Thermally Controlled Growth of photoactive FAPbI3 films for Highly Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
Sandy Sanchez a
a EPFL, Switzerland
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV22)
València, Spain, 2022 May 19th - 25th
Organizers: Pablo Docampo, Eva Unger and Elizabeth Gibson
Oral, Sandy Sanchez, presentation 061
Publication date: 20th April 2022

We employ flash IR annealing to investigate the phase transition of formamidinium lead tridiode (FAPbI3) thin-films for their solar cell application. Measuring the enthalpy changes of FAPbI3 composition  under different heating rates  allows us to calculate an  activation energy of 1.8 eV for the  black perovskite  phase transition.[1] We explore different heating rate regimes for triggering the phase transformation and analyze the evolution of the microstructure with an empirical calculation of the average crystal growth velocity required to form a compact film on the micron and submicron scale. The films were then optoelectronically and structurally correlated by mapping the typical microstructure of the grain domains, pointing to a direct relationship between film homogeneity and higher crystal growth rate. Accordingly, we manufactured highly stable black FAPbI3-based perovskite solar cells using the optimal film crystallization processing parameters, with an annealing time of just 640 ms. We achieve 18.5% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the champion device in the absence of any additives or passivators, incurring merely a 10% loss in PCE  during maximum power point  tracking for 1500 h under full solar intensity exposure of the devices.

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