Towards Perovskite Solar Cells Full Production: Main Upscale Challenges
Adriano Marques a, Barbara H. S. Miranda a, Luiza de Q. Corrêa a, Gabriela de A. Soares a, Sílvia L. Fernandes a, Izabela S. Bicalho a, Fernanda Guimarães a, Maria Luiza Vilela a, Jair Rodrigues a, Rodrigo Vilaça a, Diego Bagnis a
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV22)
València, Spain, 2022 May 19th - 25th
Organizers: Pablo Docampo, Eva Unger and Elizabeth Gibson
Contributed talk, Adriano Marques, presentation 180
Publication date: 20th April 2022

Perovskite solar cells (PSC) have achieved impressive efficiencies in the recent years and has been advancing in the technology readiness scale to a maturity level, close to becoming a reality in the market. However, many challenges have still to be addressed to enable its full industrial production and commercialization. Normally, basic research demonstrates the functionality of a technology with none or little concern to the full-scale production, such as solvent toxicity, materials degradation, supply chain establishment, costs, and production line CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, the technology scale-up, from small-area lab-cells to real-size modules, involves several steps and peculiarities. In the field of PSC, the best results currently obtained on small dimension devices stand on chlorinated or halogenated-based inks processed in inert atmosphere, which favor a better active layer crystallization and results in higher performances. Furthermore, lead-based perovskites are the readiest option for a potential market in terms of performance and relative ease fabrication. Nonetheless, those formulations are not the best choice for the scale-up due to health and safety issues and best practices, which requires the developing of safety control protocols that are not an issue in the small scale or lab research. In the transfer from rigid to flexible bottom electrodes, one of the key points is selecting the right substrate. Sheet resistance, visual light transmittance, haze, mechanical strength, and operating temperature are one of the main parameters. Moreover, ion migration and possible premature device failure/degradation are of great concern for the PSC. In this work, we present the main challenges of PSC scaling-up from rigid lab-scale devices to flexible cells fabricated by scalable processing techniques. The transfer from doctor-blade devices prepared in controlled conditions (RH < 35%) to roll-to-roll (R2R) slot-die coated films fabricated in laboratory environment (ISO-7 cleanroom) is reported, paving the way for the future industrialization of this promising PV technology. 

The authors acknowledge Petrobras (Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.) for the financial support. 

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