Mixed-A-Cation Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules from Lead Acetate-Based Precursors
Udo Bach a, Jie Zhao a
a ARC Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics
Proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Organic Photovoltaics (HOPV23)
London, United Kingdom, 2023 June 12th - 14th
Organizers: Tracey Clarke, James Durrant and Trystan Watson
Oral, Udo Bach, presentation 285
Publication date: 30th March 2023

Lead acetate is a promising precursor to produce ultrasmooth perovskite thin films, without the need for antisolvent quenching or the presence of strongly complexing solvents such as DMSO. Unfortunately, the originally developed lead acetate route failed to produce phase-pure mixed-A-cation perovskites. In our recent work we were able to identify the chemical side reactions in the precursor solution which caused this incompatibility. Furthermore we propose the use of ammonium iodide as alternative halide source to inhibit those unwanted reactions, allowing us to produce phase-pure formamidinium caesium mixed-A-cation perovskite films through our adapted lead acetate synthesis route. Solar cells fabricated from these films exhibited energy conversion efficiencies of up to 21%. The ruggedness of the film formation process of the lead acetate route lends itself to industrial scalable fabrication processes. Based on our work it is now also applicable to high-performing and industrially relevant perovskite compositions. We demonstrate the industrial relevance of our new synthesis route by producing 10 cm2 active area solar cell sub-modules via a blade-coating in air process, yielding solar cells with efficiencies of up to 18.8% and no evidence of efficiency loss after 3300 hours storage at 65 °C. [1]

This work was financially supported by the Australian Research Council through the Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science (CE170100026) and additional grants (DP160104575 and LE170100235). The authors also acknowledge financial support from the Australian Government through the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) and the Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP).

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