2D halide-perovskites as multifunctional photobattery materials – Fundamental Investigations Regarding Stability, Lithium Intercalation and Light Induced Processes
Jan Büttner a b c, Taisiia Berestok a b c, Stephan Burger b d, Michael Daub a b, Harald Hillebrecht a b c, Ingo Krossing a b c d, Anna Fischer a b c d
a Cluster of Excellence livMatS, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee, 105, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
b Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
c FIT Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
d FMF - Freiburg Materials Research Center, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
nanoGe Fall Meeting
Proceedings of Materials for Sustainable Development Conference (MAT-SUS) (NFM22)
#SusEnergy - Sustainable materials for energy storage and conversion
Barcelona, Spain, 2022 October 24th - 28th
Contributed talk, Jan Büttner, presentation 253
Publication date: 11th July 2022

2D halide-perovskites as multifunctional photobattery materials – Fundamental investigations regarding stability, lithium intercalation and light induced processes

Jan Büttner, Taisiia Berestok, Stephan Burger, Michael Daub, Harald Hillebrecht, Ingo Krossing, Anna Fischer

Autonomous photo-rechargeable energy storage systems have received growing attention over the past years. [1–7] Among these highly integrated photobatteries are especially promising systems: they offer grid independent storage of energy to power small devices required for industry 4.0 or IOT applications. To achieve the highest possible level of integration in such photobatteries, multifunctional materials that can both convert sunlight and store energy at the same time and place, are required.

2-(1-cyclohexenyl)ethyl ammonium lead iodide (CHPI), a 2D organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite belonging to the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases, has been reported to be such a type of multifunctional material, i.e. combining photo absorber properties with the ability to intercalate and especially photo-deintercalate lithium ions in combination with a carbonate based polar liquid electrolyte. [8]

In the present work, we investigated CHPI for its stability against dissolution, its Li+-intercalation and photo-assisted deintercalation properties and its behaviour under illumination in combination with carbonate based electrolytes and a newly developed electrolyte based on ortho-difluorobenzene (o-DFB), that has much lower polarity.

We show that (i) CHPI dissolves in carbonate-based electrolytes and that (ii) Li+ does not intercalate from non dissolving low polarity electrolytes and entirely capacitive behavior is displayed. As such, we could not confirm any photo-assisted Li+-deintercalation taking place in these materials.

In addition, we could reveal that under illumination, while being in contact with the non dissolving electrolyte, oxidative photo-corrosion and dissolution of the perovskite occurs. These results are in line with the absence of a reversible redox system in CHPI otherwise found in intercalation battery materials. Indeed only a hypothetical Pb+/Pb2+ system would actually be able to receive electron density, underlining the inability of CHPI to intercalate lithium ions in a significant amount, i.e. higher than just doping.

The chemical instability against polar solvent of any perovskite that can be synthesized by dissolving its educts in a polar solvent for e.g. spin coating prevents their application with standard polar lithium ion battery electrolytes in battery systems. Further electrochemical and photochemical instabilities add to the limitations of this material class towards their useage as truly multifunctional materials for higly integrated photobatteries. Finally their inability to store large amounts electron density prevents any relevant Li+-intercalation.

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[8]       S. Ahmad, C. George, D.J. Beesley, J.J. Baumberg, M. De Volder, Nano Lett 2018, 18, 1856–62, 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b05153.

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