Speeding up PSC fabrication via vacuum co-evaporation
Javier E. Sebastian Alonso a, Manuel Piot a, Kassio Zanoni a, Federico Ventosinos a, Michele Sessolo a, Hendrik Jan Bolink a
a Institute of Molecular Science (ICMol), University of Valencia, c/Catedrático José Beltrán 2, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain.
Materials for Sustainable Development Conference (MATSUS)
Proceedings of MATSUS23 & Sustainable Technology Forum València (STECH23) (MATSUS23)
#PerFut - Metal Halide Perovskites Fundamental Approaches and Technological Challenges
València, Spain, 2023 March 6th - 10th
Organizers: Wang Feng, Giulia Grancini and Pablo P. Boix
Poster, Javier E. Sebastian Alonso, 377
Publication date: 22nd December 2022

Metal Halide Perovskites (HaP) represent the most promising alternative to further develop the photovoltaic industry due to properties such as low exciton binding energy, high absorptivity, tunable band gap or lightweight. Currently, most of the research in Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) relies on solution based synthetic pathways of the photoactive HaP layer lidding to inhomogeneities on rough/ textured surfaces. Thus, fabrication of PSCs via vacuum co-evaporation of the precursor salts (i.e. for MAPbI3 we co-sublime PbI2 and MAI) relies on a reproducible procedure for the co-sublimation of PbI2 and MAI based on an evaporator chamber setup with only two quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) to control their deposition rates. Furthermore, vacuum co-evaporation for thin-film fabrication has been extensively used in industry enabling Lab-to-Fab transition. Nonetheless, for efficient solar cells, vacuum co-evaporation of MAPbI3 can be time consuming (i.e. the usual deposition rate in our lab is 0.65 Å/s, taking around 2 h for the deposition of a 500 nm thick perovskite. Herein, we show that it is possible to speed up these deposition rates four to six times quicker still achieving solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCE) close to 20%. Thus, fabricating HaP layers of more than a micron thick yielding an increase in short circuit current (Jsc, ~ 23 mA/cm2) for HaP with a 1.58 eV bandgap without losing on open circuit voltage (Voc).

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