Electronic Doping in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
Alexander Wyn Stewart c
a Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Spain, Cami de Vera,s/n, Valencia, Spain
b Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, Carrer del Catedrátic José Beltrán Martinez, 2, Paterna, Spain
c IPVF, Institut Photovoltaïque d’Ile-de-France, 18 Boulevard Thomas Gobert, 91120 Palaiseau, France
Proceedings of Sustainable Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaics, optoelectronics and photonics (Sus-MHP)
València, Spain, 2022 December 12th - 13th
Organizers: Teresa S. Ripolles and Hui-Seon Kim
Oral, Alexander Wyn Stewart, presentation 001
DOI: https://doi.org/10.29363/nanoge.sus-mhp.2022.001
Publication date: 15th November 2022

In this talk, we explore the origin of preferred doping levels in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), using drift-diffusion simulations, and present some experimental techniques for obtaining them in real devices. We show how, in general, n-i-p devices will tend to perform better with a p-doped perovskite, whereas in p-i-n devices an n-type perovskite is preferred. Based on this, certain methods, techniques and compositions may fundamentally limit the maximum achievable PCE for certain device configurations. For example, while originally high-performance perovskite-based tandem cells were made using a regular n-i-p configuration, they are now predominantly made using an inverted p-i-n structure meaning that the corresponding changes should be made to the perovskite absorber layer. Our findings also have implications for materials which have a tendency to self-doped, such as tin-based perovskites. The origin of the preferred doping levels is due to the high absorption coefficients and relatively short diffusion lengths of halide perovskites which can impede effective charge extraction at the front and back contacts. While we show that the location of the preferred doping level in PSCs is generically a function of device architecture in most real PSC devices, the carrier mobilities (which are a function of deposition conditions) also play an important role and can exasperate or counteract any problematic charge extraction due to the localisation, and transportation, of the photogenerated carriers.

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