Additive-Enhanced Aerosol Treatment for Improved Perovskite Solar Cells and Photodetectors
Joe Briscoe a
a School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London., Mile End Road, London, United Kingdom
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV22)
València, Spain, 2022 May 19th - 25th
Organizers: Pablo Docampo, Eva Unger and Elizabeth Gibson
Oral, Joe Briscoe, presentation 095
Publication date: 20th April 2022

We have previously demonstrated a new approach to solvent-based post-treatment of perovskite films that achieves excellent reproducibility and uniformity by exposing a perovskite film to vapourised solvents delivered via an aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition system [1]. Using this process we achieved enhancement of both photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability in a range of perovskite compositions and device architectures, which we have linked to improvements in both the nanoscale and macroscale uniformity of the material, including a reduction of defects and associated trap states.

Here I will discuss our more recent developments of this process to include organo-halide salts in the solvent aerosol, such as MACl, leading to substantial enhancement of the post-crystallisation grain growth and recrystallisation process [2]. This leads to films that are comprised of ultra-large grains (~1-5 μm) where local traps are almost completely eliminated, as confirmed at the nanoscale via photoconductive atomic force microscopy. The large grains have also allowed us to visualise local variations in photoluminescence (PL) emission at the grain boundaries using hyperspectral PL mapping. Finally, the substantial reduction in trap states and increase of film homogeneity leads to photodetectors that can operate at ~1.5 orders of magnitude lower light levels than those made with conventional spin-coated films.

Expanding beyond solvent post-treatment, we have also applied this technique to pure formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) [3]. Using aerosol-assisted crystallization (AAC) of the FAPbI3 films enhanced by Lewis base additives in the solvent aerosol we are able to crystallise pure black-phase α-FAPbI3 in only 2.5 minutes at 100°C, compared to 20 minutes at 150°C for conventional thermal annealing. Not only does this open up wider processing options for the material, but we demonstrate improvement in PCE and, importantly, phase stability of pure α-FAPbI3 compared to thermally annealed control samples. Using X-ray diffraction, X-ray scattering and density functional theory simulation, we identify that relaxation of residual tensile strains due to the lower annealing temperature and post-crystallization crystal growth during AAC are key factors that facilitate the formation of phase-stable α-FAPbI3.

We thank contributions from:

Tian Du,1,2 Sinclair Ryley Ratnasingham,1,2 Thomas J. Macdonald,2 Felix Kosasih,3 Ruo Xi Yang,4 Meng Li,5 Zhongyao Jiang,2 Lokeshwari Mohan,1,2 Adriana Augurio,1 Huda Ahli,2 Shengda Xu,2 Weidong Xu,2 Zhenhuang Su,6 Xingyu Gao,6 Richard Whiteley,1 Chieh-Ting Lin,2 Ganghong Min,2 Saif A. Haque,2 Kristin A. Persson,7 Caterina Ducati,3 James Durrant,2 and Martyn McLachlan2

1 Queen Mary University of London, UK; 2 Imperial College, UK; 3 University of Cambridge, UK; 4 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, USA; 5 Henan University, China; 6 Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, China; 7 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, USA

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