Multisource Vacuum Deposition of Methylammonium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells
Yu-Hsien Chiang a, Miguel Anaya a, Sam Stranks a
a Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK., J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Proceedings of 13th Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV21)
Online, Spain, 2021 May 24th - 28th
Organizers: Marina Freitag, Feng Gao and Sam Stranks
Poster, Yu-Hsien Chiang, 194
Publication date: 11th May 2021

Halide perovskites of ABX3 formation have demonstrated excellent properties for solar cells. To date, the widely reported perovskite compositions consist of mixtures of A-site cations formamidinium (FA), methylammonium (MA) and Cs, and X-site iodide and bromide ions which are fabricated by solution processing. However, it is unclear whether solution processing will yield sufficient spatial performance uniformity for large-scale photovoltaic modules or compatibility with deposition of multilayered tandem solar cell stacks. Also, the volatile MA cation presents long-term stability issues. Here, we report the multisource vacuum deposition of FA0.7Cs0.3Pb(I0.9Br0.1)3 perovskite thin films with high-quality morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties. We find that the controlled addition of excess PbI2 during the deposition is critical for achieving high performance and stability of the absorber material, and we fabricate p-i-n solar cells with 20.7% device performance. We also reveal the sensitivity of the deposition process to a range of parameters, including substrate, annealing temperature, evaporation rates, and source purity, providing a guide for further evaporation efforts. Our results demonstrate the enormous promise for MA-free perovskite solar cells employing industry-scalable multisource evaporation processes.


S.D.S. and M.A. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) (Grant Agreement No. 756962 [HYPERION]) and the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (Grant Agreement No. 841386) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. S.D.S acknowledges support from the Royal Society and Tata Group (UF150033). Y.-H.C. acknowledges funding from a Taiwan Cambridge Scholarship. Part of this work was undertaken using equipment facilities provided by the Henry Royce Institute, via the grant Henry Royce Institute, Cambridge Equipment: EP/P024947/1. The authors acknowledge the Engineering and Physical Research Council (EPSRC) (EP/R023980/1) and the EPSRC “Centre for Advanced Materials for Integrated Energy Systems (CAM-IES)” (EP/P007767/1) for funding. We thank Tiarnan Doherty and Tim van de Goor for useful discussions.

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