Patterned 2D Layered Perovskite Solar Cell under Controlled Crystallization by Imprint Lithography
Xiao Zhang a, Lisanne Einhaus a, André ten Elshof a, Annemarie Huijser a
a Faculty of Science and Technology (TNW), University of Twente
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV22)
València, Spain, 2022 May 19th - 25th
Organizers: Pablo Docampo, Eva Unger and Elizabeth Gibson
Poster, Xiao Zhang, 233
Publication date: 20th April 2022

We have already witnessed the rapid efficiency rise of 3D MAPI-based perovskite solar cell within just a decade, however, its low stability against moisture, oxygen and heat is still the biggest obstacle for its commercialization. To solve the urgent instability problem, we use 2D layered perovskite with large organic cation intercalating into the inorganic framework, namely benzylammonium or BzA as the organic spacer of Ruddlesden-Popper phase, and 1,4-phenylenedimethanammonium or PDMA in case of Dion-Jacobson phase. The aromatic ring in both spacers has conjugated pi bonds, inducing lower dielectric coefficient mismatch with PbI2, which could facilitate better interlayer charge transport within perovskite, especially for PDMA with narrower interlayer distance and without weak Van der Waals gaps. By increasing the inorganic layer thickness or n value in a stoichiometric way, the bandgap can be reduced, and a trade-off between high stability and efficiency can be achieved.

The efficiency of perovskite solar cell (PSC) is largely determined by the film quality of perovskite layer. The common planar PSC structure is fabricated by sequential spin-coating, during which the crystallization of perovskite is complicated and uncontrolled, although large quantities of work has been done to improve the crystallization process such as hot-casting, solvent engineering, additive doping, etc. In our work, patterned perovskite film is fabricated by imprint lithography. The polymer is first patterned by PDMS stamp and cured under UV light. Then the perovskite precursor is filled into the micrometer-sized trenches. The light absorption in perovskite layer is increased, while the bandgap energy remains the same. The imprint lithography is also applicable to electron transport layer (ETL). Apart from the increased light absorption, the charge transport between perovskite and ETL is also improved, which is ascribed to multi-directional interfacial charge transport due to multi-phase coexisting in 2D layered perovskite, instead of unidirectional vertical charge transport in case of planar PSC.

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