In situ Study of Perovskite Thin Film Growth
Nada Mrkyvkova a b, Vladimir Held a, Peter Nadazdy b, Karol Vegso b, Quentin Guesnay c, Daming Zheng d, Frank Schreiber e, Peter Siffalovic a b
a Center for Advanced Materials Application, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava, Slovakia
b Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava, Slovakia
c Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Electrical and Microengineering (IEM), 10 Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
d Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), UMR8247, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, F-75005 Paris, France
e Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Poster, Nada Mrkyvkova, 176
Publication date: 6th February 2024

Hybrid halide-perovskites are considered a material with high potential in optoelectronics, especially for light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) are a promising substitute for commercially used silicon solar cells. Nowadays, the power conversion efficiency of PSCs reaches over 25 % [1]. However, further increase of the PSCs performance is limited by defects located at the layer interfaces and grain boundaries in the case of widely used polycrystalline thin films [2, 3]. Understanding and controlling the formation and evolution of perovskite phases is critical to reducing trap state density, thereby enhancing solar cell efficiency. The in situ studies have shown their significance in revealing the pathways and intermediary mechanisms that affect the resulting properties of the final PSCs.

In this work, we show simultaneous measurement of in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and photoluminescence (PL) to study the structural and optoelectronic properties of perovskite films during their formation. We used these in situ techniques for perovskite deposited by various methods, such as spin-coating (in a nitrogen atmosphere), chemical vapor deposition, and vacuum deposition. Despite different formation conditions, all perovskite layers exhibit the non-monotonous character of the PL intensity with initial PL increase and subsequent quenching, indicating the defective state formation correlated with the crystalline structure changes observed by GIWAXS. These studies contributed to developing passivation and additive strategies to improve the films' structural, morphological, and optoelectronic properties and move beyond spin-coating with scalable techniques.

This work was supported by SK-CZ-RD-21-0043, APVV-21-0297, 2023/727/PVKSC, and ITMS 313021T081.

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