Towards Perovskite Solar Modules made by Scalable Printing Methods with Green Solvents
Cordula Wessendorf a, Tina Wahl a, Johannes Küffner a, Thomas Schnabel a, Erik Ahlswede a
a Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW)
nanoGe Fall Meeting
Proceedings of Materials for Sustainable Development Conference (MAT-SUS) (NFM22)
#AppTGT - Application Targets for Next Generation Photovoltaics
Barcelona, Spain, 2022 October 24th - 28th
Organizers: Nasim Zarrabi and Paul Meredith
Poster, Cordula Wessendorf, 335
Publication date: 11th July 2022

Perovskite solar cells have achieved an efficiency of 25.7% for a small area device of 0.1 cm2 aperture area and 23.7% for a 1cm2 area device, and perovskite modules have reached 21.4% on 19.3cm2 and 17.9% PCE on 804 cm2 designated area.[1] These numbers demonstrate that there is a loss of efficiency whith increasing size. As upscaling is still a big challenge, a scalable printing process is needed to bring perovskite technolgy a step further towards industrialization.

Our approach ist o transfer our spin coating process to scalable methods, in particular to doctor blading and slot die coating. For perovskite cells with at least 0.24 cm2 size printed from a DMF/DMSO solvent mixture we achieved 20.5% PCE with spin coating, 18% PCE with doctor blading and 17% with slot die coating. With pure DMSO (which is a „green“ solvent), we achieved 16% PCE [2] for doctor bladed cells.

By up-scaling these processes to monolithically connected modules of 10 cm2 size, we reached 17.5% by spin coating, 9% PCE for a 50cm2 module made by doctor blading. In a first attempt of slot die coating the modules we reached 8.5% PCE (10cm2), but we believe that we could soon increase efficiency.

All the above mentioned cells and modules have silver as opaque back electrode. For building integration as well as for application in tandem cell and modules, semitransparent perovskite stacks would be highly interesting. For semitransparent module with IOH back electrode and 10 cm2 size we reached 15.5% PCE when illumanted through glass side (front contact) and 13% when illuminated through back contact.

Besides increasing the efficiencies, our focus will be in the near future on further upscaling (towards 50cm2), transferring the slot die coating to environmentally friendly solvents (e.g. pure DMSO) as well as on semitransparent modules.

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