and panels. Tin oxide (SnO2) is a low-cost Electron Transport Layer (ETL) that it is commonly deposited by Spin-Coater [2][3]. In this work, we demonstrated spray coating as alternative, effective scalable technique to deposit ETL for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In particular, we realized a first-ever sprayed low temperature SnO2 layer for PSCs. Additionally, by using nano particles of SnO2 (N-SnO2) we demonstrated the possibility of decreasing PSC fabrication temperature, that would be very attractive for flexible PSCs. The devices employing sprayed SnO2 layer achieve an efficiency that is comparable with respect to that obtained using spin-coated one. Furthermore, long-term stability of devices has not worsened for the sprayed SnO2. The CH3NH3PbI3 device based on sprayed N-SnO2 showed a maximum PCE of 16.77% (avg 15.2%).  Unencapsulated cells based on sprayed SnO2 stored at 25°C and 50% relative humidity showed shelf life stability by retaining 85% of the initial PCE value after more than 1000 hours. Similar behaviour was observed for the PCE of the spin-coated SnO2 cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of the cells from uniform spray deposited SnO2 film on large-area 20×20 cm2: this provides a viable route to easily combine low-cost, stability and high efficiency for the next generation perovskite photovoltaic devices.









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