Close-Space for Sequential Processing of Perovskite Solar Cells
Nathan Rodkey a, Inma Gomar Fernández a, Joost Reinders a, Cristina Roldán-Carmona a, Henk J. Bolink a
a Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universitat de València, Paterna, Spain
Materials for Sustainable Development Conference (MATSUS)
Proceedings of MATSUS23 & Sustainable Technology Forum València (STECH23) (MATSUS23)
#PerFut - Metal Halide Perovskites Fundamental Approaches and Technological Challenges
València, Spain, 2023 March 6th - 10th
Organizers: Wang Feng, Giulia Grancini and Pablo P. Boix
Poster, Nathan Rodkey, 379
Publication date: 22nd December 2022

Vacuum-based technologies have proven to be a promising route for industrial scale production of perovskite photovoltaics, but performance is still lagging behind its solution-based counterparts. Currently, vapor-based methods such as co-evaporation struggle to grow complex perovskites (6 or more elements), being limited by the number of sources available and the ability to control them. This further limits the ability of many vacuum-based processes to introduce passivating or stabilizing agents. In particular, these are needed for the synthesis of high-efficiency low-bandgap materials (e.g. Sn/Pb) needed for perovskite-perovskite tandems or silicon-perovskite tandems. In this work, we present a conformal, low-vacuum process (1- 100 mbar) for the sequential conversion of evaporated PbI2 thin-films or co-evaporated PbI2/SnI2 or PbI2/CsI/PbCl2 thin-films. The technique relies on the control of 3 crucial parameters: temperature of the source material, temperature of the substrate, and the working pressure. Using this method, we show fully converted films >1 um thick, with um-sized grains for a variety of perovskite compounds: MAPbI3, FAyCs­1-yPbI3:Cl, and FAPbySn1-yI3:SnF2. This method is fully compatible with conformal growth. Lastly, these layers are reported in fully vacuum-processed devices with efficiencies up to 15%. Thus, we take advantage of a low-vacuum (1-100 mbar), sequential process with high industrial potential.

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