Large Area Perovskite Solar Cells and Mini-Modules by Thermal Co-Evaporation
Jia li a, Wang Hao a, Herilna Dewi a, Nripan Mathews a, Subodh Mhaisalkar a, Annalisa Bruno a
a Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), Research Techno Plaza, X-Frontier Block, Level 5, 50 Nanyang Drive 637553, Singapore
nanoGe Perovskite Conferences
Proceedings of International Conference on Perovskite Thin Film Photovoltaics and Perovskite Photonics and Optoelectronics (NIPHO20)
Sevilla, Spain, 2020 February 23rd - 25th
Organizer: Hernán Míguez
Oral, Annalisa Bruno, presentation 035
Publication date: 25th November 2019

Metal-halide perovskites are one of the most promising active materials for photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, due to their excellent optoelectronics properties and thin films fabrication versatility.  Perovskite solar cells (PSCs), despite their ever improving power conversion efficiency (PCE)[1] and stability [2,3] are still challenging to reach consistency over large area which remains one of the major challenge  to be tackled before their introduction in the photovoltaic market.

In this presentation we demonstrate high efficient, large area, planar PSCs with uniform MAPbI3 perovskite active layer deposited by thermal co-evaporation of PbI2 and MAI. The high quality co-evaporated perovskite thin films are pinhole-free and uniform over several centimetres, showing large grain sizes, low surface roughness and the long carrier lifetime. The high quality perovskite thin films translates to small area PSCs (0.16 cm2) with PCE above 20% and high reproducibility and also PSCs with area up to 4 cm2 did not show a significant drop in PCE. Furthermore, the first mini-modules with active area larger than 20 cm2 achieved a PCE well above 18%. Similarly, semitransparent PSCs reached  PCE ~17.0% and transparency above 75% in near infrared using sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) as semi-transparent electrode. 

Our work represent an important step towards the development of high quality and reproducible large area perovskite solar cells and mini-modules, the main requirements the commercialization of the technology.

Metal-halide perovskites are one of the most promising active materials for photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, due to their excellent optoelectronics properties and thin films fabrication versatility.  Perovskite solar cells (PSCs), despite their ever improving power conversion efficiency (PCE) [1] and stability [2,3] are still challenging to reach consistency over large area which remains one of the major challenge  to be tackled before their introduction in the photovoltaic market.

In this presentation we demonstrate high efficient, large area, planar PSCs with uniform MAPbI3 perovskite active layer deposited by thermal co-evaporation of PbI2 and MAI. The high quality co-evaporated perovskite thin films are pinhole-free and uniform over several centimetres, showing large grain sizes, low surface roughness and the long carrier lifetime. The high quality perovskite thin films translates to small area PSCs (0.16 cm2) with PCE above 20% and high reproducibility and also PSCs with area up to 4 cm2 did not show a significant drop in PCE. Furthermore, the first mini-modules with active area larger than 20 cm2 achieved a PCE well above 18%. Similarly, semitransparent PSCs reached  PCE ~17.0% and transparency above 75% in near infrared using sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) as semi-transparent electrode. 

Our work represent an important step towards the development of high quality and reproducible large area perovskite solar cells and mini-modules, the main requirements the commercialization of the technology.

[1] https://www.nrel.gov/pv/.

[2] G. Grancini et al., Nat. Communications, 8, 15684 (2017);

[3] L. Meng et al., Nat. Communications, 9, 5265 (2018) A

[4] E.H. Jung et al., Nature, 567, 511 (2019)

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