All vacuum processed perovskite solar cells using sputtered NiOx as hole transport layer
Wiria Soltanpoor a b, Gence Bektaş a b, Mehmet Cem Şahiner a c, Hava Zekiye Kaya a, Esra Bag a d, Görkem Günbaş a d e, Selçuk Yerci a b c
a The Center for Solar Energy Research and Applications (GUNAM), Middle East Technical University
b Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Middle East Technical University
c Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University
d Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University
e Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara
Proceedings of Interfaces in Organic and Hybrid Thin-Film Optoelectronics (INFORM)
València, Spain, 2019 March 5th - 7th
Organizers: Natalie Stingelin, Henk Bolink and Michele Sessolo
Poster, Wiria Soltanpoor, 101
Publication date: 8th January 2019


Metal halide perovskite solar cells have proven to be an inexpensive yet easy to manufacture photovoltaic technology in the last few years. This is due to numerous reasons including tunable optoelectronic properties along with high power conversion efficiencies beyond 23% [1]. The planar configuration of perovskite solar cells has been especially popular due to its versatile use in tandem devices and over flexible substrates. However, in order to grant large scale fabrication of such devices, they need to be uniform, hysteresis free, viable with large areas, and have acceptable stability. Recently, NiOx has been a favored hole transport layer providing more stable perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, NiOx can be deposited via sputtering to form uniform, compact layer without high temperature treatments. In this study, sputtering power and Ar-pressure were shown to play the key role in suppressing the hysteresis and in achieving high power conversion efficiencies. As Ar-pressure increased, the transparency of NiOx improved. According to our experiments, 16 mTorr of Ar-pressure at an RF-power of 150 W resulted in the best performing devices. A uniform CH3NH3PbI3-XClX layer was deposited via co-evaporation on top of NiOx-coated ITO substrates. The electron transport layer (C60) and BCP/Ag were also evaporated on perovskite providing a fully-vacuum-processed planar perovskite solar cell. The fabricated devices worked without hysteresis with a maximum efficiency of 11%.

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