Sn-based perovskite from a stable intermediate
Linde van de Ven a
a Light Management for Photovoltaics, AMOLF, Netherlands
Poster, Linde van de Ven, 215
Publication date: 6th February 2024

Sn-based perovskites have a large processing window, rapid crystallization, and variable bandgap [1]. This makes them an ideal material to function as the low-bandgap cell for roll-to-roll flexible all perovskite tandem foils. In roll-to-roll processing, ambient conditions are ideal in terms of scalability and affordability. However, Sn-based halide perovskites struggle with rapid oxidation of Sn2+ to Sn4+. The formation of Sn4+ leads to rapid and severe degradation of the semiconductor quality, presumably by causing Sn-vacancies [2]. Therefore, to perform roll-to-roll processing in ambient conditions, a strategy to prevent the oxidation of Sn during deposition is necessary, as ambient air would oxidate conventional perovskite precursors.

In this work, Sn-based perovskites are made from a stable intermediate, where the intermediate prevents oxidation. The stable intermediates are combined with methylammonium iodide (MAI), formamidinium iodide (FAI), or cesium iodide (CsI), and can be encapsulated before transforming them into perovskite. Two different routes are explored, one with a stable Sn-intermediate in the Sn(0) oxidation state, and one with a stable Sn-intermediate in the Sn(II) oxidation state. Different transformation methods are shown to successfully transform Sn-based intermediates into perovskites. In a simple one-step vapor deposition procedure, commercially available Sn(0) foil and a Sn(II):EDTA complex are transformed into fully cubic perovskite. Additionally, transformation into perovskite is demonstrated by laser annealing with a 405 nm CW laser, and perovskites are formed by heating precursors with a flat iron.




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