Revealing Performance Governing Factors of Perovskite Solar Cells via Artifact-Free ToF-SIMS Depth Profiles
Cheng-Hung Hou a, Shu-Han Hung a, Jing-Jong Shyue a b, Pi-Tai Chou c
a Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
b National Taiwan University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
c National Taiwan University, Department of Chemistry, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Asia-Pacific International Conference on Perovskite, Organic Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics
Proceedings of Asia-Pacific International Conference on Perovskite, Organic Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics (IPEROP20)
Tsukuba-shi, Japan, 2020 January 20th - 22nd
Organizers: Michio Kondo and Takurou Murakami
Oral, Cheng-Hung Hou, presentation 059
Publication date: 14th October 2019

The emerging technology of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has a revolutionary influence on the research community due to the unprecedent growth rate of its power conversion efficiency (PCE). Despite PSC has a history that shows a seemly promising future, most studies have been focusing on PCE and lifetime optimization instead of verifying the performance governing factor of PSCs. Recently, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been utilized for getting insights into the perovskite material due to its extremely high detection limit and its ability of detecting molecular component signals. These features have made ToF-SIMS a powerful tool in uncovering the fundamental property of the perovskite film, which is crucial for turning PSCs into a transformative technology. Unfortunately, very few have been aware that the probing beam must be carefully chosen during ToF-SIMS analysis otherwise misleading artifacts will appear [1],[2].

During this presentation, the origin of depth profile artifacts induced by the most commonly used sputter beams, O2+ and Ar-gas cluster ion beam (Ar-GCIB), will be discussed. These artifacts, although often ignored, could be widely observed in the perovskite depth profiles. We demonstrated an approach to eliminate depth profile artifacts by replacing O2+/Ar-GCIB with either C60+ or Ar+ sputtering. Based on this finding, we were able to reveal the true component distribution of PSCs and identified the performance governing factor. We verified that different manufacturing procedures could result in different component distributions of the perovskite film, which would greatly influence the PCE and J-V response of the device. As for stability issues, we confirmed that the major compositional difference between a fresh and an aged PCS was resulted from iodide diffusion. These results provided evidences that could support and facilitate the development of a more efficient and stable PSC.

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