Entirely Roll to Roll Carbon Electrode Printed Perovskite Solar Cells: Fabrication Pathway, challenges and Achievements
Ershad parvazian a, David Beynon a, James Mcgettrick a, Rahul Patidar a, Tom Dunlop a, Zhengfei Wei a, Trystan Watson a
a SPECIFIC, Swansea University, College of Engineering, Bay Campus, SA1 8EN, Swansea SA2 8PP, Reino Unido, Swansea, United Kingdom
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV23)
London, United Kingdom, 2023 June 12th - 14th
Organizers: Tracey Clarke, James Durrant and Trystan Watson
Oral, Ershad parvazian, presentation 086
DOI: https://doi.org/10.29363/nanoge.hopv.2023.086
Publication date: 30th March 2023

The lab-scale highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSC) are outperforming many conventional alternatives due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties; however, lab scale fabrication still suffers from high material wastage and scaling challenges [1]. Along with high efficiency perovskite photovoltaics are solution processable and therefore have the potential commercially relevant high-volume manufacture through printing processes.

Scaling up of PSC layers has been demonstrated in recent years through a variety of printing methods yet Roll-to-Roll coating with the slot die coating method shows the greatest promise. Slot-die coating is a cost-effective coating method that allows significant control in coating and can deposit layers with little material wastage, high control on film thickness, and flexibility to coat layers with 2-dimensional patterning. The transition of PSC from lab scale spin coating to industrial scale slot die coating is not trivial with consideration of solution compatibility, rheology and process modelling needed for individual layers [2]. Combining these methods roll to roll slot die coating of active layers including HTL, Perovskite and ETL in combination has resulted in device performances of 12.2% [3] at pilot scale under ambient atmosphere processing.

However, unlocking the potential of industrial scale, high volume, and continuous manufacture of perovskite solar cells requires all layers to be sequentially coated, including the back electrode instead of the high value evaporated metal contacts employed as a post process.

Recently, we demonstrated the Roll-to-Roll slot-die coating of a full n-i-p device stack completed with a sequentially slot die coated carbon electrode [4]. Two developments were critical in achieving this world’s first, formulation of carbon ink electrode and introduction of a low temperature stable interlayer. The formulation of the carbon ink was through two stages, the compatible, non-toxic, low boiling point solvent system was proved through stencil coating on spin coated samples. The carbon ink was then re-formulated for slot die coating before the full stack was sequentially coated. The low-temperature curing PEDOT interlayer between perovskite and carbon electrode analysed by EIS and PL measurements overcomes interlayer incompatibilities and recombination losses achieving 13-14% at small scale retaining over 80% efficiency over 1000hrs stability testing. XPS elemental lead mapping and EL emission photography of R2R coated SnO2/MAPI/PEDOT are also indicate that the coverage is effective and covers high points so as to prevent pinhole/shorting defects. Our work introduces the fabrication pathway, challenges, and achievements of the very first all-printed Roll-to-Roll perovskite device achieving over 10% efficiency, a game-changer in the commercialization of this generation of solar cells.

Keyword: Roll-to-Roll, carbon electrode, perovskite, PEDOT

This work was funded by the EPSRC Programme Grant ATIP (Application Targeted and Integrated Photovoltaics) [EP/T028513/1]and the SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre [EP/N020863/1], Innovate UK [920036] and European Regional Development Fund [c80892] through the Welsh Government. Also the Advanced Imaging of Materials (AIM) facility at Swansea University which was funded in part by the EPSRC (EP/M028267/1) and the European Regional Development Fund through the Welsh Government (80708). The authors would like to thank Dr Katie Davies for assistance with EIS measurement. RGR would like to acknowledge the IMPACT operation which has been part funded by the European Regional Development Fund through the Welsh Government and Swansea University 

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