Lead-free Tin Halide Perovskite Solar Cells - Refinement of Perovskite Film Crystallization
Stefan Moscher a, Sebastian Mairinger a, Lukas Troi a, Fernando Warchomicka b, Gregor Trimmel a, Thomas Rath a
a Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials (ICTM), NAWI Graz, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz, Austria
b Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming (IMAT), Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010 Graz, Austria
Poster, Stefan Moscher, 205
Publication date: 6th February 2024

Significant progress has been made in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the last years and remarkable efficiencies of over 26% are now achieved.[1] Nevertheless, as the absorber materials used in these solar cells contain lead, which has adverse effects on both humans and the environment, researchers are striving to substitute the toxic lead and introduce lead-free perovskite systems.

Tin emerges as a promising alternative, with efficiencies already surpassing 15%.[2] Tin possesses favorable attributes: it is inexpensive, non-toxic, and exhibits electronic properties closely resembling those of lead. Because of challenges like the rapid oxidation from Sn2+ to Sn4+ within tin perovskite layers and the constrained resilience of tin halide perovskites against environmental factors such as temperature, oxygen, and humidity, further research is essential to enhance efficiencies and improve long-term stability.

The antisolvent treatment during perovskite film crystallization is an important process strongly influencing the properties of the perovskite film and consequently it plays a crucial role in addressing the above mentioned challenges. Part of this work is to understand the influences of different antisolvents on the perovskite crystallization and first results of the solar cell parameters, surface morphological investigations using scanning electron microscopy, and structural characterization using XRD and GIWAXS will be presented. Preliminary findings using the environmentally friendly antisolvent diethyl carbonate [3] suggest that typically used antisolvents like chlorobenzene and toluene might be substituted, as the use of diethyl carbonate as antisolvent leads to more defined perovskite grains.

A further part of this work concentrates on the influence of large A-cations such as phenethylammonium (PEA) and related derivatives as well as conjugated diammonium cations on the material and photovoltaic properties of the tin perovskites. Investigations based on PEA and its derivatives leading to 2D/3D perovskites show a good improvement of the solar cell performance up to 12.5% compared to similarly processed conventional 3D perovskites together with promising stability in inert conditions.

This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101084422.

We use our own and third party cookies for analysing and measuring usage of our website to improve our services. If you continue browsing, we consider accepting its use. You can check our Cookies Policy in which you will also find how to configure your web browser for the use of cookies. More info