Perovskite Technology Scaling Up From 32 cm2 to 320 cm2 Module by Fully Ambient Air Meniscus Coating Processes
Maurizio Stefanelli a, Luigi Vesce a, Luigi Angelo Castriotta a, Francesco Di Giacomo a, Aldo Di Carlo a b
a CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
b CNR-ISM – Institute for Structure of the Matter, National Research Council, Rome, 00133, Italy.
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV22)
València, Spain, 2022 May 19th - 25th
Organizers: Pablo Docampo, Eva Unger and Elizabeth Gibson
Oral, Maurizio Stefanelli, presentation 069
Publication date: 20th April 2022

Hybrid organic/inorganic metal-halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) technology has reached efficiencies greater than 25%, making them an excellent alternative to silicon-based photovoltaic technology[1]. Despite the high efficiencies, the cost-effective perspective of PSCs is achievable only if scalable processes in real manufacturing condition (e.g. pilot-line) are developed and optimized for the full-stack of the devices. Solution process methods are mandatory for an easy and cost-effective production of large area and module devices[2,3]. Till now, best efficiencies and results were generally obtained in controlled environment (glove box nitrogen or argon filled) and with unscalable techniques, such as spin-coating[4,5], that are conditions incompatible with an industrial pathway. Chemical reformulation of materials, nucleation and crystal growth optimization play a substantial role to switch from non-scalable/controlled environment to scalable/ambient air environment conditions[6]. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up Perovskite technology with fully ambient air (RH 20%) and low-temperature (less than 150°C) meniscus coating processes that permits the fabrication and process upscaling from a 32 cm2 minimodule (11 cm2 aperture area, 10 cm2 active area) to a 320 cm2 large area module (200 cm2 aperture area, 180 cm2 active area) with efficiencies of 16.1% and 14.5%, respectively. In both cases all the layers (from ETL to HTL, except for gold evaporation) are entirely fabricated in ambient air with meniscus coating techniques (blade or slot die coating) assisted by green solvent quenching[7]. We performed material and device characterizations in order to assess the quality of material deposition and subsequent laser ablation processes with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis Spectra, XRD, Electroluminescence (EL), JV curve and MPPT test.

The authors were supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Program for funding Research and Innovation under grant agreements no. 826013 (IMPRESSIVE) and no. 881603 (GrapheneFlagshipCore3). The authors acknowledge the project UNIQUE, supported under the umbrella of SOLAR-ERA.NET_cofund by ANR, PtJ, MUR (GA 775970), MINECOAEI, SWEA, within the European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (Cofund ERANET Action, No. 691664).

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